Butterflies and skippers of the afrotropical region




старонка19/21
Дата канвертавання24.04.2016
Памер1.59 Mb.
1   ...   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21

Type locality: Zimbabwe: “Zimbabwe: Chimanimani Mountains, 3250'E, 1930'S), 13.x.1984, I. Mullin.” Described from 11 males and a single female. Holotype in the Transvaal Museum, Pretoria.

Distribution: Zimbabwe, Malawi, Zambia.

Habitat: Montane grassland on the upper slopes of the Chimanimani Mountains (nominate subspecies); Montane grassland bordering forests and woodland (subspecies orangica).

Flight period: Recorded in October (nominate subspecies). Subspecies orangica has been recorded in April, October, November and December.

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Acraea (Actinote) parei parei (Henning & Henning, 1996)
Hyalites parei parei Henning & Henning, 1996. Metamorphosis 7 (2): 74 (71-80).

Type locality: Zimbabwe: “Zimbabwe: Chimanimani Mountains, 3250'E, 1930'S), 13.x.1984, I. Mullin.”

Distribution: Zimbabwe (Chimanimani Mountains).
Acraea (Actinote) parei orangica (Henning & Henning, 1996)
Hyalites parei orangica Henning & Henning, 1996. Metamorphosis 7 (2): 75 (71-80).

Acraea (Actinote) parei orangica. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 42mm. Paratype. Chowa, Nyika, Zambia. 3 Apr. 1981. R.J. Dowsett. No. 46. (Henning collection - H153).
Type locality: Malawi: “Malawi: Nyika, 28.x.1972, I. Bampton.” Described from eight males and three females. Holotype in the Transvaal Museum, Pretoria.

Distribution: Malawi, Zambia (on the Nyika Plateau, which straddles both countries).

Specific localities:

Zambia – Chowa Forest, Nyika.

Acraea (Actinote) rahira Boisduval, 1833
Acraea rahira Boisduval, 1833. Nouvelles Annales du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris 2: 181 (149-270).

Acraea (Actinote) rahira rahira. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 38mm. Middelburg (Tvl.). 24-12-68. J.C. Nicholson. (Transvaal Museum - TM3497).

Acraea (Actinote) rahira rahira. Female. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 43mm. Rustenberg Nature Reserve, North-West Province, South Africa; 7 March 1998; M.C. Williams (Williams collection).
Type locality: [Africa]: “Tamatave”. [False locality.]

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Angola, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia, South Africa.

Misattributed to the Madagascar fauna by Mabille [1887] (Lees et al., 2003).



Common name: Marsh acraea.

Habitat: Marshes and swamps.

Habits: Flies with a slow, fluttering flight, low down in its marshy habitat. Specimens frequently settle on low-growing vegetation (Pringle et al. 1994). It is attracted by flowers (Van Son, 1963).

Flight period: All year in warmer areas; summer months in cooler areas (Pringle et al. 1994).

Early stages:
Barber, in Trimen & Bowker, 1887, Vol. 1: 168 [as Acraea Rahira Boisduval; E Cape].

“… and I learn from Mrs. Barber, who discovered them, that the larvae abound on the plant in question [Polygonum ?tomentosum], and that their colouring resembles the pink and bronzy hues of the infloresence.”


Fawcett, 1901: 294. [Trans. Zool. Soc., London XV: 294]

Larva. Back and sides blackish; thoracic legs, claspers, and a line above them chrome yellow. A dorsal white stripe, and on each segment four yellow spots from which spring four branched yellow spines, the lower pair springing from the yellow spiracular line. These spines are shorter than in the majority of Acraea larvae. Head yellow. Feeds on a species of groundsel, Erigeron canadense (Linn.). Two figures of the pupa are given: One pupa is waxy white and similar to the pupae of other Acraeae, the other ferruginous. The ferruginous pupae had nearly always been attacked by ichneumons, with which the larvae were much infested.”


Clark, in Van Son, 1963: 42; plate XVI [Swellendam, Western Cape].

