Butterflies and skippers of the afrotropical region



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Early stages:
Pierre, 1979. [larva and pupa]
Larval food:

Rinorea breviracemosa (Verbenaceae) [Pierre & Vuattoux, 1978 (Ivory Coast)].
albanis Pierre, 1979 (as morph [female] of Acraea endoscota). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (N.S.) 15: 730 (719-737). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Parc national Albert, secteur nord, Bauleni, marais entre la rivière Semliki et Abia”.

Acraea (Acraea) eugenia Karsch, 1893
Acraea eugenia Karsch, 1893. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 38: 196 (1-266).

Type locality: Togo: “Am Adadia, Bismarckburg”.

Distribution: Ghana (Volta Region), Togo, Nigeria (west), Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo (Tanganika), Uganda.

Specific localities:

Ghana – Atewa Range (C. Belcastro teste Larsen, 2005a; single stray); Wli Falls (Larsen, 2005a); Kyabobo (Larsen, 2005a).

Togo – near Bismarckburg (TL).

Nigeria – near Lagos (Larsen, 1969).

Common name: Small smoky acraea.

Habitat: Open bushland near forest (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: May be very common in some localities in the Volta Region of Ghana but elsewhere it appears to be very rare (Larsen, 2005a). They are fond of flowers but do not seem to mudpuddle (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
ochreata Grünberg, 1910 (as var. of Acraea eugenia). Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1910: 470 (469-480). Equatorial Guinea: “Spanisch-Guinea, Makomo, Ntumegebiet”.

Acraea (Acraea) hamata Joicey & Talbot, 1922
Acraea hamata Joicey & Talbot, 1922. Bulletin of the Hill Museum, Witley 1: 340 (339-342).

Type locality: Rwanda: “Rugege Forest”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (east - Kivu), Uganda (south-west - Kigezi), Rwanda, Tanzania.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea (Acraea) horta (Linnaeus, 1764)
Papilio horta Linnaeus, 1764. Museum Ludovicae Ulricae Reginae 234 (720 pp.). Holmiae.

Acraea horta. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 51mm. Golden Gate Highlands National Park, Free State Province, South Africa. 9-14 January, 2001. M.C.Williams (Williams Collection).
Type locality: [South Africa]: “Tulbagh”. [Lectotype designated by Honey & Scoble, 2001: 332].

Diagnosis: The colour of females varies from brick-red to straw-yellow. Melanic and albinistic aberrations of both sexes have been recorded (Pringle et al., 1994).

Distribution: Zimbabwe (apparently an occasional migrant), South Africa (Limpopo Province, Mpumalanga, North West Province, Gauteng, Free State Province, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape Province, Western Cape Province), Swaziland (Duke, et al., 1999), Lesotho (Van Son, 1963).

Recorded, in error, from West Africa and Angola by Trimen & Bowker (1887).



Specific localities:

Zimbabwe – Chimanimani Mountains (Baseley; single record); Vumba (Barnes; single record) [Both of these records in 1931] (Pringle et al., 1994).

Limpopo Province – Haenertsburg (Swanepoel, 1953); Zoutpansberg (Swanepoel, 1953); Legalameetse Nature Reserve (“Malta Forest”); Woodbush (Van Son, 1963).

Mpumalanga – Barberton (Swanepoel, 1953); Graskop (Swanepoel, 1953); Waterval Onder (Swanepoel, 1953); Lydenburg district (Swanepoel, 1953); Ermelo (Swanepoel, 1953); Marieps Kop (Van Son, 1963); Amersfoort (Van Son, 1963); Dullstroom (Van Son, 1963); Sterkspruit Nature Reserve (Williams); Buffelskloof Nature Reserve (Williams).

North West Province – Kgaswane Mountain Reserve (Williams).

Gauteng – Pretoria (Swanepoel, 1953); Johannesburg (Swanepoel, 1953); Hennops River (Van Son, 1963); Krugersdorp (Van Son, 1963); Witwatersrand Botanical Gardens (J. Dobson, unpublished checklist, 2001).

Free State Province – Ladybrand (Swanepoel, 1953); Bethlehem (Swanepoel, 1953); Bloemfontein (Swanepoel, 1953); Fouriesburg (Van Son, 1963); Golden Gate Highlands National Park (Williams).

KwaZulu-Natal – Kokstad (Swanepoel, 1953); Port Shepstone (Swanepoel, 1953); Durban (Swanepoel, 1953); Eshowe (Swanepoel, 1953); St Lucia Bay (Swanepoel, 1953); Pietermaritzburg (Swanepoel, 1953); Balgowan (Swanepoel, 1953); Giant’s Castle (Swanepoel, 1953); Greytown (Van Son, 1963); Richmond (Van Son, 1963); Karkloof (Van Son, 1963); Vryheid (Van Son, 1963); Utrecht (Van Son, 1963).

Eastern Cape Province – Uitenhage (Swanepoel, 1953); Grahamstown (Swanepoel, 1953); Somerset East (Swanepoel, 1953); Katberg (Swanepoel, 1953); Hogsback (Swanepoel, 1953); East London (Swanepoel, 1953); Bashee River (Swanepoel, 1953); Port St Johns (Swanepoel, 1953); Port Elizabeth (Van Son, 1963); Van Stadens Pass (Van Son, 1963); King William’s Town (Van Son, 1963); Queenstown (Van Son, 1963); Ngqeleni (Van Son, 1963); Lusikisiki (Van Son, 1963); Embotyi (Van Son, 1963).

Western Cape Province – Cape Town (Swanepoel, 1953); Caledon (Swanepoel, 1953); Robertson (Swanepoel, 1953); Swellendam (Swanepoel, 1953); Oudtshoorn (Swanepoel, 1953); Knysna (Swanepoel, 1953); Grootvadersbos (Van Son, 1963); Willowmore (Van Son, 1963).

Common name: Garden acraea.

Habitat: Temperate forest and woodland; also in wooded kloofs in grassland. It is often seen in gardens in towns and cities, including Cape Town (Van Son, 1963).

Habits: A common species in South Africa, which flies with a slow, gliding flight, usually a few metres from the ground. Specimens are most often encountered in the vicinity of their larval host-plants. Both sexes are frequently seen feeding from flowers (Pringle et al., 1994). Van Son (1963) states that it often defoliates specimens of its food-plant because it is not eaten by birds, being distasteful. However, Diederik cuckoos have been seen to feed on the larvae in Pretoria (Williams, unpublished observations).

Flight period: All year but commoner in the summer months (Pringle et al., 1994).

Early stages:
Trimen & Bowker, 1887, Vol. 1: 135 [as Acraea Horta (L.); Cape Town, Western Cape].

Larva. About 1¼ in. long; with strong branched spines. Dull brownish-ochreous, closely striped with black transverse streaks: the incisions of segments and a line down the back pale-ochreous; a broad ochreous band, not crossed by the black streaks, on each side, above the legs, which are of a bright shining yellow; head shining-black. On the second segment are two, and on the last four black branched spines; on each of all the other segments, six similar spines.” Pupa. About ¾ in. long, rather slender; head blunt, hardly bifid; lateral angles at bases of wing-covers prominent and acute; back of thorax not ridged, rather blunt and rounded; abdomen considerably elongate, curved inwardly towards its extremity. Pale-creamy, with a tinge of ochreous: wing-covers streaked with black along the position of the nervures; two curved black streaks from eyes to angles at bases of the wings; two black, short, longitudinal streaks on back of thorax; a transverse black streak at junction of thorax and abdomen; on each side of the back, a row of large, united, black, ochre-yellow-centered spots; each row united by thin, black lines to a row of similar spots below it, on side of abdomen; a shorter row of similar, more contiguous spots along middle of under side of abdomen. Attached to leaves and stems of plants, palings, walls, etc. The silk to which the tail is attached often covers an area of an inch in diameter. The butterfly emerged, in most instances, eight or nine days after the disclosure of the pupa.”


