Butterflies and skippers of the afrotropical region




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Type locality: Zambia: “Pays de Marotse, N.O. Rhodesia”.

Diagnosis: Differs from the nominate subspecies in the very large black area in the forewing, which extends from the discal band to the base, and is narrower in the cell (Pringle, et al. 1994).

Distribution: Nambia (north).

Specific localities:

Namibia – Rundu (Pennington); Ruacana; Caprivi; Grootfontein; Tsumeb (Pringle, et al. 1994).

Acraea (Acraea) admatha Hewitson, 1865
Acrae [sic] admatha Hewitson, 1865 in Hewitson, 1862-6. Illustrations of new species of exotic butterflies 3: 15 (124 pp.). London.

Type locality: Nigeria: “Old Calabar”.

Distribution: Nigeria (south), Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, Angola (north), Democratic Republic of Congo (west).

Records from west of Nigeria refer to related taxa (Larsen, 2005a).



Specific localities:

Nigeria – Old Calabar (TL); near Lagos (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Common name: Hewitson’s glassy acraea.

Habitat: Forest edges, secondary forest and in agricultural lands with a full canopy (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: May be locally fairly common (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages:
Pierre, 1979.
Larval food:

Rinorea species (Verbenaceae) [Pierre, 1979 (Gabon)].
mildbraedi Schultze, 1917 (as ab. of Acraea admatha). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 82 (A.3.): 36 (34-39). Cameroon: “Dalugene (Südostkamerun)”.

Acraea (Acraea) anemosa Hewitson, 1865

Acraea anemosa Hewitson, 1865, in Hewitson, 1862-6. Illustrations of new species of exotic butterflies 3: 15 (124 pp.). London.

Acraea anemosa. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 59mm. Que Que. Aug. 62. R. Southey. (Transvaal Museum - TM3547).
Type locality: “Zambesi”.

Distribution: Somalia (south), Kenya (coast), Uganda, Tanzania, Democratic Republic of Congo (Lualaba), Malawi, Zambia, Angola, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia (Caprivi), South Africa (Limpopo Province, Mpumalanga, North West Province, Gauteng, Free State Province, KwaZulu-Natal - north), Swaziland.

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Common in the west (Ufipa, Mpanda, Kigoma) but scarce elsewhere (Turiani in Morogoro; Image Mountain; Pugu Hills; Mikumi National Park (Kielland, 1990).

Zambia – Ikelenge; Mufulira; Mumbwa; Lusaka; Kafue; Livingstone; Victoria Falls; Kalungwishi River; Lufubu River; Mbala; below the Mafinga Mountains (Heath, et al., 2002).

Zimbabwe – Victoria Falls (Pringle, et al. 1994).

Namibia – Katima Mulilo (Pringle, et al. 1994).

Limpopo Province – Warmbaths (Swanepoel, 1953); Potgietersrus (Swanepoel, 1953); Matlabas (Swanepoel, 1953); Blouberg (Swanepoel, 1953); Zoutpansberg (Swanepoel, 1953); Munnik (Swanepoel, 1953); Polokwane (Swanepoel, 1953); Chuniespoort (Swanepoel, 1953); Acornhoek (Swanepoel, 1953); Legalameetse Nature Reserve (Williams, Dec. 2006).

Mpumalanga – Lydenburg district (Swanepoel, 1953); Groblersdal (Swanepoel, 1953); White River (Swanepoel, 1953); Barberton (Swanepoel, 1953).

North West Province – Zeerust (Swanepoel, 1953); Kgaswane Mountain Reserve (Williams).

Gauteng – Pretoria (Swanepoel, 1953); Zoutpan (Tswaing crater) (Williams).

Free State Province – Bloemfontein (Swanepoel, 1953).

KwaZulu-Natal – Nongoma; Mkuze district (Pringle, et al. 1994).

Swaziland – Mlawula N. R. (www.sntc.org.sz).

Common name: Broad-bordered acraea.

Habitat: Savanna. In Tanzania it is found at altitudes from nea sea-level to 1800 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: Normally seen flying some distance above the ground, between the trees, with a leisurely, fluttering flight pattern. It settles occasionally on low vegetation or the leaves of trees (Pringle, et al. 1994).