Egg. Eggs are laid in clusters in neat formation on the underside of a well-developed leaf. There may be up to over 100 eggs. At first they are yellow, changing to pale brown, which gradually turns to purplish red and just before hatching, after 8-10 days, they turn blackish purple. They are 0.5 mm in diameter and 0.75 mm high. There are 20-24 longitudinal ribs cross-braced by some 16 indented ribs which break up into a rough hexagonal pattern over the top. Larva. Like in most Acraea, the young larvae eat the discarded egg shell, then feed on the surface of the leaf. There are two main groups, one taking five and the other six instars. Occasionally a larva takes seven instars. The development proceeds as follows: Five instar group: 1st instar 1.75 mm, growing to 3.5 mm in 5 days; 2nd instar growing to 5 mm in 4 days; 3rd instar growing to 10 mm in 4 days; 4th instar growing to 15 mm in 4 days; 5th instar growing to 30-33 mm in 9 days. Six instar group: 1st instar 1.75mm, growing to 3.25 mm in 5 days; 2nd instar growing to 4.25 mm in 4-5 days; 3rd instar growing to 9 mm in 5 days; 4th instar growing to 14 mm in 5 days; 5th instar growing to 19 mm in 5 days; 6th instar growing to 30-33 mm in 10 days. Seven instar group: 1st instar 1.5mm, growing to 2.75 mm in 5 days; 2nd instar growing to 4.5 mm in 6 days; 3rd instar growing to 8 mm in 7 days; 4th instar growing to 13 mm in 7 days; 5th instar growing to 18 mm in 7 days; 6th instar growing to 23 mm in 8 days; 7th instar growing to 30-33 mm in 12 days. In the latter instars there is a variation in intensity of colour and in the final instar there is a light and a dark form, the latter due to the darker ground colour and the encroachment of the darker portion on the lighter. In the lighter varieties the dorsal protuberances may be entirely yellow, while in the dark ones they are mainly black. The larvae are gregarious till the penultimate instar, then they begin to separate. Pupa. The pupa is suspended by cremastral hooks only. There is a darker variety than the one shown in the plate. The pupae are about 17 mm long. The imago emerges after 11-13 days.”


Larval food:

Polygonum species (Polygonum tomentosum ?) (Polygonaceae) [Mrs. Barber, in Trimen & Bowker, 1887, Vol. 1: 168; Plettenburg Bay?].

Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq. (Asteraceae) [Fawcett, 1901: 294 (as Erigeron canadense); Van Someren, 1974: 323].

Persicaria attenuata (R. Br.) Sojak subsp. (Polygonaceae) [Clark teste Van Son, 1963; as Polygonum pulchrum Blume].

Polygonum tomentosum (Willd.) (Polygonaceae) [Clark teste Van Son, 1963].
Acraea (Actinote) rahira rahira Boisduval, 1833
Acraea rahira Boisduval, 1833. Nouvelles Annales du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris 2: 181 (149-270).

Acraea (Actinote) rahira rahira. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 38mm. Middelburg (Tvl.). 24-12-68. J.C. Nicholson. (Transvaal Museum - TM3497).

Acraea (Actinote) rahira rahira. Female. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 43mm. Rustenberg Nature Reserve, North-West Province, South Africa; 7 March 1998; M.C. Williams (Williams collection).
Type locality: [Africa]: “Tamatave”. [False locality.]

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Shaba), Tanzania (south), Malawi, Zambia, Angola, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia (north), South Africa (Limpopo Province, Mpumalanga, North West Province, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape Province, Western Cape Province).

Specific localities:

Zambia – Mwinilunga; Katambora; Chingola, Mufulira; Lake Mwekera; Ndola; Miengwe; Chembe; Nsombo; Chambeshi Valley (Heath, et al., 2002).

Mozambique – Vundusi River (Van Son, 1963).

Zimbabwe – Bulawayo (Van Son, 1963); Sawmills (Van Son, 1963); Harare (Van Son, 1963); Mazoe (Van Son, 1963); Gadzima (Van Son, 1963); Mutare (Van Son, 1963).

Namibia – Ehando (Van Son, 1963); Otiembora (Van Son, 1963); Okavango River (Van Son, 1963); Mashari, 48 km east of Rundu (Ball).

Limpopo Province – Warmbaths (Swanepoel, 1953); Potgietersrus (Swanepoel, 1953); Chuniespoort (Swanepoel, 1953); Haenertsburg – Veekraal (Swanepoel, 1953); Louis Trichardt (Swanepoel, 1953); Naboomspruit (Van Son, 1963); Woodbush (Van Son, 1963).

Mpumalanga – Argent (Van Son, 1963); Barberton (Van Son, 1963); Middelburg (Nicholson).

North West Province – Potchefstroom (Swanepoel, 1953); Kgaswane Mountain Reserve (Williams).

Gauteng – Vereeninging (Swanepoel, 1953); Krugersdorp (Swanepoel, 1953); Pretoria (Swanepoel, 1953); Johannesburg (Van Son, 1963); Irene (Van Son, 1963); Witwatersrand Botanical Gardens (J. Dobson, unpublished checklist, 2001); Rayton (Williams).

