Butterflies and skippers of the afrotropical region




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Guilbot & Pierre, 1978.



Owen & Smith, 1993.
Bernaud, 2000a.
Jiggins et al., 2003: 70.

The eggs are laid in 2 to 3 layers, touching one another. Mean clutch size is 106 (n=4).


Larval food:

Desmodium salicifolium Poir (Fabaceae) [Pierre & Vuattoux, 1978 (Ivory Coast); Jiggins et al., 2003 (Uganda)].
alcippina Aurivillius, 1899 in Aurivillius, 1898-9 (as ab. of Acraea encedon). Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapakademiens Handlingar 31 (5): 111 (1-561). Cameroon: “Kamerun”.
radiata Aurivillius, 1905 (as ab. of Acraea encedon). Arkiv för Zoologi 2 (12): 4 (47 pp.) Cameroon: “Adamaua”.
dairalcippa Le Doux, 1923 (as female f. of Acraea encedon). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1923: 216 (207-226). Tanzania: “Insel Ukerewe (Deutsch-Ostafrika)”.
micropunctata Le Doux, 1931 (as f. of Acraea encedon). Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 17: 263 (239-272). Liberia: “Hinterland von Liberia”.
macropunctata Le Doux, 1931 (as f. of Acraea encedon). Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 17: 264 (239-272). Zambia: “Chisi-Insel, Lake Bangweolo, NO-Rhodesia”.
radiofasciata Stoneham, 1943 (as replacement name for Acraea encedon ab. radiata Aurivillius). Bulletin of the Stoneham Museum (45): 2 (4 pp.).
dairana Pierre, 1976 (as morph [female] of Acraea encedana). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (N.S.) 12: 632 (621-638). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Rutschuru Plain”.

Acraea (Actinote) encedon (Linnaeus, 1758)
Papilio encedon Linnaeus, 1758. Systema Naturae 1, Regnum Animale, 10th edition: 488 (824 pp.). Holmiae.

Acraea (Actinote) encedon encedon. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 51mm. Isipingo, Nat. September, 1944. (Transvaal Museum - TM3514).

Acraea encedon encedon. Female. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 48mm. La Lucia, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. March, 2000. M.C. Williams (Williams collection).
Type locality: [Africa]: “Indiis”. [False locality.]

Distribution: Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, to Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland (Duke et al., 1999), Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Comoro Islands, Madagascar.

Common name: Common mimic acraea; white-barred acraea (Pringle, et al. 1994); encedon acraea (Larsen, 2005a).

Habitat: Mainly in savannas but also in clear-felled areas in the forest zone (Larsen, 2005a). In Madagascar in forest margins and anthropogenic environments (Lees et al., 2003).

Habits: A common butterfly (Larsen, 2005a). Specimens fly slowly and settle on low vegetation. Males frequently hilltop (Pringle et al. 1994) but also show patrolling behaviour on the flats (Larsen, 2005a). They are inordinately fond of flowers (Larsen, 2005a). The amazing phenomenon of all-female broods in this species is dealt with in a number of papers by Jiggins and co-workers, from the late 1990’s, onwards.

Flight period: All year (Pringle et al. 1994).

Early stages:
Fawcett, 1901: 294. (Trans Zool. Soc. Lond.)
Van Someren & Rogers, 1926: 73 (ssp. encedon).
Clark, in Van Son, 1963: 66; plate XXI (ssp. encedon).

