Butterflies and skippers of the afrotropical region




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Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea (Actinote) silia Mabille, [1885]
Acraea masamba var. silia Mabille, [1885]. In Grandidier, [1885-7]. Histoire, Physique, Naturelle et Politique de Madagascar 18: 105 (18 [1887]: 364 pp.; 19 [1885]: 55pls.).

Synonym of Acraea masamba Ward, 1872. Ackery et al., 1995.



Acraea (Actinote) silia Mabille, [1885]. Lees et al., 2003.

Type locality: Madagascar.

Distribution: Madagascar.

Habitat: Forest (Lees et al., 2003).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
debilis Oberthür, 1916 (as race of Acraea masamba). Études de Lépidoptérologie Comparée 11: 168 (123-174). Madagascar: “Sainte-Marie-de-Madagascar”. Treated as a synonym of A. masamba by Ackery et al. (1995) but as a synonym of A. silia by Lees et al. (2003).

Acraea (Actinote) masaris Oberthür, 1893
Acraea masaris Oberthür, 1893. Études d’Entomologie 17: 27 (17-36).

Acraea esebria masaris Oberthür, 1893. Ackery et al., 1995: 256.

Acraea masaris Oberthür, 1893. Henning, G. 1993: 54.

Type locality: Comoro Islands: “Iles Comores, Anjouan”.

Distribution: Comoro Islands.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Acraea (Actinote) masaris masaris Oberthür, 1893
Acraea masaris Oberthür, 1893. Études d’Entomologie 17: 27 (17-36).

Acraea esebria masaris Oberthür, 1893. Ackery et al., 1995: 256.

Acraea masaris Oberthür, 1893. Henning, G. 1993: 54.

Type locality: Comoro Islands: “Iles Comores, Anjouan”.

Distribution: Comoro Islands.
Acraea (Actinote) masaris jodina Pierre, 1992
Acraea masaris jodina Pierre, 1992. Entomologiste (Paris) 48 (6): 358 (351-363).

Type locality: Comoro Islands.

Distribution: Comoro Islands.

Acraea (Actinote) necoda Hewitson, 1861
Acraea necoda Hewitson, 1861 in Hewitson, 1857-61. Illustrations of new species of exotic butterflies 2: 39 ([124] pp.). London.

Type locality: Ethiopia: “Abyssinia”.

Distribution: Ethiopia (central and northern plateau).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Urtica species (Urticaceae) [Jiggins et al., 2003].

Acraea (Actinote) obeira Hewitson, 1863
Acraea obeira Hewitson, 1863. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1863: 65 (64-65).

Type locality: Madagascar.

Distribution: Madagascar.

Habitat: Unknown (Lees et al., 2003).

Habits:

Flight period:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
piva Guenée, 1865 (as sp. of Acrea [sic]). In: Vinson, A., Voyage à Madagascar au Couronnement de Radama II 34 (25-48). Paris. Madagascar.
andromba Grose-Smith, 1891 (as sp. of Acraea). Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 7: 124 (122-128). Madagascar.

Acraea (Actinote) burni Butler, 1896
Acraea burni Butler, 1896. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 18: 467 (467).

Acraea obeira burni Butler, 1896. Ackery et al., 1995.

Acraea burni Butler, 1896. Pierre & Bernaud, 1992.

Acraea (Actinote) burni. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 44mm. Louw’s Creek, E. Tvl. 87.10.05. A.I. Curle. (Curle Trust Collection - 54).

Acraea (Actinote) burni. Female. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 47mm. Strijdom ton, Tvl, SA. 5.1.83. H.C. Ficq. (Curle Trust Collection - 55).
Type locality: [South Africa]: “Tugela, Natal”.

Distribution: Malawi (south), Zambia (east), Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia, South Africa (Limpopo Province, Mpumalanga, North West Province, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal), Swaziland.

Specific localities:

Zambia – Chalimbana (White); Kafue Gorge (Dening) (Heath et al., 2002).

Zimbabwe – Matobo Hills (Pinhey); Manyame River; granite outcrops near Harare (Mullin).