KwaZulu-Natal – Durban (Swanepoel, 1953); Greytown (Swanepoel, 1953); Noodsberg (Swanepoel, 1953); Estcourt (Swanepoel, 1953); Colenso (Swanepoel, 1953); Port Shepstone (Van Son, 1963); Margate (Van Son, 1963); Umkomaas (Van Son, 1963); Isipingo (Van Son, 1963); Pietermaritzburg (Van Son, 1963); Balgowan (Van Son, 1963); Eshowe (Van Son, 1963); St Lucia Bay (Van Son, 1963).

Eastern Cape Province – East London (Swanepoel, 1953); Amabele (Swanepoel, 1953); Butterworth (Swanepoel, 1953); Tsomo River (Swanepoel, 1953); Bashee River (Swanepoel, 1953); Uitenhage (Van Son, 1963); Grahamstown (Van Son, 1963); Port Elizabeth (Van Son, 1963); Port St Johns (Van Son, 1963); Port Alfred (Pringle, et al. 1994).

Western Cape Province – east of Stellenbosch (Péringuey; no longer exists here (Pringle, et al. 1994)); Worcester (Littlewood); Caledon (Burchell); near Swellendam (Dickson and Sipser); Little Brak River (Van den Berg); Riversdale (Swanepoel, 1953); Plettenberg Bay (Swanepoel, 1953); Knysna (Van Son, 1963); Oudsthoorn (Van Son, 1963).
uasingishuensis Stoneham, 1943 (as ssp. of Acraea rahira). Bulletin of the Stoneham Museum (45): 3 (4 pp.). Kenya: “Soy, Kenya Colony”. [Synonymized with Acraea rahira rahira (Boisduval, 1833) by Pierre and Bernaud, 2002 (Lambillionea 102 (3) (Tome I): 245-250).]
melanoradiata Stoneham, 1943 (as f. of Acraea rahira). Bulletin of the Stoneham Museum (45): 3 (4 pp.). Kenya: “Soy”.
crippsi Stoneham, 1943 (as f. of Acraea rahira). Bulletin of the Stoneham Museum (45): 3 (4 pp.). Kenya: “soy”.
Acraea (Actinote) rahira mufindi Kielland, 1990
Acraea rahira mufindi Kielland, 1990. Butterflies of Tanzania 163 (363 pp.). Melbourne.

Type locality: Tanzania: “Mufindi, Ngwazi, 1800 m.”.

Description:

Male. Larger than ssp. rahira. Upperside pale yellowish-ochre with heavy black markings. F.w. black spear-like marginal streaks fully reaching the evenly curved row of subapical black spots, and, together with the subapical black spots, enclosing several long pale-ochre spots; a discal black spot in space 1b and in 2; a larger spot at cell-end and one in cell. The discal spot in 2 placed further basad from the one in 3 than in ssp. rahira; h.w. with heavier marginal border than in rahira. Underside similar to that of rahira, but the median pale band (just outside of the discal black spots) narrower and more curved, its distal black border heavier; postdiscal row of large rusty-ochre spots faint or lacking. Length of f.w. 21-25 mm, average 23.9 mm. Female. Larger than the male; upperside arrangement of markings as in the male, but ground colour irregularly blackish-grey with paler patches. Underside ground colour almost as the upperside, but more even like the male, except being grey in colour. Length of f.w. 26.3-29 mm, average 27.7 mm. Male genitalia. Similar to ssp. rahira.”



Distribution: Tanzania (south - Mufindi).

Acraea (Actinote) speciosa Wichgraf, 1909
Acraea anacreon speciosa Wichgraf, 1909. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 53: 245 (240-247).

Acraea speciosa Wichgraf, 1909. Henning, G., 1993: 59.

Acraea (Actinote) speciosa. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 47mm. Jimbe, Zambia. 30.III.76. A. Heath. (Henning collection - H154).
Type locality: Angola.

Distribution: Angola, Zambia.

Specific localities:

Zambia – Ikelenge; Kasangezhi; 33km south of Mwinilunga (Heath et al., 2002).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Note: Larsen (2005a) believes that A. speciosa “is almost certainly” a subspecies of A. wigginsi.

Acraea (Actinote) wigginsi Neave, 1904
Acraea wigginsi Neave, 1904. Novitates Zoologicae 11: 326 (323-363).

Type locality: Kenya: “Tiriki Hills; Kisumu”.

Distribution: Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Kenya.

Common name: Wiggins’ acraea.