Egg. The eggs are laid in clusters of from 50 to 500 each. They average 0.5 mm in diameter by 0.75 mm high, and have 18-19 longitudinal ribs braced by some 14 cross-ribs. The top of the egg is flat, and the bracing breaks up into a reticulate pattern over the top. Pale whitish yellow at first, they only darken slightly with time. They hatch in about 14 days. Larva. 1st instar: The young larvae eat their way out near the top, and, after a rest, eat the discarded shells. Any eggs left in hatching are liable to be eaten. On hatching the young larvae are 1.25 mm long. They rest a while, then gather together and commence to feed on the surface of the leaf. The black setae are withour barbs and have a slight blob on the end; this is transparent and gives the impression of the tip being split. The larvae spin a mat over the leaf, to which their excerta cling, making a protective, though filthy, cache. The larvae grow to 2.75-3 mm in 6 days. Moulting takes place where they are feeding. In the 2nd instar the protuberances take quite an appreciable time to expand and seem to be forced out by the larvae, then harden. The body is covered with a fine fur. The instar lasts 6 to 7 days, and the larvae grow to 4-5.5 mm. There is very little change in the 3rd instar which lasts 6 to 7 days, the larvae growing to 6-7.5 mm. 4th instar: Slight yellow colouring appears on some of the white markings. The instar lasts 6-7 days, and the larvae grow to 11.5-12.5 mm. 5th instar: The yellow encroachment continues; the instar lasts 6 to 7 days, the larvae growing to 16-20 mm. In this instar the larvae begin to break away from each other. 6th (final) instar: The larvae are separated, which renders them less notieable. The instar lasts 7 to 8 days, the size of the larvae reaching 33 mm. Pupa. The pupa is 19 mm long and is suspended by cremastral hooks to trees, shrubs, etc. The butterfly emerges after about 11 days.”


Guilbot & Pierre, 1978.
Carcasson, 1981 [larva and pupa].
Owen & Smith, 1993.
Bernaud, 2000a.
Jiggins et al., 2003: 70.

The eggs are laid in a single layer, touching.


Larval food:

Commelina species (Commelinaceae) [Fawcett, 1901 (South Africa)].

Commelina diffusa Burm. f. (Commelinaceae) [Platt, 1921 (South Africa); Pierre & Vuattoux, 1978 (Ivory Coast)].

Commelina nudiflora Linn. (Commelinaceae) [Van Son, 1963: 66].

Pouzolzia species (Urticaceae) [Owen & Owen, 1972 (Sierra Leone)].

Urera hypselodendron (Hochst) Wedd. (Urticaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 323].

Desmodium salicifolium Poir (Fabaceae) [Jiggins et al., 2003 (Uganda)].

Commelina benghalensis Linnaeus (Commelinaceae) [Jiggins et al., 2003 (Uganda)].

Urtica dioica Linnaeus (Urticaceae) (exotic) [Jiggins et al., 2003; in captivity].

Aeschynomene afraspera (Fabaceae) [Pierre et al., 2003].
Acraea (Actinote) encedon encedon (Linnaeus, 1758)
Papilio encedon Linnaeus, 1758. Systema Naturae 1, Regnum Animale, 10th edition: 488 (824 pp.). Holmiae.

Acraea (Actinote) encedon encedon. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 51mm. Isipingo, Nat. September, 1944. (Transvaal Museum - TM3514).

Acraea encedon encedon. Female. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 48mm. La Lucia, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. March, 2000. M.C. Williams (Williams collection).
Type locality: [Africa]: “Indiis”. [False locality.]

Distribution: Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, to Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia (north), South Africa (Limpopo Province, Mpumalanga, North West Province, Gauteng, Free State Province, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape Province), Swaziland (Duke, et al., 1999), Comoro Islands, Madagascar.

Specific localities:

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Zambia – Ikelenge; Mwinilunga; Chingola; Mufulira; Ndola; Katambora Rapids; Victoria Falls (Heath, et al., 2002).

Mozambique – Maputo (Van Son, 1963); Pungwe River (Van Son, 1963).

Botswana – Damara Pan (Van Son, 1963).

Namibia – Damaraland (Van Son, 1963); Ovamboland (Van Son, 1963).

Limpopo Province – Mica (Swanepoel, 1953); Letaba (Swanepoel, 1953); Legalameetse Nature Reserve (“Malta Forest”) (Swanepoel, 1953); Duiwelskloof (Swanepoel, 1953); Mokeetsi (Swanepoel, 1953); Groot Spelonken (Swanepoel, 1953); Elim (Swanepoel, 1953); Sibasa (Swanepoel, 1953); Louis Trichardt (Swanepoel, 1953); Waterpoort (Swanepoel, 1953); Saltpan (Swanepoel, 1953); Polokwane (Swanepoel, 1953); Potgietersrus (Swanepoel, 1953); Naboomspruit (Swanepoel, 1953); Ofcolaco (Van Son, 1963).

