Butterflies and skippers of the afrotropical region




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Larval food:

Hermannia species (Sterculiaceae) [Harford, in Trimen & Bowker, 1887, Vol. 1: 172].

Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq. (Tiliaceae) [Fawcett, 1901?; Van Someren, 1974: 323; Pierre & Vuattoux, 1978 (Ivory Coast); Jiggins et al., 2003 (Uganda)].

Triumfetta annua L. (Tiliaceae) [Swynnerton, cited by Platt, 1921].

Triumfetta pilosa Roth. var. pilosa (Tiliaceae) [Swynnerton, cited by Platt, 1921].

Triumfetta pilosa Roth. var. effusa (E. Mey. ex Harv.) Wild. (Tiliaceae) [Swynnerton, cited by Platt, 1921].

Tectona grandis (Verbenaceae) [Roberts, 1969].

Gmelina arbora (Verbenaceae) [Roberts, 1969].

Cordia milleri (Ehretiaceae) [Roberts, 1969].

Triumfetta macrophylla Schum. (Tiliaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 323].

Melochia melissifolia (Sterculiaceae) [Pierre & Vuattoux, 1978 (Ivory Coast)].

Waltheria indica (Sterculiaceae) [Pierre & Vuattoux, 1978 (Ivory Coast)].

Dombeya species (Sterculiaceae) [Ackery et al., 1995].

Hibiscus species (Malvaceae) [Ackery et al., 1995].

Sida species (Malvaceae) [Ackery et al., 1995].

Nicotiana species (Solanaceae) [Ackery et al., 1995].

Corchorus species (Sterculiaceae) [Pierre & Bernaud, 1999].

Triumfetta glechomifolia (Tiliaceae) [Congdon & Bampton, unpublished 2003; Kisolanza, Iringa, Tanzania].

Tilia cordata Mill. (Tiliaceae) (exotic) [Jiggins et al., 2003; in captivity].
eponina Cramer, [1780]. in Cramer, [1779-80]. Die Uitlandsche Kapellen voorkomende in de drie waerrelddeelen Asia, Africa en America 3: 138 (176 pp.). Amsteldam & Utrecht. Synonymized with A. serena (Fabricius, 1775) by Pierre & Bernaud, 1999.
janisca Godart, 1819 in Latreille and Godart, [1819], [1824] (as sp. of Acraea). Encyclopédie Méthodique. Histoire Naturelle [Zoologie] 9 Entomologie: 233 (1-328 [1819], 329-828 [1824]). Paris. “Afrique”.
manjaca Boisduval, 1833 (as sp. of Acraea). Nouvelles Annales du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris 2: 33? (149-270). Madagascar: “Tintingue, Tamatave, Féneriffe et Sainte-Marie”.
rougetii Guérin-Méneville, 1849 (as var. of Acraea serena). In: Lefebrve, T., Voyage en Abyssinie (4) 6 (Zooologie): 368 (364-386). Ethiopia: “Abyssinie”.
buxtoni Butler, 1875 (as sp. of Telchinia). Annals and Magazine of Natural History (4) 16: 395 (394-420). South Africa: “Cape of Good Hope”.
perrupta Butler, 1883 (as sp. of Telchinia). Annals and Magazine of Natural History (5) 12: 102 (101-107). “Victoria Nyanza”.
subserena Grose-Smith, 1900 (as sp. of Acraea). Novitates Zoologicae 7: 544 (544-547). Sierra Leone.
venturina Thurau, 1904 (as ab. of Acraea terpsichore). Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 48: 303 (301-314). Uganda.
connexa Thurau, 1904 (as ab. of Acraea terpsichore). Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 48: 304 (301-314). Tanzania: “Nguruman”.
excentrica Thurau, 1904 (as ab. of Acraea terpsichore). Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 48: 304 (301-314). Tanzania: “Langenburg”.
intermediana Strand, 1911 (as sp. of Acraea). Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 5: 283 (275-304). Tanzania: “Lidenge am Mnjera, Mahenge, Mkamba”.
contraria Strand, 1912 (as ab. of Acraea terpsichore rougeti). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 78 (A.1.): 81 (67-92). Tanzania: “Morogoro”.
eliana Strand, 1912 (as sp. of Acraea). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 77 (1.4. Supplementhefte): 87 (87-94). Ethiopia: “Eli”.
toka Strand, 1912 (as ab. of Acraea eliana). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 77 (1.4. Supplementhefte): 87 (87-94). Ethiopia: “Eli”.
janiscella Strand, 1913 (as ab. of Acraea terpsichore). Revue de Zoologie Africaine 2: 480 (479-481). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kongo, Nouvelle-Anvers”.
akoafima Le Doux, 1928 (as female f. of Acraea eponina eponina). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1928: 105 (97-115). Cameroon: “Akoafima, Kamerun”.
latifasciata Le Doux, 1928 (as female f. of Acraea eponina eponina). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1928: 105 (97-115). Gabon: “Gabun”.
reducta Le Doux, 1928 (as f. of Acraea eponina manjaca). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1928: 105 (97-115). Tanzania: “Kilmatinde, Nyassa See”.
jordani Le Doux, 1928 (as sp. of Acraea). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1928: 106 (97-115). Ethiopia: “Djakorssa, Djimma”.
bankoides Carpenter, 1935 (as ab. of Acraea terpsichore). Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 83: 384 (313-447). Ethiopia: “Shoa Gimira Province”.
subjanisca Dufrane, 1945 (as female ab. of Acraea terpsichore buxtoni). Bulletin et Annales de la Société Royale Entomologique de Belgique 81: 109 (90-143). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kamituga”.