Clark & Dickson, 1952: 13.

Egg. The eggs are laid in neat clusters on a leaf of the food-plant. They are pale yellow at first, but change to chocolate and finally to purplish brown. The largest diameter is 0.75 mm, and they are 0.75 mm high. The sides are fortified by 23 or 24 longitudinal bars cross-connected by some 25 heavy indentations. They take about nine days to hatch, when the young larva eats a hole in the shell near the top. After crawling through this it proceeds to eat the discarded shell. Larva. Normally there are six larval instars, but in warm weather a moult is skipped. The first instar generally takes seven days, the middle instars five days each and the final instar 10 days, but this varies with climatic conditions. The caterpillar is shades of brown and black, with streaks of yellow and salmon on the side and greenish underneath. There is considerable variation on the upper portion. On each side there are three rows of spined black projections normally with a bluish base, one per segment in each row. On emerging the young larva is 2 mm long, and its final length is between 29 and 34 mm. Except for the final instar, the larvae live in clusters and their presence is detected in the early stages by bleached and shrivelled leaves, which have been stripped off their surface parenchyma. Pupa. The pupa is 19 mm long, dull yellow with black markings, and is suspended head downward from the trunk of a tree, from twigs, rocks and, in towns, on walls and door posts. The butterfly takes two and a half weeks to emerge.
Clark, in Van Son, 1963: 13.

Repeats the description given in Clark & Dickson, 1952.


Dickson, 1972.
Donaldson, 1991 [parasitoids].
Claassens, 1991b [parasitoids].
Larval food:

Kiggelaria africana L. (Flacourtiaceae) [Trimen & Bowker, 1887, Vol. 1: 135; Cape Town, Western Cape].

Passiflora caerulea L. (Passifloraceae) (exotic) [Trimen & Bowker, 1887, Vol. 1: 135; Cape Town, Western Cape].

Tacsonia magnifica (Passifloraceae) [Trimen & Bowker, 1887, Vol. 1: 135; Cape Town, Western Cape].

Passiflora mollissima (H.B.K.) L.H. Bailey (Passifloraceae) (exotic) [Dickson, in Pringle et al., 1994: 73].

Passiflora manicata (Juss.) Perr. (Passifloraceae) [Dickson, in Pringle, et al., 1994: 73].

Passiflora edulis Sims (Passifloraceae) [Van Son, 1963: 14; according to Raubenheimer, cited by Pringle, et al., 1994: 73 it is not a foodplant of A. horta].

Ceratiosicyos laevis (Achariaceae) [Dahlgren & Van Wyk, 1988].

Guthriea capensis (Achariaceae) [Dahlgren & Van Wyk, 1988].
conjuncta Blachier, 1912 (as ab. of Acraea horta). Bulletin de la Société Lépidoptérologique de Genève 2: 176 (173-177). No locality given.

Acraea (Acraea) hova Boisduval, 1833
Acraea hova Boisduval, 1833. Nouvelles Annales du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris 2: 177 (149-270).

Type locality: Madagascar: “Sainte-Marie and Tamatave [Toamasina]”.

Distribution: Madagascar.

Habitat: Forest (Lees et al., 2003).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea (Acraea) hypoleuca Trimen, 1898
Acraea hypoleuca Trimen, 1898. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1898: 2 (1-16).

Type locality: None given (the unique holotype label data stated only ‘Coll. Watson, 1871’).

General remarks: “The first specimen of Acraea hypoleuca was a male collected in 1871 but with no recorded locality. Trimen did his description in 1898 from this specimen. The origin of that specimen was a point of contention for many years; Eltringham came to the conclusion that it could be from South West Africa [Namibia]. The closest relative to Acraea hypoleuca is Acraea chilo Godman, which occurs from East Africa to Arabia. The second specimen was taken by Dr Brown at Maltahöhe in South West Africa; it was a female and was described by Dr Pinhey in 1972. This specimen is illustrated in Pennington’s butterflies of southern Africa (1978) as No. 120. In 1979 I [Stephen Braine] collected a female at Rössing and in 1982 I found a male at the Ugab River. In January 1983 I collected six males at the Ogam Hills and another male at the Ugab River. All these localities are in South West Africa. This butterfly is not as rare as it was originally thought to be. It has been found at several other localities by myself. … I have recorded this butterfly from the Swakop River northwards to the Sechomib River in the central section of Kaokoland.”

Distribution: Namibia.

Specific localities:

Namibia – Farm Mooirivier in the Maltahöhe district, on the edge of the Zaris mountains (H. Brown); Rössing (S. Braine); Ugab River (Braine); Ogams Fountain, in Kaokoland (S. Braine); Khumib Konkol (Ficq).

Common name: Namibian acraea.

Habitat: Flies in gullies and on granite outcrops where its larval host-plant grows (Braine & Henning, 1984).

Habits: Adults fly from 10h00 to 18h00. It has been found to feed on the flowers of two Psilocaulon species, with a marked preference for the flowers of Calicorema capitata (Braine & Henning, 1984).

Flight period: December to June, with peak emergence in January and February (Braine & Henning, 1984).

Early stages:
Braine and Henning, G., 1984: 6 (Metamorphosis 1(10): 6).

“On the 22nd of January 1984, while scouting about the granite hills south of a place known as Ogams Fountain on a patrol in Koakoland, I came across several Acraea hypoleuca. The insects were feeding on flowers of Calicorema capitata and a few perfect specimens were captured between 11h00 and 12h30. After a short lunch break I returned to the area of granite outcrops to search for the foodplant of this “common” acraea! Luck was on my side this particular afternoon for the first specimen observed was fluttering about the large bulbous plant Adenia pechuelli of the family Passifloraceae, which grows fairly prolifically in the above-mentioned area. It seemed as if this particular insect was investigating the plant with the intention of ovipositing and on closer observation I found the ‘ultimate sight’, three large larvae peering at me from the top of the upright stems. After searching through several other plants, a few more larvae were collected. Only four of the larvae pupated and all emerged within ten days. No egg cases could be found, but small batches of newly hatched larvae of between 8 to 15 were found together on the buds and shoots of the foodplant, normally placed low down near the bulbous ‘foot’ of the plant.

The final instar larvae are pale silvery grey with four large purplish black spots across each segment. The spines arise from tubercles situated on these spots. The spines are quite long with small branches and are pale ochreous brown in colour with the branches being dark brown. The head is orange with pale ochreous marks dorsally and a small brown lateral dot near the mouthparts, which are dark brown. The legs and prolegs are ochreous. The pupa is white. The abdomen has two dorsal and one lateral row of black-ringed ochreous spots connected by black marks. On the ventral surface are two closely aligned rows of black marks. The veins on the wing-covers and the markings on the thorax and head are black.”
Pringle, et al., 1994: 83.
Larval food:

Adenia pechuelli (Engl.) Harms (Passifloraceae) [Braine & Henning G., 1984: 6].

