Butterflies and skippers of the afrotropical region




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Larval food:

Urera cordifolia (Urticaceae) [Bernaud, 1994 (Cameroon); only the broad-leaved montane form of this plant].
Acraea (Actinote) iturina iturina Grose-Smith, 1890
Acraea iturina Grose-Smith, 1890. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1890: 465 (463-473).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Aruwimi”.

Distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon, to Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Tanzania (north-west).

Speciic localities:

Nigeria – Gashaka-Gumpti N.P. (Larsen, 2005a).

Democratic Republic of Congo – Aruwimi (TL).

Tanzania – Kere Hill, Minziro Forest (Congdon & Collins, 1998; a pair).
iturinoides Stoneham, 1936 (as sp. of Acraea). Bulletin of the Stoneham Museum (28): [1] ([2 pp.]). Uganda: “Budongo Forest”.
sinepeduncles Stoneham, 1936 (as f. of Acraea iturina). Bulletin of the Stoneham Museum (28): [2] ([2 pp.]). Uganda: “Budongo Forest”.
albicolor Stoneham, 1943 (as f. of Acraea iturina). Bulletin of the Stoneham Museum (45): 4 (4 pp.). Uganda: “Budongo Forest”.
Acraea (Actinote) iturina kakana Eltringham, 1911
Acraea iturina kakana Eltringham, 1911. Novitates Zoologicae 18: 150 (149-153).

Type locality: Ethiopia: “Adie Kaka, Kaffa”.

Distribution: Ethiopia (south-west).

Specific localities:

Ethiopia – Kaffa (TL); Oumbi Forest (Ungemach, 1932).
infernalis Ungemach, 1932 (as ab. of Acraea kakana). Mémoires de la Société des Sciences Naturelles (et Physiques) du Maroc 32: 82 (1-122). Ethiopia: “Forêt d’Oumbi”.

Acraea (Actinote) jodutta (Fabricius, 1793)
Papilio jodutta Fabricius, 1793. Entomologia Systematica emendata et aucta 3 (1): 175 (488 pp.).

Acraea (Actinote) jodutta jodutta. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 58mm. Kakamega, Kenya, 01.00N-34.00E. 16.I.1995. (Curle Trust Collection - 48).

Acraea (Actinote) jodutta jodutta. Female. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 60mm. Kakamega, Kenya, 01.00N-34.00E. 16.I.1995. (Curle Trust Collection - 49).
Type locality: Ghana: “Ashanti”.

Distribution: Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Sao Tome & Principe, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, Ethiopia.

Recorded, in error, from Senegal by Ackery et al., 1995 (Larsen, 2005a).



Common name: Jodutta acraea.

Habitat: Forest.

Habits: A relatively common butterfly (Larsen, 2005a). The flight is weak and close to the ground. Females looking for oviposition sites, like those of A. epaea, fly very close to the ground (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages:
Bernaud, 2001.
Pierre, Bernaud & Oremans, 2002.
Larval food:

Fleurya species (Urticaceae) [Larsen, 2005a].

Urera species (Urticaceae) [Larsen, 2005a].

Pouzolzia species (Urticaceae) [Larsen, 2005a].

Boehmeria species (Urticaceae) [Larsen, 2005a].
Acraea (Actinote) jodutta jodutta (Fabricius, 1793)
Papilio jodutta Fabricius, 1793. Entomologia Systematica emendata et aucta 3 (1): 175 (488 pp.).

Acraea (Actinote) jodutta jodutta. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 58mm. Kakamega, Kenya, 01.00N-34.00E. 16.I.1995. (Curle Trust Collection - 48).

Acraea (Actinote) jodutta jodutta. Female. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 60mm. Kakamega, Kenya, 01.00N-34.00E. 16.I.1995. (Curle Trust Collection - 49).
Type locality: Ghana: “Ashanti”.

Distribution: Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea (Bioko), Sao Tome & Principe, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan (south), Uganda, Kenya (west), Zambia.

Specific localities:

Guinea – Nimbas (Larsen, 2005a).