Acraea (Actinote) esebria Hewitson, 1861

Acraea esebria Hewitson, 1861 in Hewitson, 1857-61. Illustrations of new species of exotic butterfies 2: 40 ([124] pp.). London.

Acraea (Actinote) esebria. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 54mm. Muden, Natal. 12.5.63. H. Cookson. (Transvaal Museum - TM3508).
Type locality: South Africa: “Natal”.

Distribution: Sudan (south), Kenya (east of the Rift Valley), Tanzania, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo (Lualaba, Bas-Fleuve, Tshopo), Malawi, Zambia (north-west and Copperbelt), Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Namibia (Caprivi), South Africa (Limpopo Province, Mpumalanga, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape Province), Swaziland (Duke, et al., 1999).

Specific localities:

Zambia – Kasangezhi; Mwinilunga; Mufulira; Mokambo (Heath, et al., 2002).

Mozambique – Amatongas forest (Van Son, 1963); Dondo (Van Son, 1963); Busi River (Van Son, 1963).

Zimbabwe – Mutare (Van Son, 1963); Mount Selinda (Van Son, 1963).

Namibia – Katima Mulilo (Pringle, et al. 1994).

Limpopo Province – Legalameetse Nature Reserve (“Malta Forest”) (Swanepoel, 1953); Woodbush (Swanepoel, 1953); Sibasa (Swanepoel, 1953); Entabeni Forest (Swanepoel, 1953); Louis Trichardt (Swanepoel, 1953); Saltpan (Swanepoel, 1953); Letaba (Van Son, 1963).

Mpumalanga – Barberton (Swanepoel, 1953); Graskop (Swanepoel, 1953); Sabie (Swanepoel, 1953); Marieps Kop (Swanepoel, 1953); Malelane (Van Son, 1963); Buffelskloof Nature Reserve (Williams).

KwaZulu-Natal – Oribi Gorge (Swanepoel, 1953); Umkomaas (Swanepoel, 1953); Durban (Swanepoel, 1953); Pietermaritzburg (Swanepoel, 1953); Eshowe (Swanepoel, 1953); St Lucia Bay (Swanepoel, 1953); Port Shepstone (Van Son, 1963); Isipingo (Van Son, 1962); Sarnia (Van Son, 1963); Dukuduku Forest (Van Son, 1963); Hluhluwe (Van Son, 1963); Muden (H. Cookson).

Eastern Cape Province – King William’s Town (Swanepoel, 1953); East London (Swanepoel, 1953); Butterworth (Swanepoel, 1953); Bashee River (Swanepoel, 1953); Port St Johns (Swanepoel, 1953); Ngqeleni (Van Son, 1963); Embotyi Forest (Van Son, 1963); Lusikisiki (Van Son, 1963); Umsikaba (Van Son, 1963).