Mpumalanga – Barberton (Swanepoel, 1953); Lydenburg district (Swanepoel, 1953); Acornhoek (Van Son, 1963).

North West Province – Crocodile Poort, Brits district (Van Son, 1963); Rustenburg (Van Son, 1963); Tswaing Crater (Williams); Kgaswane Mountain Reserve (Williams).

Gauteng – Pretoria (Van Son, 1963).

Free State Province – Bloemfontein (Van Son, 1963).

KwaZulu-Natal – Margate (Swanepoel, 1953); Umkomaas (Swanepoel, 1953); Durban (Swanepoel, 1953); Pietermaritzburg (Swanepoel, 1953); Eshowe (Swanepoel, 1953); St Lucia Bay (Swanepoel, 1953); Port Shepstone (Van Son, 1963); Illovo River (Van Son, 1963); Isipingo (Van Son, 1963); Greytown (Van Son, 1963); Empangeni (Van Son, 1963); Sehangwana (Van Son, 1963).

Eastern Cape Province – East London (Swanepoel, 1953); King William’s Town (Swanepoel, 1953); Bashee River (Swanepoel, 1953); Port St Johns (Swanepoel, 1953); Ngqeleni (Van Son, 1963); Embotyi (Van Son, 1963); Lusikisiki (Van Son, 1963); Umsikaba (Van Son, 1963).