Ghana – Ashanti (TL).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).
carmentis Doubleday, 1847 in Doubleday and Westwood, [1846-52] (as sp. of Acraea). The genera of diurnal Lepidoptera, London: pl.19 [1847], 140 [1848] (1: 1-250 pp.; 2: 251-534 pp.). London. Ghana: “Ashanti”.
flava Dewitz, 1879 (as sp. of Acraea). Nova Acta Academiae Caesarea Leopoldino-Carolinae Germanicum Naturae Curiosorum 4 (2): 191 (173-212). “Guinea”; Senegal.
dorotheae Sharpe, 1902 (as sp. of Planema). Entomologist 35: 135 (135). Uganda: “Entebbe”.
interjecta Eltringham, 1912 (as female f. of Acraea jodutta). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1912: 329 (1-374). Kenya: “British E. Africa, Tiriki”.
subfulva Eltringham, 1912 (as female f. of Acraea jodutta). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1912: 329 (1-374). Sierra Leone: “S. Leone”.
castanea Eltringham, 1912 (as female f. of Acraea jodutta). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1912: 329 (1-374). Nigeria: “Lagos, Oni”.
joduttana Strand, 1914 (as f. of Acraea jodutta). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 79 (A.12.): 105 (97-144). Cameroon: “Kamerun: Buea”.
integra Schultze, 1923 in Schultze and Aurivillius, 1923 (as female ab. of Acraea jodutta). Ergebnisse der Zweiten Deutschen Zentral-Afrika Expedition 1(17): 1121 (1113-1242). Cameroon: “Süd-Kamerun, Belun (Randgebirge)”.
Acraea (Actinote) jodutta aethiops Rothschild & Jordan, 1905
Acraea jodutta aethiops Rothschild & Jordan, 1905. Novitates Zoologicae 12: 183 (175-191).

Type locality: Ethiopia: “Dereta Mts., Kaffa; Gamitscha to Anderatscha, Kaffa”.

Distribution: Ethiopia.
clara Ungemach, 1932 (as ab. of Acraea jodutta). Mémoires de la Société des Sciences Naturelles (et Physiques) du Maroc 32: 73 (1-122). Ethiopia: “Oumbi”.

Acraea (Actinote) johnstoni Godman, 1885
Acraea johnstoni Godman, 1885. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1885: 537 (537-541).

Acraea (Actinote) johnstoni. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 59mm. Mafinga. 20.IX.81. A. Heath. (African Butterfly Research Institute, Nairobi).
Type locality: Tanzania: “Kilima-njaro, 5500 ft.”.

Distribution: Sudan (south), Uganda (north), Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Mozambique (west), Zimbabwe (east).

Specific localities:

Zambia – Kalambo Falls (Mbala); Makutu Mountains; Mafinga Mountains (Heath, et al., 2002).

Mozambique – Border Farm, near Penhalonga (Pennington).

Zimbabwe – Mutare (Van Son, 1963); Mount Selinda (Van Son, 1963).

Common name: Johnston’s acraea.

Habitat: Montane forest (Pringle, et al. 1994).

Habits: Flies slowly, often high up, usually settling on the leaves of trees in the forest canopy (Pringle et al. 1994). Often seen feeding from flowers on the edges of forest glades (Van Son, 1963).

Flight period: All year (Pringle et al. 1994).

Early stages:
Van Someren and Rogers, 1926: 243.

Egg. The eggs of this species are like those of A. esebria but are more truncate and are laid on the same food-plant. Larva. The newly emerged larva is blackish brown or olive brown above, with interrupted dorsal and dorso-lateral lines of tawny ochreous. The spiracular line is ochreous outlined below by a broken black line. The spines are long, with fully developed branches. The dorsal and dorso-lateral spines are black, the lateral ones ochreous. Pupa. White or ochreous, with narrow black lines on the wing scutae; black diamond marks on the thorax and black rings containing yellow spots on the dorso-lateral, lateral, and ventral surfaces.”


Pierre and Bernaud, 2003.
Larval food:

Pouzolzia parasitica (Forsk) Schwein. (Urticaceae) [Van Someren & Rogers, 1926: 243].

Urera trinervis (Hochst. Apud. Krauss) Friis and Immelman (Urticaceae) [Bampton, cited by Pringle et al., 1994: 79; (Malawi)].

Laportea species (Urticaceae) [Heath et al., 2002: 43].