Swaziland – Mlawula N. R. (www.sntc.org.sz).

Common name: Dusky acraea.

Habitat: Coastal and submontane forest (Van Son, 1963).

Habits: Flies slowly in forest glades and along forest edges, settling frequently (Pringle et al. 1994). It often flies together with Acraea aganice (Van Son, 1963). Both sexes are fond of flowers, both those growing low down as well as high up in flowering trees (Van Son, 1963).

Flight period: All year (Van Son, 1963).

Early stages:
Trimen & Bowker, 1887, Vol. 1: 178 [as Planema Esebria (Hewitson); King William's Town, Eastern Cape].

Larva. About 1¼ inches long. Pale ochreous-brown; each segment (except head and segment next to it) banded transversely and centrally with a black streak edged on both sides with a pale-yellow streak. A lateral stripe of the same pale-yellow. Head black. Second, twelfth, and thirteenth segments each with two black spines; third and fourth segments each with two pairs of black spines; each of the remaining segments with four black spines springing from central black streak, and two lateral pale-yellow spines. On a species of Fleurya, in February and March. (Plate I fig. 2). Pupa. About ¾ inch long. Chalky-white, with a faint yellowish tinge. A series of very fine linear black markings along dorso-thoracic ridge. Antennae and wing-nervues faintly indicated by delicate linear black markings. Five rows of abdominal black spots, viz., two dorsal, two lateral, and one ventral; these markings are sometimes slightly tinged with orange, and the dorsal ones on the first three segments of the abdomen are conspicuously orange, black-edged, tubercular, and pointed. At anal extremity three looped black marks. Head very slightly bifid. Thorax prominently angulated at bases of wing-covers, and with a pair of smaller projections posteriorly. Duration of pupal state eight days. (Plate I fig. 2a). Mr. J.P. Mansel Weale, from whose drawings and notes the foregoing descriptions of the larva and pupa are drawn up, writes that in some specimens kept in a dark box all the resulting pupae were pale-ochreous, with the black and orange markings much intensified. Of seven imagines bred in 1873, Mr Weale wrote that the first, second, and sixth that came out were of the form with all the bands yellow; the fourth with yellow bands, except the subapical bar of the fore-wings, which was white; the fifth with all the bands white; and the third and seventh with brick-red bands and yellow subapical forewing bar.”


Van Someren and Rogers, 1926, No. 27: 240.

“The eggs of this species are laid in groups on the undersurface of the leaves of Pouzolzia parasitica Schweinfurt. (Urticaceae), a plant which grows on the borders of open areas of forest where there is sufficient moisture and shade. The larvae are at first olive-brown but at the second moult olive subsequently changing to olive-ochreous with, at the centre of each segment, a black vertical line outlined with ochreous and brown. A wide spiracular of ochreous runs the length of the body from the second to the penultimate segment. From this is a narrow interrupted black line; lower surface of the body, brownish olive. Head brownish black with a V-shaped central mark. Spines long and black except those on the body line, these are ochreous. Pupa: Elongate, white, or ochreous, with black lines on the wing cases and thorax, two containing chains of black marks dorso-laterally and ventrally run the length of the abdomen, each “link” with a pale yellowish or orange central spot.”


Clark, in Van Son, 1963: 60, plate XX.

Egg: The eggs are laid in clusters on the underside of a leaf of the food-plant. They vary slightly in size, but average 0.5 mm in diameter by 0.95 mm high, with 14 to 16 longitudinal ridges cross-braced by from 16 to 18 transverse ribs; pale watery yellow, whitening at the extremities; the top is flat. The larva hatches after 13 days. Larva: The young larvae devour the discarded shells after a rest, and after a further rest gather together and feed on the surface of the leaf; their excreta are caught up in a web and form a protective shelter. The larvae are gregarious until the penultimate instar. There are five larval instars, the development proceeding as follows: 1st instar 1.75mm, growing to 3.5 mm in 6 days; 2nd instar growing to 6.5 mm in 6 days; 3rd instar growing to 11 mm in 6 days; 4th instar growing to 16 mm in 8 days; 5th instar growing to 29 to 33 mm in 9 days. Pupa: The pupa is secured by cremastral hooks only and hangs downwards. It is whitish with rows of black-edged salmon spots, and is 19 to 20 mm long, the female being the larger. The imago emerges after 8 to 14 days.”