Flight period: All year in warmer areas; September to May in cooler localities (Pringle, et al. 1994).

Early stages:
Fountaine, 1911: 61. [Macequece, Mozambique].
Van Someren and Rogers, 1925: 133.
Larval food:

Adenia venenata Forssk. (Passifloraceae) [Fountaine, 1911: 61; as Modecca abyssinica Hochst.; Macequece, Mozambique].

Vitis sp. (Vitaceae) [Kielland, 1990: 151].

Grasses (Poaceae) [Kielland, 1990: 151; highly improbable].



Adenia glauca Schinz. (Passifloraceae) [Williams, 1996: 131; Pretoria, Gauteng].

Adenia digitata (Harv.) Engl. (Passifloraceae) [Williams, 1996: 131; Gravelotte, Limpopo Province].
arcticincta Butler, 1883 (as sp. of Acraea). Annals and Magazine of Natural History (5) 12: 103 (101-107). Kenya: “Victoria Nyanza”.
welwitschii Rogenhofer, 1893 (as sp. of Acraea). Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 42: 573 (571-575). Angola: “Africa occidentalis, Angola”.
alboradiata Aurivillius, 1899 in Aurivillius, 1898-9 (as ab. of Acraea anemosa). Kungliga Svenska Vetnskapakademiens Handlingar 31 (5): 91 (1-561). Namibia: “Damaraland, Zambesi”.
interrupta Thurau, 1904 (as ab. of Acraea anemosa). Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 48: 303 (301-314). Uganda.
mosana Suffert, 1904 (as ssp. of Acraea anemosa). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 20 (12-107). No locality given.
dubiosa Suffert, 1904 (as ssp. of Acraea anemosa). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 20 (12-107). Tanzania: “Hinterland von Tanga”.
discoguttata Strand, 1909 (as ab. of Acraea anemosa). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 75 (1.3.): 376 (367-386). No locality given.
ufipana Strand, 1911 (as ab. of Acraea anemosa). Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 5: 279 (275-304). Tanzania: “Mwera, N. Ufipa”.
urungensis Strand, 1911 (as ab. of Acraea anemosa). Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 5: 279 (275-304). Tanzania: “Kitungulu, Urungu”.
lobemba Eltringham, 1912 (as ssp. of Acraea welwitschii). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1912: 99 (1-374). Zambia: “L. Bangweolo, Lualaba River”.
lutea Riley, 1921 (as ssp. of Acraea welwitschii). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1921: 244 (234-259). Zambia: “Mutema, Lukanga Valley, Kashitu, N.W. Rhodesia”.
nivea Riley, 1921 (as ssp. of Acraea welwitschii). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1921: 245 (234-259). Zambia: “Solwezi”.
conjuncta Niepelt, 1937 (as f. of Acraea anemosa). Festschrift zum 60. Geburtstage von Professor Dr. Embrik Strand 3: 558 (556-559). Somalia: “Italienich-Somaliland”.
macrosticta Storace, 1949 (as ssp. of Acraea anemosa). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale (di Genova) Giacomo Doria 64: 25 (12-29). Somalia: “Ola Uagèr”.

Acraea (Acraea) barberi Trimen, 1881
Acraea barberi Trimen, 1881. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1881: 433 (433-445).

Acraea zetes barberi Trimen, 1881. Ackery et al., 1995: 247.

Acraea barberi Trimen, 1881. Henning, G. 1993: 9.

Type locality: [South Africa]: “Transvaal country”.

Distribution: Botswana, South Africa (Limpopo Province, North West Province, Gauteng).

Specific localities:

Limpopo Province – Nylstroom (Swanepoel, 1953); Warmbaths (Swanepoel, 1953); Rooiberg (Swanepoel, 1953); Potgietersrus – Zaaiplaats (Swanepoel, 1953); Blouberg (Swanepoel, 1953); Lapalala Wilderness (Joannou).

North West Province – Groot Marico (Swanepoel, 1953).

Gauteng – Pretoria (Swanepoel, 1953); Pretoria – Montana (Dobsons); Pienaars River (Pringle, et al. 1994).

Common name: Barber’s acraea.

Habitat: Savanna (bushveld).