Habitat: The grassy edges of submontane forest, at altitudes of 1 500 m or higher (Bernaud, 1995; Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: Occurs in localized populations (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages:
Bernaud, 1995. [Cameroon]
Larval food:

Cassia zambesiacus (Fabaceae) [Van Someren (East Africa)].

Kotschya strigosa (Fabaceae) [Bernaud, 1995 (Cameroon)].
Acraea (Actinote) wigginsi wigginsi Neave, 1904
Acraea wigginsi Neave, 1904. Novitates Zoologicae 11: 326 (323-363).

Type locality: Kenya: “Tiriki Hills; Kisumu”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Ituri), Uganda, Kenya (west).

Specific localities:

Kenya – Tiriki Hills (TL).
Acraea (Actinote) wigginsi occidentalis Bethune-Baker, 1926
Acraea wigginsi race occidentalis Bethune-Baker, 1926. Entomologist’s Record and Journal of Variation 38: 115 (115-116).

Acraea wigginsi occidentalis Bethune-Baker, 1926. Ackery et al., 1995: 265.

Acraea speciosa occidentalis Bethune-Baker, 1926. Henning, G., 1993: 59.

Acraea wigginsi occidentalis Bethune-Baker, 1926. Larsen, 2005a: 453.

Type locality: Cameroon: “Bitjé, Cameroons”.

Distribution: Cameroon.

Specific localities:

Cameroon – Bitje (TL).

Acraea (Actinote) zitja Boisduval, 1833
Acraea zitja Boisduval, 1833. Nouvelles Annales du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris 2: 180 (149-270).

Type locality: Madagascar: “Féneriffe et à Foule-Pointe”.

Distribution: Madagascar.

Habitat: Forest margins, grassland and anthropogenic environments (Lees et al., 2003).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
rakeli Boisduval, 1833 (as sp. of Acraea). Nouvelles Annales du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris 2: 32? (149-270). Madagascar: “Tintingue, de Foule-Pointe et de Féneriffe”.
radiata Guénée, 1865 (as var. of Acraea zitja). In: Vinson, A., Voyage à Madagascar au Couronnement de Radama II 28, 35 (25-48). Paris. Madagascar: “Madagascar”.
fumida Mabille, 1880 (as var. of Acroeea [sic] zitja). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 23: 106 (104-109). Madagascar: “Foulepoint”.

Acraea (Actinote) calida Butler, 1878
Acraea calida Butler, 1878. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (5) 2: 288 (283-297).

Synonym of Acraea zitja Boisduval, 1833.



Acraea (Actinote) calida Butler, 1878. Pierre, 1992: 354.

Type locality: Madagascar: “Féneriffe et à Foule-Pointe”.

Diagnosis: Distinguished from its sister species A. zitja by the presence of an additional anal vein on the hindwing, whose margin is more crenulated and by the redder, more solidly spotted dorsal wing pattern (Pierre teste Lees et al., 2003).

Distribution: Madagascar.

Habitat: Forest margins, grassland and anthropogenic environments (Lees et al., 2003).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea (Actinote) aubyni Eltringham, 1912
Acraea aubyni Eltringham, 1912. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1912: 304 (1-374).

Type locality: Kenya: “Mwaeba Hill, 35 m. N.N.W. of Rabai”.

Distribution: Kenya (coast), Tanzania? (north-east).

Habitat: Coastal forest (Kielland, 1990).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea (Actinote) cinerea Neave, 1904
Acraea cinerea Neave, 1904. Novitates Zoologicae 11: 325 (323-363).

Acraea (Actinote) cinerea cinerea. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 37mm. Kakamega, Kenya, 01.00N-34.00E. 15.XII.1994. (Curle Trust Collection - 46).

Acraea (Actinote) cinerea cinerea. Female. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 39mm. Kakamega Forest, W. Kenya. 16.XII.1994. (Curle Trust Collection - 47).
Type locality: Kenya: “Tiriki Hills”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Rwanda, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia.

Habitat:

Habits: It is known to have periodic population explosions (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Acraea (Actinote) cinerea cinerea Neave, 1904
Acraea cinerea Neave, 1904. Novitates Zoologicae 11: 325 (323-363).

Acraea (Actinote) cinerea cinerea. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 37mm. Kakamega, Kenya, 01.00N-34.00E. 15.XII.1994. (Curle Trust Collection - 46).

Acraea (Actinote) cinerea cinerea. Female. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 39mm. Kakamega Forest, W. Kenya. 16.XII.1994. (Curle Trust Collection - 47).
Type locality: Kenya: “Tiriki Hills”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (east - north Kivu), Ethiopia, Uganda, Rwanda, Kenya, Tanzania (west), Zambia.