Acraea (Acraea) igati Boisduval, 1833
Acraea igati Boisduval, 1833. Nouvelles Annales du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris 2: 177 (149-270).

Type locality: Madagascar: “Sainte-Marie and Grande-Terre”.

Distribution: Madagascar, Comoro Islands.

Habitat: Forest (Lees et al., 2003).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea (Acraea) insignis Distant, 1880
Acraea insignis Distant, 1880 in Godman and Distant, 1880. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1880: 184 (182-185).

Acraea isignis isignis. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 51mm. Amani, Tanganyika. VII.1936. G. van Son. (Transvaal Museum - TM3479).
Type locality: Tanzania: “Magila, East Africa”.

Distribution: Ethiopia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe.

Common name: Black-blotched acraea.

Habitat: Forest.

Habits: On the Holdenby Reserve it flies on the edge of the riverine forest growing along the Pungwe River, disappearing as soon as the sun is obscured (Cookson teste Van Son, 1963). Both sexes feed from flowers (Pringle et al., 1994).

Flight period: Probably all year (Pringle et al., 1994). Type series captured in September and May (Van Son, 1963).

Early stages:
Van Someren & Rogers, 1925: 128 [(ssp. insignis)].

“Eggs creamy, long oval, slight striations on long axis and transeversely. Young larva dark brownish moulting to orange brown at third instar; underside blackish. Spines long, the base of each reddish. Pupa: golden to orange lined with black. Wing cases lined over the base. Thorax heavily marked above and entirely black below. Two dorsal black lines on abdomen composed of contiguous diamond-shaped spots, each with an orange centre. The orange on the fifth large. Lateral line of spots with yellow centres. Two ventral rows of small black spots with no yellowish centres.”


Mullin, in Pringle et al., 1994: 73 [Pungwe Bridge, Zimbabwe; (ssp. gorongozae)].
Larval food:

Vitis spp. (Vitaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 323; ssp. insignis].

Gossypium species (Malvaceae) [Kielland, 1990; ssp. insignis].

Adenia species (Passifloraceae) [Kielland, 1990; ssp. insignis].

Kiggelaria species (Flacourtiaceae) [Bampton, personal communication, 1993; Tanzania; ssp. insignis)].
Acraea (Acraea) insignis insignis Distant, 1880
Acraea insignis Distant, 1880 in Godman and Distant, 1880. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1880: 184 (182-185).

Acraea isignis isignis. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 51mm. Amani, Tanganyika. VII.1936. G. van Son. (Transvaal Museum - TM3479).
Type locality: Tanzania: “Magila, East Africa”.

Distribution: Ethiopia, Democratic Republic of Congo (Uele, Ituri, Kivu), Sudan (south), Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania (including Zanzibar), Zambia, Malawi.

Specific localities:

Zambia – Bwingi Mfumu; Mafinga Mountains (Heath, et al., 2002).
buxtoni Hewitson, 1877 (as sp. of Acraea). Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 14: 155 (153-155). Tanzania: “Zanzibar”. [Invalid; junior secondary homonym of Telchinia buxtoni Butler, 1875 [Acraeinae].]
balbina Oberthür, 1888 (as sp. of Acraea). Études d’Entomologie 12: 6 (1-8). Tanzania: “Zanguebar”.
siginna Suffert, 1904 (as ssp. of Acraea insignis). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 19 (12-107). “Deutsch Ost. Afrikas”. This is a melanic form of the nominate subspecies (Van Son, 1963: 14).


Acraea (Acraea) insignis gorongozae van Son, 1963
Acraea insignis gorongozae van Son, 1963. Transvaal Museum Memoires No. 14: 14 (130 pp.).

Type locality: [Mozambique]: “Gorongoza Mountain”. The type series includes males and females from Gorongosa Mountain and the Holdenby Reserve, captured in September, 1957 and May, 1958, respectively. Holotype in the Natural History Museum, London.

Description:

“Upperside ground colour light brick-red, similar to A. insignis f. siginna Suff., from which it differs in smaller size and in the shape of the black basal area of hindwing which is larger in proportion, extends further along the anal area than in siginna, and is not invaded anteriorly by the ground colour (in siginna, there is always a distinct wedge of the ground colour in the distal part of the anterior side of the cell); the black area bulges slightly in area Cu2 (in siginna it does so in area M1). Female very similar to male, except that the ground colour is less bright and is slightly more extensive in both fore- and hindwings, the latter being more elongate than in the male. The black marginal band of the hindwing is narrower than in the male, and the veins traversing the black basal patch are tinged with the ground colour.”



Distribution: Mozambique (west), Zimbabwe (east).

Specific localities:

Mozambique – Gorongosa Mountain (E.C.G. Pinhey; TL).

Zimbabwe – Lower Pungwe Gorge on the Holdenby Reserve (H. Cookson and D. Plowes).

Acraea (Acraea) kappa Pierre, 1979
Acraea kappa Pierre, 1979. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (N.S.) 15: 733 (719-737).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Kigoma”.

Distribution: Tanzania (west - Kigoma-Mpanda district).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea (Acraea) kinduana Pierre, 1979
Acraea kinduana Pierre, 1979. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (N.S.) 15: 732 (719-737).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kindu”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Kivu, Maniema).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
kinduana Schouteden, 1919 (as ab. of Acraea admatha). Revue Zoologique Africaine 6: 149 (145-162). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kindu”.

Acraea (Acraea) leucographa Ribbe, 1889
Acraea leucographa Ribbe, 1889. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 2: 181 (181-182).

Acraea leucographa. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 46mm. Kakamega, W. Kenya, 1650m.. 10.iv.95. A.I. & M.A. Curle. (Curle Trust Collection - 43).
Type locality: Central African Republic: “Niam-Niam”.

Distribution: Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo (south), Uganda, Kenya (west), Tanzania (west), Zambia (north-west).

Old records from Sierra Leone are erroneous (Larsen, 2005a).



Specific localities:

Ivory Coast – Banco (H. Warren-Gash teste Larsen, 2005a).

Ghana – Atewa Range (Larsen, 2005a); Kakum (Larsen, 2005a).

Zambia – Ikelenge (Heath, et al., 2002).

Common name: Ribbe’s glassy acraea.

Habitat: Forest.

Habits: In West Africa it is much scarcer than the closely related A. endoscota (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Rinorea species (Verbenaceae) [Larsen, 2005a (Kenya)].
gyldenstorpei Aurivillius, 1925 (as ab. of Acraea admatha). Archiv för Zoologi 17 (A) (32): 3 (20 pp.). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Ituri”.
sinalba Pierre, 1979 (as morph [female] of Acraea leucographa). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (N.S.) 15: 732 (719-737). Tanzania: “Kigoma, Makuyu”.

Acraea (Acraea) machequena Grose-Smith, 1887
Acraea machequena Grose-Smith, 1887. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (5) 19: 62 (62-66).

Acraea machequena. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 41mm. Xiluvo, Moc., Vila Machado Distr. 13.V.1961. D.M. Cookson. (Transvaal Museum - TM3483).
Type locality: [Mozambique]: “Delagoa Bay”.

Diagnosis: Characterized by the extremely dentate markings on the hindwing margin (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Distribution: Tanzania (south-east), Malawi, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, South Africa (Limpopo Province, KwaZulu-Natal - 2 records for the north).