Habits: The flight is fluttering and leisurely as they weave their way between trees and bushes in open woodland. Specimens settle often, on flowers or on the leaves of trees (Pringle et al., 1994).

Flight period: September to April but commonest in September and October (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Early stages:
Van Son, 1963: 101.

“No complete life-history has yet been recorded, but Mr. G.C. Clark, to whom the writer has sent some young larvae, says that he could not detect any difference from larvae of acara after they have gone through four instars. He also states that he does not think the development will proceed any further, as they do not like Passiflora, the food-plant of z. acara. The full-grown larva is like that of acara from which it seems to differ in the presence of purplish black longitudinal bands just outside the bases of the legs and prolegs, and the colour of the head which is orange and has a black spot at the upper angle of the clypeus. The pupa is white, with two dorsal, one lateral and one ventral row of black-ringed adjacent ochraceous spots; veins of the wing-covers, and markings on head and thorax, black.”


Larval food:

Adenia glauca Schinz. (Passifloraceae) [Van Son, 1963: 101].

Acraea (Acraea) boopis Wichgraf, 1914
Acraea admatha f. boopis Wichgraf, 1914. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitung 1914: 346 (345-353).

Acraea boopis Wichgraf, 1914. Pierre, 1979: 719.

Type locality: South Africa: “Urwalde bei Eshowe im Zululand”.

Distribution: Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Swaziland (Duke et al., 1999).

Common name: Rainforest acraea.

Habitat: Forest.

Habits: Males fly high up, with a floating flight, and perch frequently on the leaves of forest trees. Females mostly fly low down, generally keeping to the forest understorey (Pringle et al., 1994). Males will often swoop down from the forest canopy in order to intercept a female that is flying in the understorey (Van Son, 1963). In hot weather specimens may be seen mudpuddling (Van Son, 1963).

Flight period: All year (Van Son, 1963). Summer months; they are especially common in December and January (Pringle et al., 1994).

Early stages:
Pierre & Bernaud, 2004: 485 [subspecies choloui; Malawi].

Larval food:

Lauridia tetragona (L. f.) Loes. (Celastraceae) [Pringle et al., 1994: 75; as species of Cassine].

Maytenus acuminata (L. f.) Loes. (Celastraceae) [Pringle et al., 1994: 75].

Gymnosporia sp. (Celastraceae) [Pringle et al., 1994: 75; as Maytenus heterophylla (Eckl. and Zeyh.) N.K.B. Robson; M. heterophylla is now four different Gymnosporia species (Botha & Botha, 2006)].

Rawsonia lucida Harv. and Sond. (Flacourtiaceae) [Pringle et al., 1994: 75].
Acraea (Acraea) boopis boopis Wichgraf, 1914
Acraea admatha f. boopis Wichgraf, 1914. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitung 1914: 346 (345-353).

Acraea boopis Hewitson, 1865. Pierre, 1979: 719.

Type locality: South Africa: “Urwalde bei Eshowe im Zululand”.

Distribution: Mozambique, Zimbabwe, South Africa (Limpopo Province, Mpumalanga, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape Province), Swaziland (Duke, et al., 1999).

Specific localities:

Mozambique – Amatongas forest (Van Son, 1963); Dondo Forest (Van Son, 1963).

Zimbabwe – Mount Selinda (Van Son, 1963).

Limpopo Province – Woodbush, near Haenertsburg (Swanepoel, 1953); Legalameetse Nature Reserve (“Malta Forest”) (Swanepoel, 1953); Magoebaskloof (Van Son, 1963).

Mpumalanga – Lone Creek Falls, Sabie (Williams).

KwaZulu-Natal – Eshowe (Type Locality); Karkloof (Swanepoel, 1953); Eshowe (Swanepoel, 1953); Port Shepstone (Van Son, 1963); Kranzkop (Van Son, 1963); Durban (Van Son, 1963); Etombeni (Van Son, 1963); Balcomb’s Hill (Van Son, 1963); Gwaliweni Forest (Van Son, 1963); Ngoye Forest (Pringle et al., 1994).

Eastern Cape Province – Embotyi (Van Son, 1963); Port St Johns (Van Son, 1963); Ngqeleni (Van Son, 1963).
Acraea (Acraea) boopis ama Pierre, 1979
Acraea boopis ama Pierre, 1979. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (N.S.) 15: 734 (719-737).

