Butterflies and skippers of the afrotropical region




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Type locality: “Lake Nyassa”.

Distribution: Malawi, Tanzania (south), Zambia (north), Democratic Republic of Congo (Shaba), Angola.

Specific localities:

Zambia – Ikelenge; Solwezi; Chingola; Mufulira; Ndola; Kasama; Nyika (Heath, et al., 2002).
melas Oberthür, 1893 (as ab. of Acraea serena). Études d’Entomologie 17: 24 (17-36). No locality given.
Acraea (Actinote) ventura ochrascens Sharpe, 1902
Acraea ochrascens Sharpe, 1902. Entomologist 35: 41 (40-42).

Type locality: Uganda: “Entebbe”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Kivu), Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya (west), Tanzania (north-west).
bukoba Weymer, 1903 (as var. of Acraea terpsichore). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 16: 225 (221-235). Tanzania: “Bei Bukoba”.

Acraea (Actinote) vesperalis Grose-Smith, 1890
Acraea vesperalis Grose-Smith, 1890. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1890: 466 (463-473).

Type locality: “Central Africa”.

Distribution: Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Congo, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda.

Specific localities:

Guinea – Parc National du Haut Niger (Mei teste Larsen, 2005a).

Ivory Coast – Danane (Pierre, 1978); Guessessou (H. Warren-Gash teste Larsen, 2005a).

Ghana – Atewa Range (Maessen teste Larsen, 2005a).

Nigeria – Bonny (Larsen, 2005a).

Common name: Rare musanga acraea.

Habitat: Forest.

Habits: Very rare in West Africa (Larsen, 2005a). Males occasionally mudpuddle (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages:
Pierre and Bernaud, 1999b: 13.
Larval food:

Musanga species (Urticaceae) [Larsen, 2005a].

Myrinathus species (Urticaceae) [Larsen, 2005a].
catori Bethune-Baker, 1904 (as sp. of Acraea). Annals and Magazine of Natural History (7) 14: 223 (222-233). “Sierra Leone”.
punctula Strand, 1914 (as ab. of Acraea vesperalis). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 79 (A.12.): 101 (97-144). Cameroon: “Kamerun; Assoko, Jaundegebiet”.
picta Schouteden, 1919 (as ab. of Acraea vesperalis). Revue Zoologique Africaine 6: 147 (145-162). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kilomètre 273 de Kindu”.

Acraea (Actinote) viviana Staudinger, 1896
Acraea viviana Staudinger, 1896. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 9: 204 (193-240).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Vivi”.

Distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo (north-east), Uganda, Kenya (west), Tanzania (north-west).

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Obudu Plateau (Larsen, 2005a); Mambilla Plateau (Larsen, 2005a).

Democratic Republic of Congo – Vivi (TL).

Common name: Straw-coloured acraea.

Habitat: Submontane forest above 1 300 m (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: A generally rare species, which is most often encountered when it comes to mudpuddle (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages:
Jiggins et al., 2003: 70.

The eggs are laid in a single layer, spaced out. Mean clutch size is 162 (n=3). The eggs, larvae and pupa of H. viviana and H. eponina are very similar (on casual examination).


Larval food:

Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq. (Tiliaceae) [Jiggins et al., 2003 (Uganda); Bernaud teste Larsen, 2005a (Cameroon)].

Acraea (Actinote) vuilloti Mabille, 1889
Acraea vuilloti Mabille, 1889. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France (6) 8: 170 (169-170).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Bagamoyo”.

Distribution: Tanzania (east - Usambara, Uluguru, Usagara, Bagamayo).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea (Actinote) alalonga (Henning & Henning, 1996)
Hyalites alalonga Henning & Henning, 1996. Metamorphosis 7 (2): 72 (71-80).

Type locality: South Africa: “South Africa: Mpumalanga: Three Rondavels, Swadini (3048'E, 2434'S) 17.iv.1987, G.A. Henning.” Described from 26 males and five females. Holotype in Transvaal Museum, Pretoria.

