Butterflies and skippers of the afrotropical region




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Specific localities:

Nigeria – Obudu Plateau (Larsen, 2005a); Mambilla Plateau (R. Warren teste Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Korup, at 1 000 m and above (Larsen, 2005a); Rumpi Hills (Bernaud teste Larsen, 2005a).
argentea Eltringham, 1912 (as female f. of Acraea penelope). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1912: 283 (1-374). Uganda: “Entebbe”.
exalbescens Eltringham, 1912 (as female f. of Acraea penelope). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1912: 283 (1-374). Uganda: “Toro, Kampala”.
penella Eltringham, 1912 (as female f. of Acraea penelope). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1912: 283 (1-374). Uganda: “Kitanwa”.
sulphurescens Aurivillius, 1913 in Seitz, 1908-25 (as female ab. of Acraea penelope). Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde, Stuttgart (2) 13 Die Afrikanischen Tagfalter: 254 (614 pp.). Uganda: “Sesse Islands”.
laeticolor Le Doux, 1928 (as f. of Acraea penelope). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1928: 108 (97-115). Uganda: “Mulange”.
josetta Jackson, 1951 (as female f. of Acraea penelope penelope). Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 20: 96 (91-105). Uganda: “West Elgo, Mbale, District of Bugishu”.
Acraea (Actinote) penelope vitrea Eltringham, 1912
Acraea penelope vitrea Eltringham, 1912. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1912: 284 (1-374).

Type locality: Kenya: “Tiriki Kills, Kabras”.

Distribution: Kenya (highlands west of the Rift Valley).

Acraea (Actinote) translucida Eltringham, 1912
Acraea penelope translucida Eltringham, 1912. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1912: 285 (1-374).

Acraea translucida Eltringham, 1912. Larsen, 2005a: 445, stat. rev.

Type locality: Nigeria: “Lagos (Oni)”.

Distribution: Ivory Coast?, Ghana, Togo, Benin?, Nigeria, Cameroon.

Specific localities:

Ghana – Atewa Range (Larsen, 2005a); Tano Ofin (Larsen, 2005a).

Nigeria – Okwangwo (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Toko in Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Common name: Translucent acraea.

Habitat: Forest.

Habits: Localized but sometimes common where it occurs (Larsen, 2005a). Males avidly mudpuddle and both sexes come to flowers, especially those of Eupatorium odorata (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
derubescens Eltringham, 1912 (as ssp. of Acraea penelope). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1912: 284 (1-374). Togo: “Misahöhe Station near Tongbe”. Synonymized with A. translucida Eltringham, 1912 by Larsen, 2005a: 445, syn. nov.

Acraea (Actinote) perenna Doubleday, 1847
Acraea perenna Doubleday, 1847 in Doubleday and Westwood, [1846-52]. The genera of diurnal Lepidoptera, London: pl. 19 [1847], 141 [1848] (1: 1-250 pp.; 2: 251-534 pp.). London.

Acraea (Actinote) perenna perenna. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 69mm. Kayonza Forest, S.W. Kigezi, 4000', Uganda. Nov ‘69. J.G. Williams. (Henning collection - H138).
Type locality: Ghana: “Ashanti”.

Distribution: Senegal, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Congo, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Kenya, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia.

Common name: Falcate acraea.

Habitat: Forest (Heath, et al., 2002). Forest-savanna mosaic in hilly country (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: An uncommon species that sometimes feeds from carrion and excrement and often mudpuddles (Larsen, 2005a). The flight is elegant, specimens often swooping up and down before landing (Larsen, 2005a). It is probably the main mimicry model for Graphium ridleyanus (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Olobopetalum species (Menispermaceae) [Fontaine, 1988 (Democratic Republic of Congo)].

Mikania species (Asteraceae) [Fontaine, 1988 (Democratic Republic of Congo].

Bridelia species (Euphorbiaceae) [Ackery et al., 1995].

Adenia species (Passifloraceae) [Ackery et al., 1995].

Bridelia micrantha (Euphorbiaceae) [Heath et al., 2002: 41].

Kolobopetalum chevalieri (Menispermaceae) [Heath et al., 2002: 41].

Mikania saggitifera (Asteraceae) [Heath et al., 2002: 41].

Urera species (Urticaceae) [Congdon & Bampton, unpublished 2003; Minziro, Tanzania].
Acraea (Actinote) perenna perenna Doubleday, 1847
Acraea perenna Doubleday, 1847 in Doubleday and Westwood, [1846-52]. The genera of diurnal Lepidoptera, London: pl. 19 [1847], 141 [1848] (1: 1-250 pp.; 2: 251-534 pp.). London.