Larval food:

Laportea species (Urticaceae) [Mansel Weale, in Trimen & Bowker, 1887, Vol. 1: 178; King William's Town, Eastern Cape; as Fleurya species].

Urtica species (Urticaceae) [Fawcett].

Urera trinervis (Hochst. Apud Krauss) Friis and Immelman (Urticaceae) [Green, cited by Platt, 1921; as U. cameroonensis Wedd.].

Pouzolzia parasitica (Forssk.) Schweinf. (Urticaceae) [Van Someren & Rogers, 1926].

Fleurya mitis Wedd. (Urticaceae) [Clark, cited by Van Son, 1963: 61].

Pouzolzia procridioides Wedd. (Urticaceae) [Clark, cited by Van Son, 1963: 61].

Obetia tenax (N.E. Br.) Friis (Urticaceae) [Clark, cited by Van Son, 1963; as Urera tenax N.E. Br.].

Laportea peduncularis (Wedd.) Chew (Urticaceae) [Dickson & Kroon, 1978].

Urera hypselodendron (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Wedd. (Urticaceae) [Mullin, cited by Pringle, et al., 1994: 78].

Pouzolzia mixta (Urticaceae) [Nicholls, 1995].

Boehmeria species (Urticaceae) [Heath, et al., 2002: 44].
protea Trimen, 1862 (as sp. of Acraea). Rhopalocera Africae Australis Part 1. Papilionidae, Pieridae, Danaidae, Acraeidae, and Nymphalidae 110 (190 pp.). Cape Town. South Africa: “Natal; King William’s Town, Port Natal”.
metaprotea Butler, 1874 (as sp. of Planema). Cistula Entomologica 1: 211 (209-217). Angola: “Ambriz”.
monteironis Butler, 1874 (as sp. of Planema). Cistula Entomologica 1: 211 (209-217). Angola: “Ambriz and Bembe”.
arctifascia Butler, 1874 (as sp. of Planema). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1874: 427 (423-436). Angola.
pseudoprotea Butler, 1874 (as sp. of Planema). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1874: 428 (423-436). Angola.
amphiprotea Butler, 1874 (as sp. of Planema). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1874: 428 (423-436). Angola.
jacksoni Sharpe, 1890 (as sp. of Planema). Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 5: 335 (335-336). Kenya: “Kibwezi”.
ertli Aurivillius, 1904 (as sp. of Acraea). Entomologisk Tidskrift 25: 94 (92-96). Tanzania: “Deutsch Ost-Afrika; West Usambara”.
nubilata Eltringham, 1912 (as female f. of Acraea esebria). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1912: 334 (1-374). South Africa: “E. Central Zululand, Llabisa”.
inaureata Eltringham, 1912 (as female f. of Acraea jodutta). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1912: 334 (1-374). Malawi: “Nr. Florence Bay”.
kibwezia Strand, 1913 (as f. of Acraea esebria). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 79 (A.6.): 116 (112-113). Kenya: “Kibwezi in Britisch Ost-Afrika”.
actinotis Neustetter, 1916 (as var. of Acraea esebria). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 30: 98 (95-108). Tanzania: “Aruscha, D. O. Afrika”.
swynnertoni O’Neal, 1919 (as f. of Acraea esebria). Proceedings and Transactions of the Rhodesia Scientific Association 17: 62 (25-65). Zimbabwe: “Umtali, Chirinda”.
victoris Poulton, 1927 (as female f. of Acraea esebria). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of London 2: 8 (5-10). Kenya: “Nairobi”.
flavibrunnea Stoneham, 1943 (as f. of Acraea esebria). Bulletin of the Stoneham Museum (45): 1 (4 pp.). Kenya: “Kenya Colony, Kijabe”.
pallidibrunnea Stoneham, 1943 (as f. of Acraea esebria). Bulletin of the Stoneham Museum (45): 1 (4 pp.). Uganda: “Mukombo, Uganda Protectorate”.

Acraea (Actinote) excelsior Sharpe, 1891
Acraea excelsior Sharpe, 1891. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1891: 192 (187-194).

Type locality: Kenya: “Kikuyu”.