Swaziland – Mlawula N. R. (www.sntc.org.sz).
encedonia Linnaeus, 1767 (as sp. of Papilio). Systema Naturae 1, Regnum Animale, 12th edition: 762. Holmiae.
lycia Fabricius, 1775 (as sp. of Papilio). Systema Entomologiae 464 (832 pp.). Flensburgi & Lipsiae. Sierra Leone: “Sierra Leon”. NB – see remarks in regard to this taxon in Larsen, 2005a: 447.
sganzini Boisduval, 1833 (as sp. of Acraea). Nouvelles Annales du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris 2: ? (149-270). Madagascar.
fulva Doubleday, 1848 in Doubleday and Westwood, [1846-52] (as var. of Acraea lycia). The genera of diurnal Lepidoptera, London: 140 (1: 1-250 pp.; 2: 251-534 pp.). London. “Congo”.
daira Godman and Salvin, 1884 (as sp. of Acraea). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1884: 221 (219-227). Nigeria: “ad ripas fl. Niger”.
braunei Staudinger, 1885 in Staudinger and Schatz, 1884-8 (as sp. of Acraea). Exotischer Schmetterlinge 1: 83 (333 pp.). Bayern. Cameroon: “Camerun”.
infuscata Staudinger, 1885 in Staudinger and Schatz, 1884-8 (as ab. of Acraea lycia). Exotischer Schmetterlinge 1: 83 (333 pp.). Bayern. Cameroon: “Camerun”.
usagarae Vuillot, 1891 (as sp. of Acraea). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 60: 78 (78-79). Tanzania: “N’Guru (Zanguebar)”.
ascrepticia Strand, 1912 (as ab. of Acraea encedon lycia). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 78 (A.1.): 81 (67-92). Tanzania: “Morogoro”.
fumosa Aurivillius, 1913 in Seitz, 1908-25 (as ab. of Acraea encedon). Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde, Stuttgart (2) 13 Die Afrikanischen Tagfalter: 258 (614 pp.). No locality given.
commixta Poulton, 1913 in Eltringham, 1913 (as f. of Acraea encedon). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1913: 409 (407-413). Sierra Leone; Nigeria.
alcippoides Le Doux, 1923 (as female f. of Acraea encedon). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1923: 216 (207-226). Tanzania: “Insel Ukerewe (Deutsch-Ostafrika)”.
nigeriae Schultze, 1923 in Schultze and Aurivillius, 1923 (as var. of Acraea encedon). Ergebnisse der Zweiten Deutschen Zentral-Afrika Expedition 1 (17): 1128 (1113-1242). Nigeria: “Burutu (Niger-Mündung); Mubi (Adamua)”.
perradiata Le Cerf, 1927 (as f. of Acraea encedon). Encyclopédie Entomologique (B. 3. Lepidoptera) 2: 53 (44-58). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Congo belge central”.
carbonaria Le Cerf, 1927 (as f. of Acraea encedon lycia). Encyclopédie Entomologique (B. 3. Lepidoptera) 2: 53 (44-58). Uganda: “Prov. d’Ounyoro, Ouganda”.
poultoni Le Doux, 1931 (as f. of Acraea encedon). Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 17: 262 (239-272). Uganda: “Bunjaka Hoima”; Tanzania: “Bugufi, N.O. Tanganyika”.
infuscatoides Le Doux, 1931 (as f. of Acraea encedon). Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 17: 263 (239-272). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Oberer Congo; Beni-Bendi, Sankuru”.
umbratalcippina Le Doux, 1931 (as f. of Acraea encedon). Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 17: 264 (239-272). Uganda: “Region Buganda”; Tanzania: “Neuwied, Ukerewe”.
lycoides Le Doux, 1931 (as f. of Acraea encedon). Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 17: 264 (239-272). Angola: “Chinchoxo”; Tanzania: “Usagara, Kilosa; Tanganyika See; Region Mpala; Usambara”; Democratic Republic of Congo: “Congo, Stanley Falls; Vivu Plateau”.
fulvoides Le Doux, 1931 (as f. of Acraea lycia). Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 17: 265 (239-272). Nigeria: “Kano, Nord-Nigerien”.
encedonoides Le Doux, 1931 (as ssp. of Acraea lycia). Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 17: 253, 265 (239-272). Guinea-Bissau: “Bissao, Portug. Guinea”; Cameroon: “Kamerun, Jabassi, Simikoa-Kombotto”.
aurantiaca Le Doux, 1931 (as f. of Acraea lycia). Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 17: 266 (239-272). Nigeria: “Kano, Nord-Nigeria”.
Acraea (Actinote) encedon rathjensi Le Doux, 1933
Acraea encedon rathjensi Le Doux, 1933. Mitteilungen der Münchener Entomologischen Gesellschaft 23: 35 (35-36).

Type locality: Yemen: “Musemir-Aden; Sana”.

Distribution: Saudi Arabia (south-west), Yemen.

Acraea (Actinote) encoda Pierre, 1981
Acraea encoda Pierre, 1981. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 86: 80 (79-87).

Type locality: Gabon: “Makokou”.

Distribution: Gabon, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Commelina species (Commelinaceae) [Jiggins et al., 2003].

Acraea (Actinote) serena (Fabricius, 1775)
Papilio serena Fabricius, 1775. Systema Entomologiae 832 pp. Flensburgi & Lipsiae.

Acraea serena (Fabricius, 1775). Pierre & Bernaud, 1999.

Acraea (Actinote) serena. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 42mm. Pennington. Dec. J.C. Nicholson. (Transvaal Museum - TM3502).

Acraea (Actinote) serena. Female. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 44mm. Rustenberg Nature Reserve, North-West Province, South Africa; 12 April, 1998; M.C. Williams (Williams collection).

Acraea (Actinote) serena. Female. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 43mm. Madikwe Nature Reserve, North-West Province, South Africa. Emerged June, 1998. M.C.Williams (Williams Collection).
Type locality: Sierra Leone: “Sierra Leona”.

Distribution: Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Mali, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana (north), Nambia (north), South Africa (Limpopo Province, Mpumalanga, North West Province, Gauteng, Free State Province, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape Province), Swaziland, Saudi Arabia (south-west), Yemen, Madagascar.