Acraea (Actinote) perenna perenna. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 69mm. Kayonza Forest, S.W. Kigezi, 4000', Uganda. Nov ‘69. J.G. Williams. (Henning collection - H138).
Type locality: Ghana: “Ashanti”.

Distribution: Senegal, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Congo, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Kenya (central); Zambia (north-west).

Specific localities:

Senegal – Basse Casamance (Larsen, 2005a).

Sierra Leone – Loma Mountains (Larsen, 2005a); Freetown (Larsen, 2005a).

Liberia – Yendamalahoun (Larsen, 2005a).

Ivory Coast – Man (Larsen, 2005a); Mount Tonkoui (Larsen, 2005a); Lamto (Larsen, 2005a).

Ghana – Ashanti (TL); Atewa Range (Larsen, 2005a); Abetifi (Larsen, 2005a); Wli Falls (Larsen, 2005a).

Nigeria – Obudu Plateau (Larsen, 2005a); Okwangwo (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Korup, above 1 000 m (Larsen, 2005a).

Zambia – Mwinilunga (Heath, et al., 2002).
polydectes Ward, 1871 (as sp. of Acraea). Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 8: 81 (34-36, 58-60, 81-82, 118-122). Cameroon: “Camaroons”.
Acraea (Actinote) perenna kaffana Rothschild, 1902
Acraea perenna kaffana Rothschild, 1902. Novitates Zoologicae 9: 595 (595-598).

Type locality: Ethiopia: “Kaffa”.

Distribution: Ethiopia.

Specific localities:

Ethiopia – Kaffa (TL).
Acraea (Actinote) perenna thesprio Oberthür, 1893
Acraea thesprio Oberthür, 1893. Études d’Entomologie 17: 21 (17-36).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Zanguebar”.

Distribution: Kenya (coast), Tanzania (east), Malawi.

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Muagatal (Strand, 1913); Karanga River, south slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro at 800-1100 m; Moshi (Cordeiro, 1995).
usagara Strand, 1913 (as ab. of Acraea perenna). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 79 (A.2.): 172 (171-175). Tanzania: “S.O. Usagaraberge, Muagatal”.

Acraea (Actinote) quirinalis Grose-Smith, 1900
Acraea quirinalis Grose-Smith, 1900. Novitates Zoologicae 7: 544 (544-547).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Usukuma, south of Lake Victoria Nyanza”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (central and east), Uganda, Kenya (west), Tanzania (north-west).

Habitat:

Early stages:
Jiggins et al., 2003: 70.

The eggs are laid in a single layer, spaced out. Mean clutch size is 51 (n=13).


Larval food:

Urera hypselodendron (Hochst) Wedd. (Urticaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 323].

Laportea ovalifolia Chew (Urticaceae) [Jiggins et al., 2003 (Uganda)].

Acraea (Actinote) safie Felder & Felder, 1865
Acraea safie Felder & Felder, 1865 in Felder and Felder, [1865-7]. Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte Novara 370 (549 pp.). Wien.

Type locality: Ethiopia: “Abyssinia Meridionalis”.

Distribution: Ethiopia.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Acraea (Actinote) safie safie Felder & Felder, 1865
Acraea safie Felder & Felder, 1865 in Felder and Felder, [1865-7]. Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte Novara 370 (549 pp.). Wien.

Type locality: Ethiopia: “Abyssinia Meridionalis”.

Distribution: Ethiopia (north and central).
tillini Gabriel, 1949 (as female f. of Acraea safie). Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 18: 208 (207-216). Ethiopia: “Djemdjem Forest, 8000 ft.”.
Acraea (Actinote) safie antinorii Oberthür, 1880
Acraea antinorii Oberthür, 1880. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale (di Genova) Giacomo Doria 15: 157 (129-186).

Type locality: Ethiopia: “Mahal-Uonz; Let-Marefia; Scioa”.

Distribution: Ethiopia (west and south).
neumanni Le Doux, 1928 (as f. of Acraea safie). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1928: 107 (97-115). Ethiopia: “Djimma, S.-W.-Abyssinien”.
albipuncta Ungemach, 1932 (as ab. of Acraea safie antinorii). Mémoires de la Société des Sciences Naturelles (et Physiques) du Maroc 32: 74 (1-122). Ethiopia: “Oumbi”.
oumbiana Ungemach, 1932 (as ab. of Acraea safie antinorii). Mémoires de la Société des Sciences Naturelles (et Physiques) du Maroc 32: 75 (1-122). Ethiopia: “Oumbi”.

Acraea (Actinote) semivitrea Aurivillius, 1895
Acraea semivitrea Aurivillius, 1895. Entomologisk Tidskrift 16: 111 (111-112).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Congo-Gebiete, Loulouaburg”.