Distribution: South Africa (Limpopo Province, Mpumalanga, KwaZulu-Natal).

Specific localities:

Limpopo Province – Wolkberg; Woodbush; Haenertsburg (Henning and Henning, 1996: 73).

Mpumalanga – Three Rondavels, Swadini; Blyde River Canyon; Blydepoort Nature Reserve; Stoffberg; Long Tom Pass; Graskop; Mariepskop (Henning and Henning, 1996: 73); Buffelskloof Nature Reserve (Williams).

KwaZulu-Natal – Karkloof; Champange Castle (Henning and Henning, 1996: 73).

Common name: Long-winged orange acraea.

Habitat: Montane grassland.

Habits: Males have a strong, direct flight while exhibiting patrolling behaviour. They do not settle often, resting by gliding when on the wing. Females appear to fly randomly. Both sexes feed from flowers. Unlike the closely related A. anacreon, specimens do not appear to fly in the near vicinity of their larval host plant (Henning and Henning, 1996: 73).

Flight period: Recorded in December and April, i.e. appears to be bivoltine.

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Aeschynomene species (Fabaceae) [Henning, G., and S., 1996: 74; locality not specified].

Acraea (Actinote) anacreon Trimen, 1868
Acraea anacreon Trimen, 1868. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1868: 77 (69-96).

Type locality: [South Africa]: “Kaffraria, Sogana; Umvoti, Natal”.

Distribution: Zimbabwe (east), South Africa (Limpopo Province, Mpumalanga, North West Province, Gauteng, Free State Province, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape Province), Swaziland, Lesotho.

Specific localities:

Zimbabwe – Mutare (Van Son, 1963); Chipinga (Van Son, 1963); Chimanimani Mountains (Van Son, 1963); Nyanga (Van Son, 1963; Pringle et al. 1994).

Limpopo Province – Wolkberg – Paardevlei (Swanepoel, 1953); Welcome Mine (Swanepoel, 1953); Haenertsburg (Swanepoel, 1953); Houtbosdorp (Swanepoel, 1953); Woodbush (Van Son, 1963).

Mpumalanga – Barberton (Swanepoel, 1953); Machadodorp (Swanepoel, 1953); Pilgrim’s Rest (Swanepoel, 1953); White River (Swanepoel, 1953); Waterval Onder (Van Son, 1963); Lydenburg District (Van Son, 1963).

North West Province – Rustenburg (Swanepoel, 1953); Groot Marico (Swanepoel, 1953); Kgaswane Mountain Reserve (Williams).

Gauteng – Johannesburg (Swanepoel, 1953); Witpootjie (Swanepoel, 1953); Krugersdorp (Van Son, 1963); Roodepoort (Van Son, 1963).

Free State Province – Harrismith (Van Son, 1963); Golden Gate Highlands National Park (Williams).

KwaZulu-Natal – Balgowan (Swanepoel, 1953); Pietermaritzburg (Swanepoel, 1953); Greytown (Swanepoel, 1953); Estcourt (Trimen & Bowker, 1889); Ladysmith (Swanepoel, 1953); Biggarsberg (Swanepoel, 1953); Howick (Van Son, 1963); Karkloof (Van Son, 1963); Malvern (Van Son, 1963); Curry’s Post (Van Son, 1963); Mount Nquibi (Van Son, 1963).

Eastern Cape Province – Hogsback (Swanepoel, 1953); Elliot (Swanepoel, 1953); Ugie (Swanepoel, 1953); Cala (Swanepoel, 1953); Umzimvubu River (Van Son, 1963); Sogana River (Van Son, 1963).

Lesotho – Orange River (Swanepoel, 1953).

Common name: Orange acraea.

Habitat: Found near marshes and streams, in grassland and savanna, where the adults are closely associated with the larval food-plant.

Habits: Both sexes feed from flowers (Van Son, 1963). Individuals fly slowly and settle frequently, often on the foliage of the larval food-plant, and may bask with opened wings (Pringle et al., 1994).