Specific localities:

Zambia – single record from just north of Chirundu (Gardiner) (Heath, et al., 2002).

Mozambique – Dondo Forest (Pennington); Xiluvo (D. Cookson); Maronga Forest on the Lucitu River (Pennington); Maputo (Van Son, 1963); Bopira (Van Son, 1963); Busi River (Van Son, 1963).

Zimbabwe – lower Sabi River Valley (Carcasson); Mount Selinda (Van Son, 1963); Butler South; Vumba (Van Son, 1963); Mutare (Van Son, 1963); Mapembi (Van Son, 1963); Lomagundi (Van Son, 1963); Rutenga; Harare (Van Son, 1963); Matobo Hills (Pinhey).

Limpopo Province – Polokwane (Swanepoel, 1953 – single record); Buffelsberg, near Munnik (Pringle et al., 1994; probably a temporary breeding population).

KwaZulu-Natal – Eshowe district (J. and A. Nagle; 2 males).

Common name: Machequena acraea.

Habitat: Forest and thickly wooded savanna (Van Son, 1963; Pringle et al., 1994).

Habits: A comparatively rare species (Van Son, 1963). Specimens are usually seen gliding slowly over the tops of trees and bushes on the edges of forest. They settle as soon as the sun is obscured by clouds. Males were noted on top of a hill at Xiluvo in Mozambique from late April to early June. From 09:00 to 11:00 they were seen to feed from the yellow daisy-like flowers of a shrub, after which they were seen flying over tree-tops. Males were noted perching on leaves on the highest points of a tree, with the wings outspread. From these perches they made slow patrolling flights, chasing any other butterflies that passed by (Cookson teste Van Son, 1963).

Flight period: All year (Van Son, 1963; Pringle et al., 1994).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea (Acraea) magnifica Carpenter & Jackson, 1950
Acraea chilo magnifica Carpenter & Jackson, 1950. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 19: 105 (97-108).

Acraea magnifica Carpenter & Jackson, 1950. D’Abrera, 1997: 176 stat. rev.

Type locality: Kenya: “Mt. Marsabit, 4000 ft.”.

Distribution: Kenya (north - Mt Marsabit and Mt Kulal).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea (Acraea) mahela Boisduval, 1833
Acraea mahela Boisduval, 1833. Nouvelles Annales du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris 2: 179 (149-270).

Type locality: Madagascar: “Tintingue et Tamataue [Toamasina]”.

Distribution: Madagascar.

Habitat: Transformed grasslands and anthropogenic environments (Lees et al., 2003).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea (Acraea) matuapa Grose-Smith, 1889
Acraea matuapa Grose-Smith, 1889. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 3: 127 (121-137).

Type locality: Kenya: “Mombasa”.

Distribution: Kenya (east and coast).

Specific localities:

Kenya – vicinity of coastal forests (Larsen, 1991); Kibwezi (Larsen, 1991); Shimba Hills (Larsen, 1991).

Habitat: Mainly in grassy areas in and around coastal forests (Larsen, 1991).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea (Acraea) neobule Doubleday, 1847
Acraea neobule Doubleday, 1847 in Doubleday and Westwood, [1846-52]. The genera of diurnal Lepidoptera, London: pl. 19 (1847), 140 (1848) (1: 1-250 pp.; 2: 251-534 pp.). London.

Acraea neobule neobule. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 45mm. Muden, Natal. 27.3.51. H. Cookson. (Transvaal Museum - TM3480).

Acraea neobule neobule. Female. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 50mm. Rustenberg Nature Reserve, North-West Province, South Africa; 12 April, 1998; M.C. Williams (Williams collection).
Type locality: “Congo”.

Distribution: Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Burkina-Faso, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Mali, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, Ethiopia, Somalia, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Lesotho (Van Son, 1963), Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, Seychelles.

Common name: Wandering donkey acraea.

Habitat: Savanna, especially Acacia thornveld (Van Son, 1963).

Habits: A common savanna butterfly that, at times, may be abundant. Males are avid hilltoppers, floating around the highest trees (Pringle et al., 1994). It is attracted to flowers, mainly those of flowering trees and tall bushes (Van Son, 1963). In the Kumasi area of Ghana it is a serious pest of tossa jute (Corchorus olitorius) (Ewete, 1990; Larsen, 2005a). It is also sometimes a pest on sweet potatoes, tobacco and various species of Hibiscus grown as vegetables in Ashanti villages (Larsen, 2005a).

Flight period: All of the warmer months of the year (Pringle et al., 1994).

Early stages:
Van Someren & Rogers, 1925: 126.

“The eggs are laid in groups or clusters on a creeper with a coarse fibrous leaf [unnamed] usually on the underside of the leaves, but often on the main stem. They are creamy at first but become orange as they mature. They are rather longer in shape than most acraeine eggs and rather pointed. The newly hatched larva is blackish or brownish, changing through brown to the reddish brown of the full fed caterpillar. A mature larva is terracotta above and white below, with a narrow white lateral line. The legs are yellowish, with black ends. The spines are fairly long with short barbs. The head is ochre-yellow. The pupa is white with heavy black markings, those on the wing cases particularly so. The abdominal segments have the usual orange spot encircled with black. The thorax is dorsally marked with two inverted U’s, the lower being joined up to the two black lines from the spines of the head-piece.”


Darlow, 1949b.
Clark, in Van Son, 1963: 18.

Egg. Laid in clusters on the surface of a leaf. They are 0.65 mm in diameter by 0.85 mm high, pale watery yellow when laid, darkening slightly later. There are 18 longitudinal ribs cross-braced by some 18 transverse ridges. Incubation period eight days. Larva. There are two groups discernible in the development, both originating from the same cluster of eggs, one taking six instars, the other seven, but occasionally the seventh instar of the latter group is dispensed with. When the 7th instar is not taken, the larvae grow from 19 mm to 28 mm in the final instar. Six instar group: 1st instar 2mm, growing to 3.5 mm in 5 days; 2nd instar growing to 6.5 mm in 5 days; 3rd instar growing to 10 mm in 5 days; 4th instar growing to 15 mm in 6 days; 5th instar growing to 21 mm in 6 days; 6th instar growing to 28 mm in 10 days. Seven instar group: 1st instar 1.75mm, growing to 3 mm in 5 days; 2nd instar growing to 6 mm in 5 days; 3rd instar growing to 9 mm in 8 days; 4th instar growing to 13 mm in 8 days; 5th instar growing to 19 mm in 8 days; 6th instar growing to 24 mm in 10 days; 7th instar growing to 28 mm in 10 days. The duration of each instar varies according to the prevailing conditions, and in warmer districts there is a continuous succession of broods.”
Ewete, 1990 [as Acraea terpsichore L.].
Larval food:

Passiflora edulis Sims (Passifloraceae) (exotic) [Platt, 1921].

Passiflora incarnata L. (Passifloraceae) [Platt, 1921].

Adenia gummifera (Harv.) Harms (Passifloraceae) [Van Son, 1963: 19].

Basananthe zanzibaricum Masters (Passifloraceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 323; as Tryphostemma zanzibaricum].

Hybanthus enneaspermus (Violaceae) [Pierre & Vuattoux, 1978 (Ivory Coast); Bernaud (Benin)].

Corchorus olitorius (Tiliaceae) [Ewete, 1990].

Hibiscus species (Malvaceae) [Larsen, 2005a].