Namibia – Haribis, in the Grootfontein district (F. Gaerdes teste Van Son, 1963); Neidaus (G. Meyer teste Van Son, 1963); Abachaus (G. Meyer teste Van Son, 1963); Okosongomingo in the Waterberg (Kroon).

Limpopo Province – Warmbaths (Swanepoel, 1953); Legalameetse Nature Reserve (“Malta Forest”) (Swanepoel, 1953); Chuniespoort (Swanepoel, 1953); Tubex (Swanepoel, 1953); Wyliespoort (Swanepoel, 1953).

Mpumalanga – Waterval Onder (Swanepoel, 1953); Nelspruit (Swanepoel, 1953); Lydenburg district (Swanepoel, 1953); Loskop Dam (Williams).

North West Province – Kgaswane Mountain Reserve (Williams).

Gauteng – Onderstepoort (Swanepoel, 1953).

Swaziland – Mlawula N. R. (www.sntc.org.sz).

Common name: Pale yellow acraea.

Habits: Occurs in localized colonies that appear to be centred on stands of their larval host-plant. Males are known to hilltop (Pringle et al. 1994). The flight is slow and weak and specimens are often seen flying around tree-tops (Van Son, 1963).

Flight period: All year (Pringle et al. 1994).

Early stages:
Clark, in Van Son, 1963: 38; plate XV [Muden, KwaZulu-Natal].

Egg: Eggs are laid in rather disorderly clusters, some being laid on top of others. They are 0.8 mm high and 0.5 mm in diameter. There are 20 longitudinal ribs braced by 18-20 cross ridges which extend three quarters up the sides, then gradually change into indentations. They are pale watery yellow when laid, changing to dull brown with a touch of purple. The eggs hatch after 11 days. Larva: Younf larvae, after hatching, rest a while, then they eat their discrded shells. They rest again, then cluster together and commence feeding side by side. Their droppings are caught up in silk, making a disorderly mess in which they go through their first moult. This is repeated in the second instar. They are gregarious throughout. There are two groups, one taking five instars and the other six. The development proceeds as follows: Five instar group: 1st instar 1.75 mm, growing to 3.5 mm in 7 days; 2nd instar growing to 6.5 mm in 6 days; 3rd instar growing to 11 mm in 5 days; 4th instar growing to 18 mm in 5-6 days; 5th instar growing to 28 mm in 10 days. Six instar group: 1st instar 1.75mm, growing to 3.25 mm in 9 days; 2nd instar growing to 6 mm in 9 days; 3rd instar growing to 10 mm in 8 days; 4th instar growing to 16 mm in 6 days; 5th instar growing to 20 mm in 4 days; 6th instar growing to 28 mm in 6 days. Pupa: Pupae are suspended by cremastral hooks. They are a dull white with dull yellow spots on the dorsum between small moles. The ventral portion is white broken by black-edged salmon spots. The length is 16.5 to 18 mm. The imago emerges after 10 days.”


Pierre and Bernaud, 2002 [Zimbabwe]
Larval food:

Laportea peduncularis (Wedd.) Chew (Urticaceae) [Clark, cited by Van Son, 1963: 39; as Fleurya mitis E. Mey.].

Obetia tenax (N.E. Br.) Friis (Urticaceae) [Clark, cited by Van Son, 1963: 39; as Urera tenax N.E. Br.].

Pouzolzia mixta Solms (Urticaceae) [Dickson & Kroon, 1978; Cottrell and Mullin, cited by Pringle et al., 1994: 76; Harare and Mutare (both Zimbabwe)].
meyeri van Son, 1963 (as ssp. of Acraea obeira). Transvaal Museum Memoires No. 14: 39 (130 pp.). Namibia: “Haribis, Grootfontein dist.”.
meyerana Ackery, 1995 (as replacement name for Acraea (Actinote) obeira meyeri). In Ackery, et al., 1995: 259. Synonymized with H. burni by Pierre & Bernaud (2002: 511).

Acraea (Actinote) oberthueri Butler, 1895
Acraea oberthueri Butler, 1895. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 16: 271 (271).

Type locality: No locality given. ?Cameroon (Larsen, 2005a).

Distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea (Mbini and Bioko), Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo (south and east), Tanzania (west).

Recorded, in error, from Ghana by Ackery et al., 1995 (Larsen, 2005a).



Specific localities:

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Common name: Oberthuer’s acraea.

Habitat: Dense forest and mature secondary growth (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: A fairly common species that keeps to the forest undergrowth, rarely venturing out into the open (Larsen, 2005a). It serves as a model for the female of the lycaenid Mimacraea apicalis (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages:
Bernaud & Pierre, 1997.
Larval food:

Ancistrocarpus densispinosus (Tiliaceae) [Bampton et al., 1991 (Congo); Bernaud & Pierre, 1997].

Grewia species (Tiliaceae) [Bernaud & Pierre, 1997].
confluens Suffert, 1904 (as ssp. of Acraea oberthueri). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 33 (12-107). Cameroon: “Johann-Albrechthöhe, Nord-Camerun; Lolodorf, Süd-Camerun”.
laetopicta Rebel, 1914 (as var. of Acraea oberthueri). Annalen des (K.K.) Naturhistorischen Museums. Wien 28: 233 (219-294). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Urwalde bei Mawamba bis Ukaika”.
confluens Schouteden, 1919 (as var. of Acrea [sic] oberthuri [sic]). Revue Zoologique Africaine 6: 159 (145-162). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Aruwimi”.
ornata Schultze, 1923 In Schultze & Aurivillius, 1923 (as ab. of Acraea oberthueri). Ergebnisse der Zweiten Deutschen Zentral-Afrika Expedition 1(17): 1130 (1113-1242). Cameroon: “Süd-Kamerun, Malén”.
kuntzeni Le Doux, 1923 (as f. of Acraea oberthueri). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1923: 222 (207-226). Cameroon: “Viktoria, Lolodorf, Jabassi und Bipindi, Kamerun”; Gabon: “Gabun”.

Acraea (Actinote) orestia Hewitson, 1874
Acraea orestia Hewitson, 1874. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 11: 131 (130-132).

Type locality: Equatorial Guinea: “Fernando Po”.

Distribution: Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Central African Republic, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania.

Common name: Orestia glassy acraea.

Habitat: Disturbed forest and successional growth (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: Rare west of the Dahomey Gap, becoming commoner in eastern Nigeria (Larsen, 2005a). There are periodic population irruptions (Larsen, 2005a). The flight is weak and low down (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages:
Pierre & Bernaud, 1995.
Larval food:

Laportea (Fleurya) ovalifolia (Urticaceae) [Pierre & Bernaud, 1995].
Acraea (Actinote) orestia orestia Hewitson, 1874
Acraea orestia Hewitson, 1874. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 11: 131 (130-132).

Type locality: Equatorial Guinea: “Fernando Po”.

Diagnosis: Compared to ssp. sambar the ground-colour on the upperside is a darker red-brown; on the hindwing upperside the spots are less well developed and the black marginal band is a little broader (Congdon and Collins, 1998).

Distribution: Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea (Bioko), Gabon, Central African Republic, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Kenya (west), Tanzania (north-west).

Specific localities:

Ivory Coast – Danane (Pierre & Vuattoux, 1978).

Ghana – Atewa Range (Larsen, 2005a); Winneba (Larsen, 2005a); near Kumasi (Larsen, 2005a); Kintampo Falls (Larsen, 2005a); near Ankasa (Larsen, 2005a); Krokosua Hills (Larsen, 2005a).