Flight period: Recorded from October to May. Often, though, they are univoltine, only appearing during February.

Early stages:
Trimen & Bowker, 1889: 398 [as Acraea Anacreon; Estcourt, KwaZulu-Natal].

“In March 1888 I received from Mr. J.M. Hutchinson a number of specimens of the pupa of this species (from larvae collected at Estcourt, Natal), four of which were still alive and yielded the perfect insect. This pupa, though smaller and more slender, is not at all unlike that of A. Horta; the ground being white or creamy, with the outlines of the wings and neuration strongly marked with black, and the abdomen having on each side sub-dorsal and an inferior-lateral continuous chain-like series of orange-yellow spots in black rings. On back, two longitudinal black streaks from head, meeting and thickening on middle of thorax, and thence narrowing to a common terminal point on first abdominal segment. Eye-cases black superiorly; black on wing-cases most strongly developed near apex, along hind-margin, and along line of median nervure and its first nervule. Length, 7-8 lines.”


Clark, in Van Son, 1963: 45; plate XVII.

Egg. Eggs are laid in clusters of from 20 to 80 on a young shoot of the food-plant, generally near the tip. They are pale yellow when laid, changing through light chocolate to dark purple. There are 23-24 longitudinal ribs braced by some 24 double indentations. The eggs are 0.7 mm in diameter by 0.75 mm high, and hatch after 11 days. Larva. There are either six, or seven larval instars. The first instar is 1.5 mm long at hatching, of a pale, almost transparent olive, which changes to yellow with a greenish tint on the leading segments, and dull salmon on the final segments. They feed together under a slight web protection. The instar lasts 7 days and the larvae grow to 3 mm. In the second instar the body is covered with minute hairs; there are two extreme colour forms as well as intermediate ones. One extreme is chocolate, gradually changing to olive with a brownish tint; the protuberances are black with white-tipped brown spines. The other extreme is pale dull yellow throughout, including the protuberances. All larvae in this instar have black heads. The instar lasts some six days and the gregarious larvae grow to 5.5 mm. The variation is more pronounced in the third instar which lasts 7 days, and the larvae grow to 8.5 mm. The fourth instar lasts 6 days in the 6-instar larvae, which grow to 15 mm, while in the 7-instar larvae it lasts 7 days, and the larvae grow to only 13.5 mm. The fifth instar is very much the same as the fourth, and the larvae grow to 22 mm in 6 days (6-instar group), or to 16 mm in 7 days (7-instar group). In the final instar of the 6-instar group, the larvae reach the length of 30 mm in about 12 days, but in the 7-instar group the sixth instar lasts 9 days, and the larvae grow to 20 mm, the final instar taking about another 14 days, the larvae growing to 30 mm. The only difference in the final one or two instars is that the larvae scatter, although they do not move far from each other. Pupa. The pupae are suspended by cremastral hooks and are about 18 mm long. Emergence takes place in 12 to 14 days.”


Larval food:

Cliffortia linearifolia Eckl. and Zeyh. (Rosaceae) [Clark, in Van Son, 1963: 46].

Adenia species (Passifloraceae) [Clark, in Van Son, 1963: 46].

Aeschynomene species (Fabaceae) [Clark, in Van Son, 1963: 46].

Acraea (Actinote) anacreontica Grose-Smith, 1898

Acraea anacreontica Grose-Smith, 1898. Novitates Zoologicae 5: 352 (350-358).

Acraea anacreon anacreonita Grose-Smith, 1898. Ackery et al., 1995: 251.

Acraea anacreonita Grose-Smith, 1898. Henning, 1993: 59.

Type locality: Kenya: “Patsho; Rau, Nandi country”.

Distribution: Kenya, Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Acraea (Actinote) anacreontica anacreontica Grose-Smith, 1898
Acraea anacreontica Grose-Smith, 1898. Novitates Zoologicae 5: 352 (350-358).

Acraea anacreon anacreonita Grose-Smith, 1898. Ackery et al., 1995: 251.

Acraea anacreonita Grose-Smith, 1898. Henning, 1993: 59.