Boehmeria sp. (Urticaceae) [Congdon & Bampton, unpublished 2003; Ambangulu, Tanzania].
confusa Rogenhofer, 1891 (as sp. of Planema). In: Baumann, O., Usambara und Seine Nachbargebiete: 326 (321-332). Berlin. Tanzania: “Usangi, Pare; Nyika, Tschagga”.
telekiana Rogenhofer, 1891 (as sp. of Planema). In: Baumann, O., Usambara und Seine Nachbargebiete: 459 (321-332). Berlin. Kenya: “Meru”.
proteina Oberthür, 1893 (as sp. of Acraea). Études d’Entomologie 17: 25 (17-36). Tanzania: “Usambara”.
flavescens Oberthür, 1893 (as var. of Acraea proteina). Études d’Entomologie 17: 26 (17-36). Tanzania: “Mrogoro”.
semialbescens Oberthür, 1893 (as var. of Acraea proteina). Études d’Entomologie 17: 26 (17-36). Tanzania: “Usambara”.
fulvescens Oberthür, 1893 (as var. of Acraea proteina). Études d’Entomologie 17: 26 (17-36). Tanzania: “Usambara”.
semifulvescens Oberthür, 1893 (as var. of Acraea proteina). Études d’Entomologie 17: 26 (17-36). Tanzania: “Usambara”.
octobalia Karsch, 1894 (as sp. of Acraea). Entomologische Nachrichten. Berlin 20: 222 (209-240). Tanzania: “Mpwapwa”.
silvicola Richelmann, 1913 (as sp. of Acraea). Internationale Entomologische Zeitschrift 7: 106 (105-106). Tanzania: “Usambara, Schumewald, 2000 m”.
valdemaculosa Carpenter, 1932 (as f. of Acraea johnstoni). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 80: 255 (251-268). Malawi: “Nyasaland, Mt. Mlanje”.
pretiosa Carpenter, 1932 (as f. of Acraea johnstoni). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 80: 256 (251-268). Malawi: “Mt. Mlanje”; Mozambique: “Port. E. Africa, Mt. Chiperone”.

Acraea (Actinote) toruna Grose-Smith, 1900
Acraea toruna Grose-Smith, 1900. Novitates Zoologicae 7: 546 (544-547).

Acraea johnstoni toruna Grose-Smith, 1900. Ackery et al., 1995: 258.

Acraea toruna Grose-Smith, 1900. Pierre & Bernaud, 2003: 169.

Type locality: Uganda: “Kimbuyu, Toru”.

Distribution: Uganda (south-west), Rwanda, Democratic Republic of Congo (Ituri, Kivu).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
butleri Aurivillius, 1899 in Aurivillius, 1898-9 (as female ab. of Acraea lycoa). Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapakademiens Handlingar 31 (5): 115 (1-561). Uganda: “Ruwenzori”.
butleri Eltringham, 1912 (as ssp. of Acraea johnstoni). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1912: 341 (1-374). Tanzania: “German E. Africa (Urundi)”; Uganda: “(Toro)”.

Acraea (Actinote) kalinzu Carpenter, 1936
Acraea kalinzu Carpenter, 1936. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 5: 162 (162-164).

Type locality: Uganda: “Kalinzu Forest”.

Diagnosis: Smaller than H. iturina with a narrower hindwing marginal band. Males may have a white hindwing patch, as in Acraea leucographa (Congdon and Collins, 1998).

Distribution: Uganda (west), Democratic Republic of Congo (Kivu), Tanzania (north-west).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Kere Hill, Minziro (Kielland, vide Congdon and Collins, 1998).

Habitat: Montane forest (Congdon and Collins, 1998).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
albipicta Carpenter, 1936 (as var. of Acraea kalinzu). Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 5: 163 (162-164). Uganda: “Kalinzu Forest”.

Acraea (Actinote) lia Mabille, 1879
Acraea lia Mabille, 1879. Bulletin de la Société Philomathique de Paris (7) 3: 132 (132-144).

Type locality: [Madagascar.]

Distribution: Madagascar, Comoro Islands (Mayotte, Anjouan).