Type locality: Kenya: “Marsabit Réserve, 1200-1400 m”.

Distribution: Kenya, Tanzania (north).
Acraea (Acraea) boopis choloui Pierre, 1979
Acraea boopis choloui Pierre, 1979. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (N.S.) 15: 735 (719-737).

Type locality: Malawi: “Cholo Mts”.

Distribution: Malawi (south).

Acraea (Acraea) brainei Henning, 1986
Acraea brainei Henning, 1986. Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 49: 31 (29-37).

Type locality: Namibia: “Hartmanns Valley, 44 km S. of Cunene River”.

Diagnosis: Bears some resemblance to A. nohara but the genitalia show that it is more closely related to A. neobule. It can be distinguished from A. nohara by the following: the shape and distribution of the black spotting; the absence of heavy black spotting along the margin and outer part of the veins of the forewing; a row of spots on the marginal black border of the hindwing (Pringle et al., 1994).

Distribution: Nambia (north-west).

Specific localities:

Namibia - Hartmann’s Valley in Kaokoland, in an area extending from about 30 km south of the Kunene River to the Engo River (Pringle, et al., 1994); Etanga, 100 km west of Opuwo (Swart, 2004).

Common name: Braine’s acraea.

Habitat: Granite outcrops on hills and ridges (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Habits: Both sexes feed from the flowers of the larval host-plant (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Flight period: February to April (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Early stages:
Henning, G., 1986: 29 (J. Ent. Soc. Sth. Afr. 49: 29).
Larval food:

Turnera oculata (Turneraceae) [Braine - in Henning, G., 1986?].

Acraea (Acraea) camaena (Drury, 1773)
Papilio camaena Drury, 1773. Illustrations of Natural History 2: index et 12 (90 pp.). London.

Type locality: Ghana: “Gold Coast”.

Distribution: Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Burkina Faso (south), Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea (Bioko), Congo, Angola (Cabinda enclave).

Specific localities:

Senegal – Basse Casamance (Larsen, 2005a).

Guinea – Parc National du Haut Niger (Larsen, 2005a).

Ghana – Kintampo Falls (Larsen, 2005a).

Nigeria – coast near Lagos (Larsen, 2005a); Okomu (Larsen, 2005a)

Common name: Large smoky acraea.

Habitat: Drier forest, including open coastal forest (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: A generally scarce species, with occasional population explosions (Larsen, 2005a). Both sexes visit flowers, especially during the dry season (Larsen, 2005a)

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Premna hispida (Verbenaceae) [Owen, 1971 (Sierra Leone)].

Smeathmannia pubescens (Passifloraceae) [Pierre & Vuattoux, 1978 (Ivory Coast)].
murcia Fabricius, 1781 (as sp. of Papilio). Species Insectorum 2: 33 (499 pp.). Hamburgi & Kilonii. “Africa aequinoctiali”.

Acraea (Acraea) chilo Godman, 1880
Acraea chilo Godman, 1880 in Godman and Distant, 1880. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1880: 184 (182-185).

Type locality: Ethiopia: “Kalamet, Sebka Valley, Abyssinia”.

Distribution: Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Somalia, Saudi Arabia, Yemen.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Acraea (Acraea) chilo chilo Godman, 1880
Acraea chilo Godman, 1880 in Godman and Distant, 1880. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1880: 184 (182-185).

Type locality: Ethiopia: “Kalamet, Sebka Valley, Abyssinia”.

Distribution: Sudan, Ethiopia (south), Kenya (east and central), Tanzania (north-east), Somalia.

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Same, at the foot of the South Pares (Baker, vide Cordeiro, 1995).
crystallina Grose-Smith, 1890 (as sp. of Acraea). Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 5: 167 (167-168). Kenya: “Voi River, interior of Mombasa”.
rosina Rogenhofer, 1891 (as sp. of Acraea [Telchinia]). Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 41: 565 (563-566). “Nyika”.
hoehneli Holland, 1896 (as sp. of Acraea). Proceedings of the United States National Museum 18: 746 (741-767). “East Africa”.
wissmanni Weymer, 1903 (as sp. of Acraea). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 16: 223 (221-235). Tanzania: “Kilima Ndscharo, von Ureguha und Ukami im Hinterlande von Deutsch-Ostafrika”.
Acraea (Acraea) chilo yemensis Le Doux, 1931
Acraea chilo yemensis Le Doux, 1931. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 2: 42 (42-43).