Ipomoea species (Convolvulaceae) [Larsen, 2005a].

Barteria species (Passifloraceae) [Larsen, 2005a].
Acraea (Acraea) neobule neobule Doubleday, 1847
Acraea neobule Doubleday, 1847 in Doubleday and Westwood, [1846-52]. The genera of diurnal Lepidoptera, London: pl. 19 (1847), 140 (1848) (1: 1-250 pp.; 2: 251-534 pp.). London.

Acraea neobule neobule. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 45mm. Muden, Natal. 27.3.51. H. Cookson. (Transvaal Museum - TM3480).

Acraea neobule neobule. Female. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 50mm. Rustenberg Nature Reserve, North-West Province, South Africa; 12 April, 1998; M.C. Williams (Williams collection).
Type locality: “Congo”.

Distribution: Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Burkina-Faso, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Mali, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, Ethiopia, Somalia, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia, South Africa (Limpopo Province, Mpumalanga, North West Province, Gauteng, Free State Province, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape Province, Western Cape Province, Northern Cape Province), Swaziland, Lesotho (Van Son, 1963), Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman.

Specific localities:

Senegal – Basse Casamance (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Rumpi Hills (Helps teste (Larsen, 2005a).

Zambia – Ikelenge; Mufulira; Mokambo; Ndola; Kamaila; Lusaka; Mbala (Heath, et al., 2002).

Limpopo Province – Throughout (Swanepoel, 1953); Legalameetse Nature Reserve (“Malta Forest”).

Mpumalanga – Throughout (Swanepoel, 1953)

North West Province – Throughout (Swanepoel, 1953); Kgaswane Mountain Reserve (Williams).

Gauteng – Throughout (Swanepoel, 1953); Witwatersrand Botanical Gardens (J. Dobson, unpublished checklist, 2001).

KwaZulu-Natal – Throughout (Swanepoel, 1953).

Eastern Cape Province – Port Elizabeth (Swanepoel, 1953); Hogsback (Swanepoel, 1953); Somerset East (Swanepoel, 1953); Grahamstown (Swanepoel, 1953); Bathurst (Swanepoel, 1953); Port Alfred (Swanepoel, 1953); King William’s Town (Swanepoel, 1953); East London (Swanepoel, 1953); Bashee River (Swanepoel, 1953); Queenstown (Swanepoel, 1953); Bughersdorp (Swanepoel, 1953); Port St Johns (Van Son, 1963).

Northern Cape Province – Victoria West (Swanepoel, 1953); Hopetown (Van Son, 1963); Kenhardt (Van Son, 1963); Prieska (Van Son, 1963).

Swaziland – Mlawula N. R. (www.sntc.org.sz).
seis Feisthamel, 1850 (as sp. of Acroea [sic]). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (2) 8: 247 (247-262). Gambia: “Gambie”. Given as Acraea neobule seis in Ackery et al., 1995. Larsen (2005a: 458) treats this taxon as a synonym of neobule, giving good reasons for so doing.
calyce Godman and Salvin, 1884 (as sp. of Acraea). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1884: 221 (219-227). Benin: “Dahomey”; Niger; Ghana: “Cape Coast Castle”.
mhondana Vuillot, 1891 (as sp. of Acraea). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 60: 115. Tanzania: “Mhonda (Zanguebar)”. [Given as a synonym of Acraea neobule in Ackery, et al., 1995: but regarded to be a synonym of Acraea terpsichore Linnaeus (an extralimital species) by Pierre & Bernaud, 1997 (Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France 102 (5): 410).]
arabica Rebel, 1899 (as sp. of Acraea). Anzeiger der Akademie der Wissenschaften. Wien. 36: 359-361. Yemen: “Makálla, Râs Fártek”. The status of this taxon is uncertain; it may or may not be a valid subspecies (see discussion in Larsen, 1983).
socotrana Rebel, 1907 (as ssp. of Acraea neobule). Denkschrift der Akademie der Wissenschaften. Wien. 71 (2): 31-130 [1931 republication]. Yemen: “Hagher-Gebirge bis 4500'”.
zambesina Aurivillius, 1909b (as sp. of Acraea). Arkiv för Zoologi 5 (5): 29 pp. Mozambique: “Zumbo am Zambezi-Flusse, Portug. Ost.-Afrika”. [Given as a synonym of Acraea neobule in Ackery, et al., 1995: but regarded to be a synonym of Acraea terpsichore Linnaeus (an extralimital species) by Pierre & Bernaud, 1997. (Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France 102(5): 410).]
braesioides Wichgraf, 1914 (as female f. of Acraea neobule). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitung 1914: 347 (345-353). Zimbabwe: “Mashonaland”. Probably refers to a deformed specimen (Van Son, 1963).
guttata Wichgraf, 1914 (as ab. of Acraea neobule). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitung 1914: 348 (345-353). Tanzania: “Mikindani”.
incredibilis Le Doux, 1922 (as f. of Acraea violae neobule). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1922: 300 (297-316). South Africa: “Natal”. Van Son (1963) avers that this name refers only to an aberration.
camaenopsis Le Doux, 1923 (as female f. of Acraea violae neobule). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1923: 222 (207-226). Tanzania: N.-Usambara, Tewe (Deuthsch-Ostafrika)”.
cyaniris Le Cerf, 1927 (as f. of Acraea neobule seis). Encyclopédie Entomologique (B. 3. Lepidoptera) 2: 49 (44-58). Liberia: “Monravia”.
kibwezina Le Doux, 1928 (as female f. of Acraea terpsichore neobule). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1928: 110 (97-115). Kenya: “Kibwezi, Br.-O.-Afrika”.
isabellina Stoneham, 1943 (as female f. of Acraea neobule). Bulletin of the Stoneham Museum (45): 3 (4 pp.). Kenya: Rabai”.
didalis Stoneham, 1943 (as female f. of Acraea neobule). Bulletin of the Stoneham Museum (45): 4 (4 pp.). Kenya: “Dida”.
montana Stoneham, 1943 (as f. of Acraea neobule). Bulletin of the Stoneham Museum (45): 4 (4 pp.). Kenya: “Kilimanjaro”.
macra Storace, 1949 (as f. [?] of Acraea neobule). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale (di Genova) Giacomo Doria 64: 24 (12-29). Somalia: “Ola Uager”.
pallidepicta Storace, 1949 (as f. [?] of Acraea neobule). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale (di Genova) Giacomo Doria 64: 25 (12-29). Somalia: “Belet Amin; Salambo”.
sheba Gabriel, 1954 (as f. of Acraea neobule). British Museum (Natural History) expedition to south-west Arabia 1937-8 1: 356 (351-391). Yemen: “East Aden Protect., Wadi el Hebs”.
melanica Woodhall, 2000 (as f. of Acraea neobule). Metamorphosis 11 (1): 30 (28-32).
Acraea (Acraea) neobule legrandi Carcasson, 1964
Acraea neobule legrandi Carcasson, 1964. Journal of the East Africa Natural History Society & Coryndon Museum 24 (4): 69 (67-72).

Type locality: Seychelles: “Aldabra”.

Distribution: Seychelles (Aldabra, Assumption, Astove, Cosmoledo Islands).

Acraea (Acraea) oscari Rothschild, 1902
Acraea oscari Rothschild, 1902. Novitates Zoologicae 9: 595 (595-598).

Type locality: Ethiopia: “Banka, Malo”.