Habitat: Transformed grasslands (Lees et al., 2003).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea (Actinote) lumiri Bethune-Baker, 1908
Acraea lumiri Bethune-Baker, 1908. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (8) 2: 471 (469-482).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kissegneis to Lumieri, Albert Edward Lake”.

Distribution: Cameroon, to Democratic Republic of Congo (central).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
camerunica Strand, 1914 (as var. of Acraea lumiri). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 79 (A.12.): 99 (97-144). Cameroon: “Kamerun; Simekoa Kombokotto, Assoko Jaundesgebiet”.

Acraea (Actinote) lycoa Godart, 1819
Acraea lycoa Godart, 1819 in Latreille and Godart, [1819], [1824]. Encyclopédie Méthodique. Histoire Naturelle [Zoologie] 9 Entomologie: 239 (1-328 [1819], 329-828 [1824]). Paris.

Acraea (Actinote) lycoa. Female. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 48mm. Hillwood, Ikelenge, Zambia. 25.III.77. A. Heath. (African Butterfly Research Institute, Nairobi).
Type locality: [West Africa]: “Afrique”.

Distribution: Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea (Bioko), Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia.

Specific localities:

Ghana – Shai Hills, Accra Plain (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Zambia – Kakoma; Sakeji River; Hillwood Farm (Ikelenge); Kanyita Stream (Mwinilunga) (Heath, et al., 2002).

Common name: Lycoa acraea.

Habitat: Forest, including dry and somewhat degraded forest (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: This is a seasonally common species, which flies low down and weakly. Both sexes come to flowers in open places (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages:
Pierre and Bernaud, 2003: 419.
Larval food:

Theobroma cacao (Theobromaceae) [Smith, 1965 (Ghana)].

Pouzolzia guineensis (Urticaceae) [Owen, 1971 (Sierra Leone)].

Pouzolzia parasitica (Forsk) Schwein. (Urticaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 322].

Aneleima species (Commelinaceae) [Pierre & Vuattoux, 1978 (Ivory Coast)].

Fleurya species (Urticaceae) [Pierre & Vuattoux, 1978 (Ivory Coast) (in captivity)].
fallax Rogenhofer, 1891 (as sp. of Planema). Annalen des (K.K.) Naturhistorischen Museums. Wien 6: 459 (455-466). Type locality: Kenya: “Taveta”. [Treated as a subspecies of H. lycoa by Ackery et al., 1995. Synonymized with Acraea (Actinote) lycoa by Pierre & Bernaud, 2003].