Distribution: Kenya, Tanzania.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Triumfetta macrophylla Schum. (Tiliaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 323].
Acraea (Actinote) excelsior excelsior Sharpe, 1891
Acraea excelsior Sharpe, 1891. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1891: 192 (187-194).

Type locality: Kenya: “Kikuyu”.

Distribution: Kenya (central), Tanzania (south).
Acraea (Actinote) excelsior usambarae Jackson, 1951
Acraea excelsior usambarae Jackson, 1951. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 20: 103 (91-105).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Usambara Mts”.

Distribution: Tanzania (north-east - Usambara Mountains).

Acraea (Actinote) fornax Butler, 1879
Acraea fornax Butler, 1879. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (5) 4: 230 (227-246).

Type locality: Madagascar: “Fianarantsoa”.

Distribution: Madagascar.

Habitat: Forest (Lees et al., 2003).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
smithi Mabille, 1880 (as sp. of Acraea). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (5) 9: 341 (291-348). Madagascar.
blachieri Oberthür, 1916 (as var. of Acraea fornax). Études de Lépidoptérologie Comparée 11: 156 (123-174). Madagascar: “Antsianaka”.

Acraea (Actinote) goetzei Thurau, 1903
Acraea goetzei Thurau, 1903. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 48: 132 (117-143).

Acraea (Actinote) goetzei. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 40mm. Zomba, Malawi. 27.4.96. N.K.O.J. (Curle Trust Collection - 50).

Acraea (Actinote) goetzei. Female. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 47mm. Zomba, Malawi. 29.v.1978. R.J. Mijburgh. (Curle Trust Collection - 51).
Type locality: “Nyssa-See”.

Distribution: Malawi (south), Zambia (east), Tanzania (south and west), Uganda (south-west), Rwanda, Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo (south Kivu), Zimbabwe (Honde Valley - single record).

Specific localities:

Malawi – Mount Mlanje (Pringle, et al. 1994).

Zambia – Mbala; Nyika; Makutu Mountains (Heath, et al., 2002).

Zimbabwe – Honde Valley (Gallagher; single record).

Habitat: Montane forest (Heath, et al., 2002). Gifford (1965) records it from the fringes of montane forest and, less commonly, in submontane situations.

Habits:

Flight period: All year, being commonest from March to June (Pringle, et al. 1994).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq. (Tiliaceae) [Congdon, cited by Kielland, 1990].
byatti Neave, 1904 (as sp. of Acraea). Novitates Zoologicae 11: 328 (323-363). Malawi: “Dedza, Angoniland”.

Acraea (Actinote) grosvenori Eltringham, 1912
Acraea grosvenori Eltringham, 1912. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1912: 276 (1-374).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Rutschuru R., S. of Albert Nyanza”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (east - north Kivu), Uganda (west).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea (Actinote) hecqui Berger, 1981
Acraea hecqui Berger, 1981. Les Papillons du Zaire 201 (543 pp.). Bruxelles.

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kivu-Sud: Musisi-Kahusi”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (south Kivu).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea (Actinote) humilis Sharpe, 1897
Acraea humilis Sharpe, 1897. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 19: 582 (581-582).

Type locality: Uganda: “Ntebe”.

Distribution: Uganda, Kenya (west), Tanzania (north-west).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Kere Hill, Minziro (Congdon and Collins, 1998; single male).

Habitat: Forest.

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea (Actinote) insularis Sharpe, 1893
Acraea insularis Sharpe, 1893. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1893: 555 (553-558).

Type locality: Sao Tome and Principe: “St. Nicolau”.

Distribution: Sao Tome and Principe (island of Sao Tome).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea (Actinote) iturina Grose-Smith, 1890
Acraea iturina Grose-Smith, 1890. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1890: 465 (463-473).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Aruwimi”.

Distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon, to Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Tanzania, Ethiopia.

Common name: Ituri glassy acraea.

Habitat: Forest at altitudes of 900 to 2 000 m (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: Usually found in high density localized populations. The larval food-plant grows mainly in small clearings along streams (Larsen, 2005a). Tends to fly high up in the trees (Congdon & Collins, 1998).

Early stages:
Bernaud, 1994d [(Cameroon)].
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