Nigeria – Lagos (Larsen, 2005a); Oban Hills (Larsen, 2005a); Okwangwo (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Tanzania – Minziro forests; Rumanyika Game Reserve (rare) (Congdon & Collins, 1998).
orestina Plötz, 1880 (as sp. of Acraea). Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung 41: 190 (189-206). Cameroon: “Bojongo (Cameron-Gébirge)”.
transita Eltringham, 1912 (as f. of Acraea orestia). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1912: 307 (1-374). Kenya: “Tiriki Hills”; Uganda: “Entebbe, Damba I.”.
carpenteri Eltringham, 1913 (as f. of Acraea orestia). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1913: 407 (407-413). Uganda: “Mabira Forest”.
moliwensis Strand, 1914 (as ab. of Acraea orestia). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 79 (A.12.): 102 (97-144). Cameroon: “Kamerun: Bibundi; Victoria; Moliwe b. Victoria; Simekoa, Kombokotto; Assaka, Simekoa-Jaundestation”.
acutipennis Schultze, 1923 in Schultze and Aurivillius, 1923 (as sp. of Acraea). Ergebnisse der Zweiten Deutschen Zentral-Afrika Expedition 1(17): 1140 (1113-1242). Cameroon: “Süd-Kamerun, Molundu”.
clara Stoneham, 1943 (as f. of Acraea orestia). Bulletin of the Stoneham Museum (45): 2 (4 pp.). Uganda: “Katera, Uganda Protectorate”.
pseudohumilis Stoneham, 1943 (as f. of Acraea orestia). Bulletin of the Stoneham Museum (45): 2 (4 pp.). Kenya: “Tiriki Hills”; Uganda: “Entebbe, Damba I.”.
Acraea (Actinote) orestia sambar Stoneham, 1943
Acraea sambar Stoneham, 1943. Bulletin of the Stoneham Museum (45): 2 (4 pp.).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Usambara, Tanganyika Territory”.

Distribution: Tanzania (north-east - Usambara Mountains).

Acraea (Actinote) pelopeia Staudinger, 1896
Acraea peneleos form [?] pelopeia Staudinger, 1896. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 9: 199 (193-240).

Type locality: “Congo”.

Distribution: Cameroon, to Democratic Republic of Congo (east), Central African Republic.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
tropicalis Blachier, 1912 (as sp. of Acraea). Bulletin de la Société Lépidoptérologique de Genève 2: 174 (173-177). Gabon: “Ngomo, sur l’Ogoué”.
lineata Aurivillius, 1925 (as var. of Acraea pelopeia). Archiv för Zoologi 17 (A) (32): 4 (20 pp.). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Ituri”.

Acraea (Actinote) peneleos Ward, 1871
Acraea peneleos Ward, 1871. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 8: 60 (34-36, 58-60, 81-82, 118-122).

Type locality: Nigeria: “Old Calabar”.

Distribution: Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Congo, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Kenya, Zambia, Ethiopia.

Common name: Peneleos acraea.

Habitat: Forest, of all types but not degraded forest (Heath et al., 2002; Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: At times common, especially during the dry season, but at other times it is scarce (Larsen, 2005a). Males frequently mudpuddle and both sexes feed from flowers, especially those of Eupatorium (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Urera cordifolia (Urticaceae) [Bernaud, 1995].
Acraea (Actinote) peneleos peneleos Ward, 1871
Acraea peneleos Ward, 1871. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 8: 60 (34-36, 58-60, 81-82, 118-122).

Type locality: Nigeria: “Old Calabar”.

Distribution: Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon (south-west), Equatorial Guinea (Bioko).

Specific localities:

Ghana – Wli Falls (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).
helvimaculata Eltringham, 1912 (as female f. of Acraea peneleos). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1912: 271 (1-374). Nigeria: “Lagos”.
lactimaculata Eltringham, 1912 (as female f. of Acraea peneleos). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1912: 271 (1-374). Equatorial Guinea: “Fernando Po”.
sepia Eltringham, 1912 (as female f. of Acraea peneleos). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1912: 272 (1-374). Equatorial Guinea: “Fernando Po”.
pseudopelasgius Strand, 1914 (as f. of Acraea peneleos). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 79 (A.12.): 103 (97-144). Cameroon?
peneloides Strand, 1914 (as f. of Acraea peneleos). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 79 (A.12.): 104 (97-144). Cameroon?
castanea Schultze, 1923 in Schultze and Aurivillius, 1923 (as female ab. of Acraea peneleos). Ergebnisse der Zweiten Deutschen Zentral-Afrika Expedition 1(17): 1124 (1113-1242). Equatorial Guinea: “Fernando Po”.
strigipygida Birket-Smith, 1960 (as ab. of Acraea peneleos peneleos). Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Afrique Noire (A) 22: 962 (521-554, 924-983, 1259-1284). Cameroon: “French Cameroons, Marak Station”.
Acraea (Actinote) peneleos gelonica Rothschild & Jordan, 1905
Acraea peneleos gelonica Rothschild & Jordan, 1905. Novitates Zoologicae 12: 183 (175-191).