Type locality: Yemen: “Usil-Hagela, Süd-West-Arabien”.

Distribution: Saudi Arabia (south-west), Yemen. A doubtfully distinct subspecies (see Larsen, 1983).

Acraea (Acraea) cuva Grose-Smith, 1889
Acraea cuva Grose-Smith, 1889. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 3: 126 (121-137).

Type locality: [Kenya]: “Mombasa”.

Distribution: Kenya (coast), Tanzania (coast), Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe (east).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Dar-es-Salaam (Van Son, 1963).

Malawi – Port Herald (J.D. Handman teste Van Son, 1963).

Mozambique – Xiluvo (D. Cookson teste Van Son, 1963; single female); Nahamatanda; Inhaminga; Salone Forest (Pinhey); Pungoè (Paré).

Zimbabwe – Houghton’s Koppie at Christon Bank near Harare (Chitty; single female).

Common name: Chic acraea.

Habitat: Forest?

Habits: Apparently specimens fly only a few metres from the ground and settle on the leaves of trees and bushes (Pringle et al., 1994). Specimens of both sexes have been noted feeding from the flowers of Lantana (Handman teste Van Son, 1963).

Flight period: Recorded in May, July, August and September but probably occurs throughout the year (Van Son, 1963).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
nidama Suffert, 1904 (as ssp. of Acraea dammi). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 19 (12-107). Tanzania: “Dar-es-Salaam”.

Acraea (Acraea) dammii van Vollenhoven, 1869
Acraea dammii van Vollenhoven, 1869. In: Pollen, F.P.L. & Van Dam, D.C. Recherches sur la Faune de Madagascar et de ses dépendances (5): 12 (7-14).

Type locality: Madagascar: “Nossi-Bé [Nosy Be]”.

Distribution: Madagascar, Comoro Islands.

Habitat: Forest (Lees et al., 2003).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
percussa Keferstein, 1870 (as sp. of Acraea). Jahrbuch der (Königlichen) Akademie Gemeinnütziger Wissenschaften zu Erfurt 4: 13 (13-17). No locality given.
masonala Ward, 1872 (as sp. of Acraea). Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 9: 3 (2-3). Madagascar.
villettei Oberthür, 1925 (as sp. of Acraea). Études de Lépidoptérologie Comparée 22 (2): 63 (63-69). Madagascar: “Ouest-Madagascar (Mnja, Prov. Morondava)”. Treated as a subspecies of A. cuva by Ackery et al. (1995) but as a synonym of A. dammi by Lees et al. (2003).

Acraea (Acraea) eltringhami Joicey & Talbot, 1921
Acraea eltringhami Joicey & Talbot, 1921. Bulletin of the Hill Museum, Witley 1: 47 (40-166).

Type locality: Rwanda: “Kisaba Forest, E. Lake Kivu, Rwanda district”.

Distribution: Uganda (west), Rwanda, Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo (east - Kivu).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
kisaba Carcasson, 1981 (as [unneccessary] replacement name for Acraea eltringhami Joicey and Talbot). Collins handguide to the butterflies of Africa 174 (188 pp.).

Acraea (Acraea) endoscota Le Doux, 1928
Acraea admatha endoscota le Doux, 1928. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1928: 108 (97-115).

Type locality: Ivory Coast: “Elfenbeinküste, W.-Afrika”.

Distribution: Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Angola (north), Democratic Republic of Congo (Mongala, Kivu, Kasai, Sankuru), Uganda, Rwanda, Ethiopia (south-west), Kenya (west), Tanzania (west).

Specific localities:

Guinea – Nimbas (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Common name: Le Doux’s glassy acraea.

Habitat: Forest (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: A common species (Larsen, 2005a). Males defend territories in sunny spots; when doing so the flight is powerful for an acraea (Larsen, 2005a). Flowers are frequently visted, considering that this is a forest acraea (Larsen, 2005a).
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