kilimandjara Oberthür, 1893 (as sp. of Acraea). Études d’Entomologie 17: 26 (17-36). Tanzania: “Kilimandjaro”.
aequalis Rothschild & Jordan. 1905 (as ssp. of Acraea lycoa). Novitates Zoologicae 12: 184 (175-191). Type locality: Ethiopia: “Dereta Mts., Kaffa”. [Synonymized with Acraea (Actinote) lycoa by Pierre & Bernaud, 2003].
bukoba Eltringham, 1911 (as ssp. of Acraea lycoa). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1911: 12 (1-15). Burundi: “Urundi Country between L. Tanganyka and L. V. Nyanza”. [Invalid; junior primary homonym of Acraea terpsichore var. bukoba Weymer, 1903 [Acraeinae].]
entebbia Eltringham, 1911 (as ssp. of Acraea lycoa). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1911: 12 (1-15). Type locality: Uganda: “Unyoro, Entebbe”. [Synonymized with Acraea (Actinote) lycoa by Pierre & Bernaud, 2003].
kenia Eltringham, 1911 (as ssp. of Acraea lycoa). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1911: 13 (1-15). Type locality: Kenya: “Mount Kenia, Kikuyu Escarpment”. [Synonymized with Acraea (Actinote) lycoa by Pierre & Bernaud, 2003].
media Eltringham, 1911 (as ssp. of Acraea lycoa). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1911: 12 (1-15). Type locality: Cameroon: “Bonge, Itoki, Kitta”. [Synonymized with Acraea (Actinote) lycoa by Pierre & Bernaud, 2003].
tirika Eltringham, 1911 (as ssp. of Acraea lycoa). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1911: 13 (1-15). Type locality: Kenya: “Eastern shore of L. V. Nyanza, Tiriki Hills”. [Synonymized with Acraea (Actinote) lycoa by Pierre and Bernaud, 2003].
eltringhami Schouteden, 1919 (as f. of Acraea lycoa). Revue Zoologique Africaine 6: 162 (145-162). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Au kilomètre 209 de Kindu”. [Infrasubspecific as originally proposed and unavailable as a species-group name being a homonym of Acraea eltringhami Joicey & Talbot.]
praelongata Joicey & Talbot, 1927 (as female f. of Acraea johnstoni). Encyclopédie Entomologique (B.3. Lepidoptera) 2: 13 (1-14). Democratic Republic of Congo: “S.E. Congo; S. Lufonso River, Lake Mweru district”.
mediafra Stoneham, 1936 (as [unnecessary] replacement name for Acraea lycoa media Eltringham). Bulletin of the Stoneham Museum (28): [2] ([2 pp.]).
bipunctata Dufrane, 1945 (as ab. of Acraea lycoa bukoba). Bulletin et Annales de la Société Royale Entomologique de Belgique 81: 107 (90-143). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Maperonga”.
stonehami d'Abrera, 1980 (as ssp. of Acraea lycoa). Butterflies of the Afrotropical region 135 (593 pp.). Melbourne. Type locality: Burundi: “Urundi Country between L. Tanganyka and L. V. Nyanza”. [Synonymized with Acraea (Actinote) lycoa by Pierre & Bernaud, 2003].
praelongata Hancock & Heath, 1988 (as ssp. of Acraea johnstoni). Entomologists’ Record and Journal of Variation 100: 138 (137-140). Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “S. Lufonso R., Lake Mweru district, SE Zaire”. [Given as Acraea (Actinote) johnstoni praelongata in Ackery et al., 1995: 257. Transferred to H. lycoa (Godart, 1819) by Heath et al., 2002: vii, 43. Pierre & Bernaud (2003: 167), obviously unaware of Heath et al.’s treatment, synonymized praelongata with johnstoni. All subspecies synonymized with Acraea (Actinote) lycoa by Pierre & Bernaud, 2003].
albimaculosa Hancock & Heath, 1988 (as female f. of Acraea johnstoni praelongata). Entomologists’ Record and Journal of Variation 100: 138 (137-140). Zambia: “Mwinilunga, N. Rhodesia”.
kindua Ackery, 1995 (as replacement name for eltringhami Schouteden, 1919). In: Ackery et al., 1995: 258. Democratic Republic of Congo: “Au kilomètre 209 de Kindi”. Synonymized with praelongata Hancock & Heath, 1988 by Heath et al., 2002: vii, 43.

Acraea (Actinote) masamba Ward, 1872
Acraea masamba Ward, 1872. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 9: 3 (2-3).

Type locality: Madagascar.

Distribution: Madagascar.

Habitat: Forest (Lees et al., 2003).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
ruepelli Saalmuller, 1878 (as sp. of Acraea). Bericht über die Senckenbergischen Naturforschen Gesellschaft 1878: 80 (71-96). Madagascar: “Madagaskar”.
boseae Saalmuller, 1880 (as sp. of Acraea). Bericht über die Senckenbergischen Naturforschen Gesellschaft 1880: 259 (258-310). Madagascar: “Madagaskar”.
vulgaris Oberthür, 1916 (as race? of Acraea masamba). Études de Lépidoptérologie Comparée 11: 168 (123-174). Madagascar: “Fénérive”.
torquata Le Cerf, 1927 (as f. of Acraea masamba). Encyclopédie Entomologique (B. 3. Lepidoptera) 2: 57 (44-58). Madagascar: “Madagascar (? region de Tamatavo)”.

Acraea (Actinote) siliana Oberthür, 1916
Acraea siliana Oberthür, 1916. Études de Lépidoptérologie Comparée 11: 160 (123-174).

Synonym of Acraea masamba Ward, 1872. Ackery et al., 1995.



Acraea (Actinote) siliana Oberthür, 1916. Lees et al., 2003.

Type locality: Madagascar: “Antakares (Isokitra á Diègo-Suarez), Nord-Madagascar”.

Distribution: Madagascar.

Habitat: Forest (Lees et al., 2003).
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