Distribution: Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Kenya (west), Tanzania (north-west).

Specific localities:

Cameroon – Toko in Korup at 1 1 00 m (Larsen, 2005a); Rumpi Hills (Larsen, 2005a).

Democratic Republic of Congo – Loulouburg (TL).

Uganda – Entebbe (Sharpe, 1897).

Tanzania – Minziro Forest; Kikuru Forest (Congdon and Collins, 1998).

Common name: Glassy acraea.

Habitat: Submontane and lowland forest (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: Flies high up and is known to show hilltopping behaviour (Kere Hill). Males are said to mud-puddle and are also attracted to dung (Congdon & Collins, 1998). Larsen (2005a) illustrates a male feeding on the liver of a squashed civet.

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Urera trinervis (Urticaceae) [Congdon & Collins, 1998: 34 (Tanzania); as U. cameroonensis].
pervia Sharpe, 1897 (as sp. of Acraea). Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 19: 581 (581-582). Uganda: “Ntebi”.

Acraea (Actinote) simulata Le Doux, 1923
Acraea simulata Le Doux, 1923. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1923: 220 (207-226).

Type locality: Uganda: “Sesse-Insel (Viktoria-Nyanza)”.

Distribution: Uganda (island of Sese in Lake Victoria).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea (Actinote) simulator Ackery, 1995
Acraea (Acraea) simulator Ackery, 1995 in Ackery, et al., 1995: 245.

Type locality: Cameroon: “Neu Kamerun”.

Distribution: Cameroon. Known only from the holotype.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
simulata Le Doux, 1932 (as sp. of Planema). Mitteilungen der Deutschen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 3: 5 (4-7). Cameroon: “Neu Kamerun”. [Invalid; junior secondary homonym of Acraea simulata Le Doux, 1923 [Acraeinae].]

Acraea (Actinote) ungemachi Le Cerf, 1927
Acraea ungemachi Le Cerf, 1927. Encyclopédie Entomologique (B. 3. Lepidoptera) 2: 48 (44-58).

Type locality: Ethiopia: “Youbdo (Birbi)”.

Distribution: Ethiopia (highlands).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
nuda Ungemach, 1932 (as f. of Acraea ungemachi). Mémoires de la Société des Sciences Naturelles (et Physiques) du Maroc 32: 76 (1-122). Ethiopia.

Acraea (Actinote) vumbui Stevenson, 1934
Acraea conradti race vumbui Stevenson, 1934. Occasional Papers of the Rhodesia Museum 1 (3): 13 (10-17).

Acraea conradti vumbui Stevenson, 1934. Ackery et al., 1995: 254.

Acraea vumbui Stevenson, 1934. Henning, G. 1993: 60.

Type locality: [Zimbabwe]: “Vumba Mountains, Umtali District, S. Rhodesia”.

Diagnosis: A variable species with several described forms (Pringle et al. 1994).

Distribution: Zimbabwe (eastern border).

Specific localities:

ZimbabweVumba Mountains; Butler North (Pringle et al. 1994); summit of the Chitora Hills (Pennington).

Common name: Vumba acraea.

Habitat: Forest.

Habits: Occurs in large colonies and is sometimes abundant. Usually observed fluttering slowly along the edge of the bush, occasionally settling on the leaves of the lower branches of trees (Pringle et al. 1994).

Flight period: All year but appears to be commonest in late summer and scarcer from September to November (Pringle et al. 1994).

Early stages:
Henning, G., in Pringle et al., 1994: 75.
Larval food:

Urera hypselodendron (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Wedd. (Urticaceae) [Pringle et al., 1994: 75].
barnesi Stevenson, 1940 (as ab. of Acraea conradti vumbui). Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 3: 98 (88-108). Zimbabwe: “Vumba Mountains”.
cooksoni van Son, 1963 (as f. of Acraea conradti vumbui). Transvaal Museum Memoires No. 14: 35 (130 pp.). Zimbabwe: “Vumba”.


Acraea (Actinote) bergeri Gaede, 1915
Acraea bergeri Gaede, 1915. Entomologische Rundschau 32: 51 (50-52).

Type locality: [Uganda]: “Kenia”.

Distribution: Uganda. Very poorly known; possibly a lycaenid (Ackery, et al., 1995: 252).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea (Actinote) kuekenthali Le Doux, 1922
Acraea kuekenthali Le Doux, 1922. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1922: 309 (297-316).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Deutsch-Ostafrika, Ukami-Berge (1200 m)”.