Distribution: Ethiopia.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea (Acraea) pseudolycia Butler, 1874
Acraea pseudolycia Butler, 1874. Cistula Entomologica 1: 213 (209-217).

Acraea pseudolycia pseudolycia. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 65mm. Mokambo Hill, Mokambo, Zambia/Zaire border, 4600'. 6-II-1983. M.A. Newport. (Henning collection - H129).
Type locality: Angola: “Quanza”.

Distribution: Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Zambia, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Uganda, Sudan, Ethiopia.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Acraea (Acraea) pseudolycia pseudolycia Butler, 1874
Acraea pseudolycia Butler, 1874. Cistula Entomologica 1: 213 (209-217).

Acraea pseudolycia pseudolycia. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 65mm. Mokambo Hill, Mokambo, Zambia/Zaire border, 4600'. 6-II-1983. M.A. Newport. (Henning collection - H129).
Type locality: Angola: “Quanza”.

Distribution: Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo (Lualaba, Maniema), Zambia (west).

Specific localities:

Zambia – a single male taken at Mokambo on the Zambia-D.R.C. border by Newport (Heath, et al., 2002).
brunnea Eltringham, 1911 (as f. of Acraea astrigera). Novitates Zoologicae 18: 151 (149-153). Angola; Uganda: “Unyoro and Masindi (Unyoro); Entebbe”.
Acraea (Acraea) pseudolycia astrigera Butler, 1899
Acraea astrigera Butler, 1899. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1899: 421 (417-427).

Acraea pseudolycia astrigera. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 60mm. Mpanda, Tanzania. J Kielland. (Henning collection - H130).
Type locality: Kenya: “On the road from Machako’s to Naugia, 4800 feet”.

Distribution: Kenya (central and east), Tanzania, Zambia (east), Malawi, Uganda (north), Sudan, Ethiopia.

Specific localities:

Zambia – Mansya River; Isoka (Heath, et al., 2002).
emini Weymer, 1903 (as sp. of Acraea). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 16: 221 (221-235). Tanzania: “Ugogo”.
auasa Gabriel, 1949 (as female f. of Acraea pseudolycia astrigera). Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 18: 207 (207-216). Ethiopia: “Lake Auasa”.

Acraea (Acraea) punctimarginea Pinhey, 1956
Acraea punctimarginea Pinhey, 1956. Occasional Papers. Coryndon Memorial Museum (4): 15 (10-16).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Kimboza Forest, Uluguru Mountains, near Morogoro”.

Distribution: Tanzania (north-east - Uluguru and Usambara Mountains).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea (Acraea) quirina (Fabricius, 1781)
Papilio quirina Fabricius, 1781. Species Insectorum 2: 36 (499 pp.). Hamburgi & Kilonii.

Type locality: [Africa]: “India, Madras”. [False locality.]

Distribution: Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Burkina Faso, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan, Uganda, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi.

Common name: Common glassy acraea.

Habitat: Forest, including disturbed forest. Extends into the Guinea savanna in West Africa (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: Not particularly common but periodic irruptions do occur (Larsen, 2005a). Owen (1974) noted that, in Sierra Leone, females predominate in April and May, followed by male predominance in June. Males rest on leaves with opened wings and periodically join other butterflies in spiraling flights in shafts of sunlight (Larsen, 2005a). Both sexes mudpuddle during very dry periods (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Rinorea elliotii (Verbenaceae) [Owen, 1971 (Sierra Leone)].

Rinorea subintegrifolia (Verbenaceae) [Owen, 1971 (Sierra Leone)].

Drypetes sp. (Euphorbiaceae) [Owen, 1971 (Sierra Leone)].

Rinorea poggei Engler (Verbenaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 323].

Rinorea convallariflora Brandt (Verbenaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 323].
Acraea (Acraea) quirina quirina (Fabricius, 1781)
Papilio quirina Fabricius, 1781. Species Insectorum 2: 36 (499 pp.). Hamburgi & Kilonii.

Type locality: [Africa]: “India, Madras”. [False locality.]

Distribution: Senegal (south-east), Gambia, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Burkina Faso, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan (south), Uganda, Kenya (west), Tanzania (west).

Specific localities:

Gambia – Abuko (L. Barnett & C. Emms; H. Boersma).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).
dice Drury, 1782 (as sp. of Papilio). Illustrations of Natural History 3: index et 23 (76 pp.). London. Sierra Leone: “Sierra Leon”.
bourgeoni Schouteden, 1919 (as f. of Acraea quirina). Revue Zoologique Africaine 6: 148 (145-162). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Du Kilomètre 245 de Kindu”.
Acraea (Acraea) quirina rosa Eltringham, 1912
Acraea quirina rosa Eltringham, 1912. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1912: 60 (1-374).

Type locality: Kenya: “Kitui, Rabai”.

Distribution: Ethiopia, Kenya (north and east), Tanzania (east), Malawi.

Acraea (Acraea) rabbaiae Ward, 1873
Acraea rabbaiae Ward, 1873. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 10: 152 (59-60, 151-152).

Type locality: [Kenya]: “Ribé” [=Rabai].

Distribution: Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Swaziland.

Common name: Clear-wing acraea.

Habitat: Coastal forest.

Habits: A rather rare butterfly (Van Son, 1963) that generally flies high in the forest canopy, occasionally descending to feed at flowers. Females are usually seen fluttering on the edges of the forest, sometimes low down (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Flight period: September to April (Pringle et al., 1994). Subspecies perlucida has been recorded from September to June (Henning & Henning, 1996).

Early stages:
Monteiro, 1891: 219.

“All the caterpillars of the Acraeas that I have seen are thickly studded with spines, that of A. rabbaiae being bright red with black spines, and make elegant suspended pupa coverings, through which the future wings can be most plainly distinguished, more so than in any other species I have seen.”


Van Someren & Rogers, 1925: 116 [as Acraea rabbaiae mombasa].

“The eggs of this species are long, barrel-shaped, slightly more tapering at the upper end. There is a slight trace of longitudinal and transverse ribs. They are laid in clusters or groups on the underside of the leaves of two species of creepers (as yet unidentified). Newly laid eggs are creamy, but they rapidly turn greyish brown. When the larvae are in their first stages they are greyish brown, becoming in the third and last instar reddish brown on all the segments except the first three and last. These are dull yellowish. The spines are long and branched. Fore legs yellowish, hind black. Underside of body dull whitish. Head glossy black. The pupa is elongate, thicker in the region of the wingcases and tapeing at the tail end. The colour is variable but is generally whitish or cream, inclining to buff on the wingcases. The thorax is angled posteriorly and laterally, a black line arises from the apex of each projection and is carried inward and forward to meet in a common line on the dorsum. The wing cases are finely lined in black. The abdominal segments are decorated with two dorsal, one lateral and one ventral, rows of contiguous spots, one to each segment, each bearing a large orange spot in the centre.”


Henning, S., & Henning, G., 1989: 30.
Larval food:

Basananthe zanzibaricum (Mast.) De Wilde (Passifloraceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 322; as Tryphostemma zanzibaricum].
Acraea (Acraea) rabbaiae rabbaiae Ward, 1873
Acraea rabbaiae Ward, 1873. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 10: 152 (59-60, 151-152).

Type locality: [Kenya]: “Ribé” [=Rabai].