Type locality: Kenya: “Patsho; Rau, Nandi country”.

Distribution: Kenya (west), Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo.
Acraea (Actinote) anacreontica chyulu van Someren, 1939
Acraea anacreon chyulu van Someren, 1939. Journal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural History Society 14: 140 (130-151).

Acraea anacreonita chyulu van Someren, 1939. Henning, 1993: 59.

Type locality: Kenya: “Chyulu hills, 6500 ft.”.

Distribution: Kenya (south-east - Chyulu Hills)

Acraea (Actinote) bomba Grose-Smith, 1889
Acraea bomba Grose-Smith, 1889. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 3: 128 (121-137).

Acraea anacreon bomba Grose-Smith, 1889. Ackery et al., 1995: 251.

Acraea bomba Grose-Smith, 1898. Henning, 1993: 58.

Acraea (Actinote) bomba. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 37mm. Maiwale, Malawi. 11 Dec 87. I. Bampton. (Henning collection - H152).
Type locality: [Kenya]?: “Namoule [in the neighbourhood of Mombasa]”.

Diagnosis: Similar to H. induna from which it differs in the less broadly black forewing apex and the unspotted abdomen in the male (Pringle, et al. 1994).

Distribution: Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe (eastern highlands).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Kitulo Plateau; Ruaha National Park; Rubeho Mountains; Nou Forest in the Mbulu Mountains; Gombe (Kielland, 1990).

Zambia – Mundwiji Plain (Heath, et al., 2002).

Zimbabwe – Mutare; Vumba Mountains (Pringle, et al. 1994).

Common name: Bomba acraea.

Habitat: Grassland and open woodland (Heath, et al., 2002). In Tanzania at altitudes between 1200 and 2600 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits:

Flight period: All year (Pringle, et al. 1994).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Alchemilla gracilipes (Rosaceae) [Kielland, 1990: 151].

Aeschynomene sp. (Fabaceae) [Kielland, 1990: 151]

Adenia sp. (Passifloraceae) [Kielland, 1990: 151].

Wormskioldia sp. (Turneraceae) [Kielland, 1990: 151; as Wormshioldia sp.].

Acraea (Actinote) guichardi Gabriel, 1949
Acraea guichardi Gabriel, 1949. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 18: 208 (207-216).

Type locality: Ethiopia: “W. Abyssinia, Lekempti”.

Distribution: Ethiopia.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea (Actinote) induna Trimen, 1895
Acraea induna Trimen, 1895. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1895: 184 (181-194).

Synonym of Acraea anacreon bomba Grose-Smith, 1889. Ackery et al., 1995: 251.



Acraea induna Trimen, 1895. Henning, G. 1993.

Acraea (Actinote) induna induna. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 49mm. Kitwe, Zambia. 66.04.03. A.I. Curle. (Curle Trust Collection - 56).

Acraea (Actinote) induna induna. Female. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 49mm. Female. Hunyani Riv, Harare, Zimbabwe. 27.iii.1978. R.D. Paré. (Curle Trust Collection - 57).
Type locality: Zimbabwe: “Mashunaland, Salisbury”.

Diagnosis: For comparison see H. bomba.

Distribution: Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, South Africa.

Common name: Induna acraea.

Habitat: Woodland and montane grassland (nominate subspecies); Mountain Sourveld (subspecies salmontana). Heath, et al. (2002) give the habitat as Brachystegia woodland.

Habits: The flight is slow and leisurely. Both sexes feed from flowers. Males patrol rocky ridges. Subspecies salmontana flies on exposed rocky ridges on the highest points of the Zoutpansberg Mountains.

Flight period: The nominate subspecies flies all year. Subspecies salmontana has been recorded from March to May (Pringle, et al. 1994).

Early stages:
Henning, G., in Pringle, et al., 1994: 77 [as Acraea (Actinote) induna; Soutpansberg, Limpopo Province].
Larval food:

Aeschynomene species (Fabaceae) [Pringle, et al., 1994: 77; (Zimbabwe) (ssp induna)].