Type locality: Ethiopia: “Upper Gelo River”.

Distribution: Ethiopia (south).
Acraea (Actinote) peneleos pelasgius Grose-Smith, 1900
Acraea pelasgius Grose-Smith, 1900. Novitates Zoologicae 7: 545 (544-547).

Acraea (Actinote) peneleos pelasgius. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 49mm. Mabira For, Uganda. 1 June 73. H. Falke. (Henning collection - H143).
Type locality: Uganda: “Port Alice”.

Distribution: Cameroon (except south-west), Congo, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Kenya (west), Zambia (north-west).

Specific localities:

Zambia – Kasangezhi; Mwinilunga (Heath, et al., 2002).

Acraea (Actinote) pentapolis Ward, 1871
Acraea pentapolis Ward, 1871. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 8: 60 (34-36, 58-60, 81-82, 118-122).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Cameroons”; Nigeria: “Old Calabar”.

Distribution: Cameroon, Gabon, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Mozambique.

Common name: Scarce tree-top acraea; eastern musanga acraea.

Habitat: Forest.

Habits: As the common name indicates, this is a rare acraea of the forest canopy. Specimens fly around the tops of the tallest trees in the forest (Pringle, et al. 1994).

Flight period: All year?

Early stages:
Eltringham, 1912 [for Acraea (Actinote) pentapolis pentapolis; Lagos, Nigeria].

Larva: [Final instar] Upper half dark umber brown with a few irregular dark markings on the upper part of each segment, and a whitish lateral mark on segments 4-12. Head reddish brown with a white, ventrally bifurcated white line. Legs yellow at base, extremities black. Pro-legs yellow. Spines all black. The dorsal pair on segment 2 longer than the rest and somewhat curved. Pupa: Whitish with black lines representing nervures, antennae, legs etc. A ventral, two lateral, and two dorsal rows of segmental black marks, each with a yellowish centre. From the inner or dorsal side of each of these centres in the two dorsal rows of spots, there arises a short black process or spine. The general aspect of the pupa is as variable as that of the imago, sometimes the white and sometimes the black predominating.”


Van Someren & Rogers, 1925: 118 [for Acraea (Actinote) pentapolis pentapolis].

“The eggs are a long oval, slightly more pointed and flattened at the upper end. Faint indications of ribbing and transverse ridges. Larva brownish in first instar, turning reddish brown after the second moult. Underside of body yellowish. A white body line extends from the fourth to the twelfth segment. Head redder than the body, with a white inverted “V” above the mouth-parts. Fore and hind legs yellowish. Spines branched and long. Pupa long, 25 mm, whitish, decorated with nervular black lines on the wing cases, heavy marks on the dorsum of the thorax, raised orange spots on the dorsal and lateral aspects of each abdominal segment, each spot encircled with black.”


Larval food:

Myrianthus holstii (Urticaceae) [Bampton; Tarka Forest, Chimanimani Mountains (Pringle et al., 1994: 76)].
Acraea (Actinote) pentapolis pentapolis Ward, 1871
Acraea pentapolis Ward, 1871. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 8: 60 (34-36, 58-60, 81-82, 118-122).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Cameroons”; Nigeria: “Old Calabar”.

Distribution: Cameroon, Gabon, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Kenya (west).
thelestis Oberthür, 1893 (as sp. of Acraea). Études d’Entomologie 17: 17 (17-36). Gabon.
sjoestedti Bryk, 1917 (as ab. of Acraea pentapolis). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 82 (A.3.): 107 (104-111). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kongo”; Sierra Leone.
Acraea (Actinote) pentapolis epidica Oberthür, 1893
Acraea epidica Oberthür, 1893. Études d’Entomologie 17: 18 (17-36).
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