Distribution: Kenya (coast), Tanzania (coast), Mozambique (north).
mombasae Grose-Smith, 1889 (as sp. of Acraea). Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 3: 127 (121-137). Kenya: “Mombasa”.
Acraea (Acraea) rabbaiae perlucida Henning & Henning, 1996
Acraea (Acraea) rabbaiae perlucida Henning & Henning, 1996. Metamorphosis 7 (2): 66 (65-67).

Acraea rabbaiae perlucida. Left – male upperside; right – female upperside. Images courtesy of Jeremy and Chris Dobson.
Type locality: South Africa: “South Africa: Tembe, KwaZulu-Natal, 20.v.1993, S.E. Woodhall.” Described from 32 males and 19 females. Holotype in the Transvaal Museum, Pretoria.

Distribution: Malawi (single record), Mozambique (south), Zimbabwe (east), South Africa (Mpumalanga, Gauteng (single specimen), KwaZulu-Natal), Swaziland.

Specific localities:

Mozambique – Maputo (Van Son, 1963); Dondo Forest (Pringle et al., 1994).

Zimbabwe – Lundi (Van Son, 1963); Mutare district (Van Son, 1963); Vumba (Van Son, 1963); Mount Selinda (Van Son, 1963); Chipinga (Van Son, 1963); Melsetter (Van Son, 1963).

Mpumalanga – Komatipoort (Swanepoel, 1953).

KwaZulu-Natal – St Lucia Bay (Swanepoel, 1953); Michaelhouse, Balgowan (Pennington; single male); Balcomb’s Hill near Kranskop (Pennington; single male); False Bay (Pennington; single specimen); Eshowe Forest (Swanepoel, 1953); Emanguzi Forest; Tembe (Pringle et al., 1994).

Swaziland – Singceni (Pennington; single male).

Acraea (Acraea) ranavalona Boisduval, 1833
Acraea ranalova Boisduval, 1833. Nouvelles Annales du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris 2: 178 (149-270).

Type locality: Madagascar: “Dans les bois, à Sainte-Marie et à le Grande-Terre”.

Distribution: Madagascar, Comoro Islands.

Habitat: Forest (Lees et al., 2003).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
maransetra Ward, 1872 (as sp. of Acraea). Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 9: 2 (2-3). Madagascar.
manandaza Ward, 1872 (as sp. of Acraea). Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 9: 147 (147-149). Madagascar.

Acraea (Acraea) satis Ward, 1871
Acraea satis Ward, 1871. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 8: 35 (34-36, 58-60, 81-82, 118-122).

Type locality: [Kenya]: “Ribé”.

Distribution: Kenya (coast), Tanzania (coast), Mozambique (south), Zimbabwe (east), South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal - north), Swaziland (Duke, et al., 1999).

Misattributed to the Madagascar fauna by Mabille [1887] (Lees et al., 2003).



Specific localities:

Mozambique – 24 km south of Espungabera (Pennington); Mosenory River (Van Son, 1963).

Zimbabwe – Mount Selinda (Van Son, 1963); Melsetter (Van Son, 1963); Chipinga (Van Son, 1963).

KwaZulu-Natal – Balgowan (Swanepoel, 1953); Isipingo (Swanepoel, 1953); Gwaliweni Forest, 20 miles south of Ingwavuma, Lebombo Mountains (Van Son, 1963); False Bay (Van Son, 1963); St Lucia (Van Son, 1963); Cecil Mack’s Pass (Van Son, 1963); Kranskop (Pennington teste Van Son, 1963); Dukuduku Forest (Van Son, 1963); Umhlanga Rocks (Pennington; single male); Ubombo (Brauer).

Common name: East-coast acraea.

Habitat: Forest.

Habits: Males fly high in the tree tops, especially during the midday hours but may also be encountered gliding around clearings in the forest. Mullin noted that they defend territories from perches. Females fly low down in the forest undergrowth (Pringle et al., 1994). Van Son (1963) that both sexes fly low down in the semi-shade from 09:00 to 11:00, after which they ascend to the tree-tops.

Flight period: September to April (Pringle et al., 1994). All year; peak emergence appears to be November-December and February-April (Van Son, 1963).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Urera hypselodendron (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Wedd. (Urticaceae) [Henning, S., & Henning, G., 1989: 32].

Urera trinervis Wedd. (Urticaceae) [Henning, S., & Henning, G., 1989: 32; as U. cameroonensis].
corona Staudinger, 1885 in Staudinger and Schatz, 1884-8 (as sp. of Acraea). Exotischer Schmetterlinge 1: 83 (333 pp.). Bayern. Tanzania: “Insel Zanzibar”.
donatis Woodhall, 2000 (as f. of Acraea satis). Metamorphosis 11 (1): 29 (28-32).

Acraea (Acraea) trimeni Aurivillius, 1899
Acraea barberi ab. or var. trimeni Aurivillius, 1899 in Aurivillius, 1898-9. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapakademiens Handlingar 31 (5): 91 (1-561).

Acraea zetes trimeni Aurivillius, 1899. Ackery et al., 1995: 248.

Acraea trimeni Aurivillius, 1899. Henning, 1993: 9.

Type locality: [Namibia]: “Rehaboth (Deutsch S. W. Afrika)”; South Africa: “West Griqualand, Transvaal”.

Distribution: Botswana (south), Namibia (central and south), South Africa (Free State Province – south-west, Eastern Cape Province – north-east, Northern Cape Province).

Specific localities:

Namibia – Rehoboth (Type locality); Eros Mountains near Windhoek (Le Doux, 1931); Tsumeb (Le Doux, 1931).

Eastern Cape Province – Steynsburg (Pringle et al., 1994).

Northern Cape Province – just north of Prieska (Pennington); Bladgrond, west of Prieska (Pennington); Griquatown; Douglas; Upington; Barkly West; Windsorten (Pringle et al., 1994).

Common name: Trimen’s acraea.

Habitat: Arid savanna.

Habits: Specimens have been seen feeding from the flowers of tall thorn trees. Males hilltop, and select a perch about which they hover (Pringle et al., 1994).

Flight period: October to March. Apparently commonest in October (Pringle et al. 1994).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
eros Le Doux, 1923 (as f. of Acraea zetes barberi). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1923: 218 (207-226). Namibia: “Eros Gebirge bei Windhoek (Deutsche-Südwestafrika)”.
nigromacula Le Doux, 1931 (as f. of Acraea zetes trimeni). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1931: 56 (49-59). Namibia: “Tzumeb, D.-S.-W.-Afrika”.

Acraea (Acraea) turlini Pierre, 1979
Acraea turlini Pierre, 1979. Revue Française d’Entomologie (N.S.) 1: 27 (27-29).

Type locality: Rwanda: “Sud-Ouest du Ruanda: Wincka, forêt de Nyungwe, 2500 m”.

Distribution: Rwanda. Known only from the type locality.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea (Acraea) turna Mabille, 1877
Acraea turna Mabille, 1877. Petites Nouvelles Entomologiques 2: 158 (157-158).

Type locality: Madagascar.

Distribution: Madagascar.

Habitat: Forest (Lees et al., 2003).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
marmorata Grose-Smith and Kirby, 1892 in Grose-Smith and Kirby, 1887-92 (as sp. of Acraea). Rhopalocera exotica, being illustrations of new, rare and unfigured species of butterflies 1: 9 (183 pp.). London. Madagascar: “Mahobo, Madagascar”.
lacteata Le Cerf, 1927 (as ssp. of Acraea turna). Encyclopédie Entomologique (B. 3. Lepidoptera) 2: 51 (44-58). Madagascar.
scioptera Le Cerf, 1927 (as f. of Acraea turna lacteata). Encyclopédie Entomologique (B. 3. Lepidoptera) 2: ? (44-58). Madagascar: “Beloha, Madagascar”.