Specific localities:

Sierra Leone – Freetown (Larsen, 2005a).

Benin – Noyau Central, Lama Forest (Fermon, et al., 2001).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Zambia – Ikelenge; Chingola; Mufulira; Chingola; Kapiri Mposhi; Mkushi; Lusaka; Victoria Falls; Kasama; Mbala (Heath, et al., 2002).

Mozambique – Ihhaca Island (Van Son, 1963).

Botswana – Kabulabula (Van Son, 1963); Chobe River (Van Son, 1963).

Limpopo Province – Legalameetse Nature Reserve (“Malta Forest”) (Swanepoel, 1953); Woodbush (Swanepoel, 1953); Duiwelskloof (Swanepoel, 1953); Mokeetsi (Swanepoel, 1953); Munnik (Swanepoel, 1953); Polokwane (Swanepoel, 1953); Chuniespoort (Swanepoel, 1953); Tubex (Swanepoel, 1953); Sibasa (Swanepoel, 1953); Masequa’s Poort (Swanepoel, 1953); Louis Trichardt (Swanepoel, 1953); Saltpan (Swanepoel, 1953); Waterberg (Van Son, 1963); Letaba (Van Son, 1963); Potgietersrus (Van Son, 1963).

Mpumalanga – Acornhoek (Swanepoel, 1953); Barberton (Swanepoel, 1953); Lydenburg district (Swanepoel, 1953); Marieps Kop (Swanepoel, 1953); Piet Retief (Van Son, 1963); Nelspruit (Van Son, 1963); Pilgrim’s Rest (Van Son, 1963); Sterkspruit Nature Reserve (Williams).

North West Province – Rustenburg (Van Son, 1963); Kgaswane Mountain Reserve (Williams); Mountain Sanctuary N.R. (Williams).

Gauteng – Pretoria (Swanepoel, 1953); Witwatersrand Botanical Gardens (J. Dobson, unpublished checklist, 2001); Buffelsdrif Conservancy (Williams).

Free State Province – Bloemfontein – Bayswater (Swanepoel, 1953).

KwaZulu-Natal – Port Shepstone (Swanepoel, 1953); Umkomaas (Swanepoel, 1953); Durban (Swanepoel, 1953); Verulam (Swanepoel, 1953); Pietermaritzburg (Swanepoel, 1953); Tugela River (Swanepoel, 1953); St Lucia Bay (Swanepoel, 1953); Eshowe (Van Son, 1963).

Eastern Cape Province – Bashee River (Swanepoel, 1953); Libode (Swanepoel, 1953); Port St Johns (Swanepoel, 1953); East London (Van Son, 1963); Ngqeleni (Van Son, 1963).

Swaziland – Mlawula N. R. (www.sntc.org.sz).

Common name: Dancing acraea; small orange acraea.

Habitat: Mainly in savanna and grassland. Also in disturbed areas in the forest zone (Larsen, 2005a). In Madagascar in forest margins and anthropogenic environments (Lees et al., 2003).

Habits: This is a very common butterfly (Larsen, 2005a). The flight is weak and just above ground level. Specimens frequently settle on low vegetation and both sexes are fond of flowers (Pringle, et al. 1994). Specimens are sometimes caught in traps baited with fermented fruit (Van Son, 1963). Numbers of individuals are often found together in a small area (Van Son, 1963) and communal roosts of up to a dozen individuals, on grass stems, are occasionally seen (Larsen, 2005a).

Flight period: All year (Pringle, et al. 1994).

Early stages:
Trimen & Bowker, 1887, Vol. 1: 172 [as Acraea Buxtoni Butl.; KwaZulu-Natal].