Specific localities:

Zambia – Mbala (Heath, et al., 2002).
alberta Eltringham, 1911 (as ssp. of Acraea cinerea). Novitates Zoologicae 18: 151 (149-153). Uganda?: “L. Albert-Edward, 1000 m.”.
Acraea (Actinote) cinerea luluae Berger, 1981
Acraea cinerea luluae Berger, 1981. Les Papillons du Zaire 197 (543 pp.). Bruxelles.

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kapanga (Lualaba)”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (south - Lualaba).

Acraea (Actinote) conradti Oberthür, 1893
Acraea conradti Oberthür, 1893. Études d’Entomologie 17: 22 (17-36).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Usambara”.

Distribution: Tanzania (north-east - Usambara Mountains), Mozambique.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
flavescens Blachier, 1912 (as ab. of Acraea conradti). Bulletin de la Société Lépidoptérologique de Genève 2: 175 (173-177). Tanzania: “l’Afrique orientale allemande”.
maculosa Le Doux, 1928 (as f. of Acraea conradti). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1928: 109 (97-115). Tanzania: “Nguelo, Usambara”.
usambarensis Le Doux, 1928 (as female f. of Acraea conradti). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1928: 109 (97-115). Tanzania: “Usambara, D.-O.-Afrika”.
vossleri Le Doux, 1928 (as f. of Acraea conradti). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1928: 110 (97-115). Tanzania: “Usambara, D.-O.-Afrika”.

Acraea (Actinote) igola Trimen & Bowker, 1889
Acraea igola Trimen & Bowker, 1889. South-African butterflies: a monograph of the extra-tropical species 3 Papilionidae and Hesperidae [sic] 379 (438 pp.). London.

Type locality: [South Africa]: “near Eshowe, Zululand”.

Orignal description:

“Exp. al., male 1 in. 11 lin.; female 2 in. Male. Brick-red, in hind-wing spotted and bordered with black; apical area of fore-wing transparent, colourless, bordered with blackish and crossed by black-clouded nervules. Fore-wing: red area semi-transparent, filling discoidal cell, and occupying all space below cell to inner marginal edge as far as posteriror angle; a rather narrow blackish costal border, becoming very much broader at apex; hind-marginal border below upper radial nervule not much wider than costal border, inwardly somewhat excavated between nervules, and diminishing to a point at posterior angle; at base a short black longitudinal mark between median and submedian nervures, and a longer black streak along inner margin to before middle; an ill-defined narrow terminal disco-cellular black mark. Hind-wing: hind-marginal black border of moderate width, emitting inwardly short acute sublinear nervular dentations and very short internervular ones; black spots of moderate size, distinct, rounded, viz., one in cell near base; an irregular sub-basal curved series of four, of which the second is in the cell; two small ones obliquely placed at upper part of extremity of cell; and an irregular median discal series, of which the superior ones (except that next costa) are very small and partly obsolete, but the three lower large and conspicuous, and forming a straight row from below second median to internal nervule; base with a rather wide blackish suffusion; inner-marginal border pale-yellowish beyond middle. Under side: exceedingly glossy; red in fore-wing extremely pale; hind-wing pale dull-yellowish with a very faint reddish tinge. Fore-wing: costal, apical, and hind-marginal border thinly scaled with pale-yellow crossed by blackish-clouded nervules. Hind-wing: hind-marginal border grey, rather closely scaled with pale-yellow, crossed by blackish nervules, and also by a series of short internervular black streaks not reaching hind-margin; spots more conspicuous than above, - three additional ones present, viz., two near base on costa and inner margin respectively, and a very small one on inner margin about middle. Abdomen above black, with a superior lateral series of six small white spots, and an inferior lateral white streak, - beneath yellowish-white. Female. Red replaced by very pale yellowish; borders not so dark. Fore-wing: base widely suffused with fuscous, especially below cell, where suffusion reaches to beyond middle; submedian nervure and median nervure with its first nervule blackish-clouded. Hind-wing: spots larger, especially upper ones of discal series; basal blackish suffusion considerably wider; hind-marginal border broader, emitting nervular rays inwardly. Under side: Fore-wing: border as in male; basal fuscous suffusion and yellowish area beyond both paler than on upper side. Hind-wing: whiter than in male, without reddish tinge; black spots larger; hind-marginal border broader, but its internervular sub-marginal dark marks less defined. Abdomen with larger white spots.”
1   ...   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21


База данных защищена авторским правом ©shkola.of.by 2016
звярнуцца да адміністрацыі

    Галоўная старонка