Distribution: Tanzania (south), Democratic Republic of Congo (Shaba).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
salmonea Le Doux, 1922 (as sp. of Acraea). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1922: 311 (297-316). Tanzania: “Deutsch-Ostafrika (Kirumbastrand)”. [Invalid; junior secondary homonym of Actinote alcyone salmonea Jordan, 1910 [Acraeinae] [extralimital].]


Acraea comor Pierre, 1992
Acraea comor Pierre, 1992. Entomologiste (Paris) 48 (6): 358 (351-363).

Type locality: Comoro Islands.

Distribution: Comoro Islands.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea odzalae Collins, 1997
Acraea odzalae Collins, 1997. In: d 1997. Butterflies of the Afrotropical Region. Part 1: 152.

Type locality: Congo: Odzala; Lekoli.

Distribution: Congo.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea peetersi Pierre, 1992
Acraea peetersi Pierre, 1992. Lambillionea 94 (2): 309 (308-310).

Type locality: Central African Republic: “Nord RCA (République Centrafricaine), réserve de la Sangba, III.1992 (J. Peeters).” In M.N.H.N., Paris. [First description of male by Pierre, 2000 (Lambillionea 100 (4) (Supplement): 22).]

Distribution: Central African Republic.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea atatis Pierre, 2004
Acraea atatis Pierre, 2004. Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France 109 (1): 73 (73-76).

Type locality: Central African Republic.

Distribution: Central African Republic.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea lyci Pierre, 2006
Acraea lyci Pierre, 2006. Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France 111 (4): 544 (544).

Type locality: Tanzania.

Distribution: Tanzania.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Genus Pardopsis Trimen & Bowker, 1887
South-African butterflies: a monograph of the extra-tropical species 1 [Nymphalidae] 182 (355 pp.). London.

Type-species: Acraea punctatissima Boisduval, by monotypy.


A monobasic Afrotropical genus.

Pardopsis punctatissima (Boisduval, 1833)
Acraea punctatissima Boisduval, 1833. Nouvelles Annales du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris 2: 179 (149-270).

Pardopsis punctatissima (Boisduval, 1833). Trimen & Bowker, 1887.

Pardopsis punctatissima. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 35mm. Hluhluwe, Zululand. 14.12.39. K.M. Pennington. (Transvaal Museum - TM3563).
Type locality: Madagascar: “Dans les bois humides, aux environs de Tamatave”.

Distribution: East Africa, including Zambia. Southern Africa, including Mozambique, Zimbabwe, South Africa (Limpopo Province, Mpumalanga, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape Province), Swaziland (Duke, et al., 1999), Madagascar.

Specific localities:

Zambia – Mufulira; Mkushi; Kanona; Kawambwa; Chambeshi Valley; Luangwa Valley; Chipata; Lundazi (Heath, et al., 2002).

Limpopo Province – Letsitele Valley (Swanepoel, 1953); Munnik (Swanepoel, 1953); Legalameetse Nature Reserve (“Malta Forest”).

Mpumalanga – Barberton (Swanepoel, 1953); Nelspruit (Swanepoel, 1953).

KwaZulu-Natal – Oribi Gorge (Swanepoel, 1953); Durban (Swanepoel, 1953); Verulam (Swanepoel, 1953); Eshowe (Swanepoel, 1953); Great Noodsberg (Swanepoel, 1953).

Eastern Cape Province – Hankey (Swanepoel, 1953); Zuurberg (Swanepoel, 1953); Van Staden’s Pass (Swanepoel, 1953); Uitenhage (Swanepoel, 1953); Port Elizabeth (Swanepoel, 1953); Bellevue (Swanepoel, 1953); Alicedale (Swanepoel, 1953); Grahamstown (Swanepoel, 1953); Port Alfred (Swanepoel, 1953); King William’s Town (Swanepoel, 1953); Cintsa East (Williams & Dobsons).

Common name: Polka dot.

Habitat: Moist grassland, often close to thick bush (Pringle, et al., 1994). Dry open habitats in Zambia (Heath, et al., 2002). In Madagascar in transformed grassland and anthropogenic environments (Lees et al., 2003).

Habits: The flight is weak and close to the ground. Specimens frequently settle on grass stems or other low vegetation (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Flight period: All year (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Early stages:
Clark, in Van Son, 1963: 125 [Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape].
Dickson, 1972.
Larval food:

Hybanthus capensis (Thunb.) Engl. (Violaceae) [Clark and Dickson, in Van Son, 1963: 125].

Hybanthus enneaspermus (Violaceae) [Congdon & Bampton, unpublished 2003; Mutinondo, Zambia].
stictica Boisduval, 1847 (as sp. of Acraea). In: Delegorgue, A., Voyage dans l’Afrique australe 2: 590 (585-602). South Africa: “Pays de Amazoulous”.
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