Acraea (Acraea) zetes (Linnaeus, 1758)
Papilio zetes Linnaeus, 1758. Systema Naturae 1, Regnum Animale, 10th edition: 487 (824 pp.). Holmiae.

Acraea zetes zetes f. menippe. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 63mm. Bwamba. Rev H. Falke. (Henning collection - H131).
Type locality: [Africa]: “India”. [False locality.]

Distribution: Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Burkina Faso, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin (Fermon et al., 2001), Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Sao Tome and Principe, to Angola, Nambia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, Malawi, Zambia.

Common name: Large spotted acraea.

Habitat: Open deciduous forest and woodland savanna (Heath et al., 2002; Larsen, 2005a). In West Africa it has colonized disturbed areas in the forest zone (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits:

Flight period:

Early stages:
Darlow, 1949b.
Bernaud & Pierre, 1996.
Larsen, 1999 [pupa].
Pierre, Bernaud & Oremans, 2002 [ssp annobona; Sao Tome and Principe].
Larval food:

Theobroma cacao (Theobromaceae) [Smith, 1965 (Ghana)].

Basananthe zanzibaricum Masters (Passifloraceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 322; Pierre & Vuattoux, 1978 (Ivory Coast)].

Adenia cisampelloides Harms (Passifloraceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 322; Pierre & Vuattoux, 1978 (Ivory Coast)].

Adenia lobata (Passifloraceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 322; Bernaud & Pierre, 1996].

Passiflora species (Passifloraceae) [Dickson & Kroon, 1978; Pierre & Vuattoux, 1978 (Ivory Coast)].

Barteria acuminata ssp. fistulosa Baker (Passifloraceae) [Pierre & Vuattoux, 1978 (Ivory Coast); as B. fistulosa; Jiggins et al., 2003 (Uganda)].

Deidama species (Passifloraceae) [Pierre & Vuattoux, 1978 (Ivory Coast)].

Smeathmannia species (Passifloraceae) [Pierre and Vuattoux, 1978 (Ivory Coast)].

Tacsonia species (Passifloraceae) [Pierre & Vuattoux, 1978 (Ivory Coast)].

Phyllobotryum spathulatum (Flacourtiaceae) [Lees, 1989 (Cameroon)].

Hydnocarpus species (Flacourtiaceae) [Larsen, 2005a].
Acraea (Acraea) zetes zetes (Linnaeus, 1758)
Papilio zetes Linnaeus, 1758. Systema Naturae 1, Regnum Animale, 10th edition: 487 (824 pp.). Holmiae.

Acraea zetes zetes f. menippe. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 63mm. Bwamba. Rev H. Falke. (Henning collection - H131).
Type locality: [Africa]: “India”. [False locality.]

Distribution: Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Burkina Faso, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin (Fermon et al., 2001), Nigeria, Cameroon, to Angola, Namibia (north), Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan (south), Uganda, Kenya (west), Malawi, Zambia (north-west and Copperbelt).

Specific localities:

Senegal – Basse Casamance (Larsen, 2005a).

Ghana – Ankasa N.P. (Larsen, 2005a); Shai Hills (Larsen, 2005a).

Benin – Noyau Central, Lama Forest (Fermon et al., 2001).

Nigeria – Oban Hills N.P. (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Zambia – Ikelenge; Kasangezhi; Mufulira; “to the south of Lake Tanganyika” (Neave) (Heath et al., 2002).

Namibia – Kombat (J. Braine; probably a stray).
menippe Drury, 1782 (as sp. of Papilio). Illustrations of Natural History 3: index et 16 (76 pp.). London. Sierra Leone: “Sierra Leon”; Senegal; Gambia; Nigeria: “Calabar”.
mycenaea Hübner, 1819 in Hübner, [1816-[1826]] (as sp. of Telchinia). Verzeichniss bekannter Schmettlinge 27 (432 + 72 pp.). Augsburg. No locality given.
jalema Godart, 1819 in Latreille and Godart, [1819], [1824] (as sp. of Acraea). Encyclopédie Méthodique. Histoire Naturelle [Zoologie] 9 Entomologie: 234 (1-328 [1819], 329-828 [1824]). Paris. “Afrique”.
Acraea (Acraea) zetes annobona d'Abrera, 1980
Acraea zetes annobona d'Abrera, 1980. Butterflies of the Afrotropical region 144 (593 pp.). Melbourne.

Type locality: Equatorial Guinea: “Pigalu, (Annobón)”; Sao Tome and Principe: “Sao Tomé Is”.

Distribution: Equatorial Guinea (island of Annobon), Sao Tome and Principe (island of Sao Tome).
Acraea (Acraea) zetes rudolfi Eltringham, 1929
Acraea zetes rudolfi Eltringham, 1929 in Eltringham, et al., 1929. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 77: 490 (475-504).

Type locality: Kenya: “Marsabit”.

Distribution: Kenya (north), Uganda? (extreme north-east).
Acraea (Acraea) zetes sidamona Rothschild & Jordan, 1905
Acraea zetes sidamona Rothschild & Jordan, 1905. Novitates Zoologicae 12: 179 (175-191).

Type locality: Ethiopia: “Alata, Sidamo; Fanole”.

Distribution: Ethiopia.

Acraea (Acraea) zonata Hewitson, 1877
Acraea zonata Hewitson, 1877. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 14: 154 (153-155).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Darrasalam”.

Distribution: Malawi, Tanzania, Kenya.

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Kindoroko Forest Reserve in the North Pares at 1600-1700 m (Cordeiro, 1995).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
makupa Grose-Smith, 1889 (as sp. of Acraea). Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 3: 126 (121-137). Kenya: “Mombasa”.

Acraea (Acraea) abdera Hewitson, 1852
Acraea abdera Hewitson, 1852 in Hewitson, 1851-6. Illustrations of new species of exotic butterflies 1: 57 ([124] pp.). London.

Type locality: Equatorial Guinea: “Fernando Po”.

Distribution: Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Sudan, Uganda.

Common name: Abdera acraea.

Habitat: Forest edges (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: A localized, rare species, which has occasional population irruptions (Larsen, 2005a). Males patrol territories about four metres long on forest paths, flying quite fast, about a metre above the ground. Males also defend territories on tree-tops (Larsen, 2005a). Mudpuddling by both sexes is seen in hot, dry weather (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Caloncoba gilgiana (Flacourtiaceae) [Pierre & Vuattoux, 1978 (Ivory Coast)].

Caloncoba glauca (Flacourtiaceae) [Bernaud, 2000 (Central African Republic].

Oncoba spinosa (Flacourtiaceae) [Larsen, 2005a (Aburi, Ghana)].
Acraea (Acraea) abdera abdera Hewitson, 1852
Acraea abdera Hewitson, 1852 in Hewitson, 1851-6. Illustrations of new species of exotic butterflies 1: 57 ([124] pp.). London.

Type locality: Equatorial Guinea: “Fernando Po”.

Distribution: Nigeria (east), Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea (Bioko), Sudan, Uganda.

Specific localities:

Каталог: downloads
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