Aeschynomene nodulosa (Bak.) Bak. f. (Fabaceae) [Henning, G., in Pringle, et al., 1994: 77; Soutpansberg, Limpopo Province (ssp. salmontana)].
Acraea (Actinote) induna induna Trimen, 1895
Acraea induna Trimen, 1895. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1895: 184 (181-194).

Synonym of Acraea anacreon bomba Grose-Smith, 1889. Ackery et al., 1995: 251.



Acraea induna Trimen, 1895. Henning, G. 1993.

Acraea (Actinote) induna induna. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 49mm. Kitwe, Zambia. 66.04.03. A.I. Curle. (Curle Trust Collection - 56).

Acraea (Actinote) induna induna. Female. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 49mm. Female. Hunyani Riv, Harare, Zimbabwe. 27.iii.1978. R.D. Paré. (Curle Trust Collection - 57).
Type locality: Zimbabwe: “Mashunaland, Salisbury”.

Distribution: Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe (eastern highlands).

Specific localities:

Zambia – Ikelenge; 80 km west of Solwezi; Chingola; Mufulira; Kitwe; Ndola; Mkushi; Kapiri Mposhi; Lusaka (Heath, et al., 2002).
Acraea (Actinote) induna salmontana (Henning & Henning, 1996)
Hyalites induna salmontana Henning & Henning, 1996. Metamorphosis 7 (2): 78 (71-80).

Type locality: South Africa: “South Africa: Limpopo Province, Witvlag, Zoutpansberg, 13.iv.1986, G.A. Henning.” Described from 37 males and five females. Holotype in the Transvaal Museum, Pretoria.

Distribution: South Africa (Limpopo Province - Zoutpansberg Mountains).

Conservation status: Classified as vulnerable in the South African Red Data List.

Acraea (Actinote) kaduna Pierre, 1993
Acraea kaduna Pierre, 1993. Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France 98 (3): 288 (287-290).

Type locality: Nigeria: “Kaduna”.

Distribution: Nigeria.

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Kaduna (TL); Sokoto (C. Joly teste Larsen, 2005a)..

Common name: Kaduna acraea.

Habitat: Flood plains and swamps around Kaduna and Zaria in northern Nigeria (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: Known from only a few populations, which are localized and seasonal (Larsen, 2005a). At times it may be numerous (St Leger teste Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea (Actinote) lusinga Overlaet, 1955
Acraea anacreon lusinga Overlaet, 1955. Exploration du Parc National de l’Upemba 27: 79 (1-106).

Acraea anacreon lusinga Overlaet, 1955. Ackery et al., 1995: 251.

Acraea lusinga Overlaet, 1955. Henning, G. 1993: 59.

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Lusinga, 1760 m.”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Haut-Lomani), Tanzania (west), Zambia (west) [distribution according to Kielland, (1990)].

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Ufipa to Mpanda and Kigoma south of the Malagarazi River (Kielland, 1990).

Habitat: Brachystegia woodland, savanna and open habitats (Kielland, 1990). In Tanzania at altitudes from 800 to 1900 m (Kielland, 1990).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Note: Regarded, by Heath et al. (2002), as possibly a synonym of induna Trimen but status not formally revised by these authors.

Acraea (Actinote) mirifica Lathy, 1906
Acraea mirifica Lathy, 1906. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1906: 2 (1-10).

Acraea (Actinote) mirifica. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 38mm. Serenje, Zambia. 19/3/73. M.N. Mitchell. (Henning collection - H155).
Type locality: Angola: “Bihé District”.

Distribution: Angola, Zambia (north), Democratic Republic of Congo (Lualaba).

Specific localities:

Zambia – Ikelenge; Serenje; Mpika; lower Chambeshi Valley (Heath, et al., 2002).

Habitat: Marshy areas.

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea (Actinote) parei (Henning & Henning, 1996)
Hyalites parei Henning & Henning, 1996. Metamorphosis 7 (2): 74 (71-80).
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