Larva. Dull green. A whitish stripe along each side of the back, interrupted on each segmental incision by a transverse line darker than the ground-colour. Spines of the dorsal and upper lateral rows black; of the lower lateral row on each side yellow. The two dorsal black spines on segment next head longer and more distinctly branched than the rest, and projecting forward beyond the head, which is ochreous. (Described from a drawing by Mr. H.C. Harford, giving a dorsal view.)” “Pupa. Pale-yellowish. Outline of wings and nervules very finely black; some thin and ill-defined dorso-thoracic black marks; on each side of abdomen a subdorsal and a lateral row of yellow spots in black rings, the latter being thinner in the lateral than in the subdorsal row. Attached to a slender stalk. (Described from a figure by Mr. H.C. Harford, giving a lateral view.)”


Fawcett ?
Van Someren & Rogers, 1926: 85.

“The eggs are laid in groups on the underside of leaves of three species of Triumfetta. The larvae hatch almost simultaneously and keep together until ready to pupate. They eat away the fleshy substance of the leaf so that only a skeleton is left; this is loosely woven together with silk and in this they retire when not feeding. As they grow they devour several leaves in proximity and these are meshed together to meet requirements. When newly emerged, the larvae are olive green, later they turn yellowish green; the usual form has all the spines in the first two segments black, other segments have the following: two upper pairs, black, two lower yellowish; each spine situated on an ochreous base; each base connected by an ochreous line. The spiracular line is more conspicuous than the others. A second variety has a dorsolateral black line. The pupa is very variable, being either black, with a bronze sheen, the only marks visible being the abdominal rings; or golden with a distinct sheen; or almost white with little or no ornamentation; while a fourth is white or cream with bold black lines, black abdominal rings enclosing orange spots.”


Clark, in Van Son, 1963: 50; plate XVIII.

Egg. Eggs are laid in clusters; they are 0.5 mm in diameter and 0.9 mm high, with 15-17 longitudinal ribs cross-braced by some 23 horizontal indentations. They are pale watery yellow, only darkening slightly. They hatch after some 12 days. Larva. Young larvae eat their way out near the top and after a rest, devour the discarded shell. After a further rest they gather together and commence feeding on the surface of a leaf, spinning a ragged web in which excreta become entangled, forming a shelter. There are two groups, one taking six instars, the other seven. The development proceeds as follows: Six instar group: 1st instar 1.25mm, growing to 2.5 mm in 8 days; 2nd instar growing to 4 mm in 8 days; 3rd instar growing to 6 mm in 7 days; 4th instar growing to 10-11 mm in 8 days; 5th instar growing to 16-18 mm in 11 days; 6th instar growing to 31-32 mm in 12 days. Seven instar group: 1st instar 1.25mm, growing to 2.5 mm in 7 days; 2nd instar growing to 4 mm in 7 days; 3rd instar growing to 5.5 mm in 7 days; 4th instar growing to 8 mm in 8 days; 5th instar growing to 13-15 mm in 8 days; 6th instar growing to 21-22 mm in 8 days; 7th instar growing to 31-32 mm in 17-19 days. The sizes vary within each group, due to sex differences, the females being larger than males, hence it is difficult to separate them till the 4th instar. In the fifth instar some larvae have the spined protuberances watery yellow except for those on the extreme segments, and in the penultimate of the 7-instar group, segments 4-6 may have yellow-spined protuberances, in which case those on segments 3 and 7 are half black and the lower portion yellow, while the base matches the body colour. The head in the penultimate instar of each group is mostly black, but some have extensive salmon markings. In the final instar the body colour varies in intensity from olive to greenish yellow, and the black patch on the head may be very much extended, even to the extent of obliterarting all colour. The larvae, when disturbed, swing their heads sharply from side to side, or bend the head and final segment over the body. Pupa. The pupae are suspended by cremastral hooks only; those of males are 14 mm in length, those of females 16 mm. The colour varies in that the black may obliterate all white markings and limit the orange or gold spots. The white on the dorsum and ‘neck’ may be pearly or silvery, or the whole pupa may be pale watery yellow with black edging to the salmon or gold spots and legs, and the veins of the wings are picked out in black. The imago emerges after 11 to 19 days.”


Dickson, 1972.
Pierre & Bernaud, 1999b.
Jiggins et al., 2003: 70.

The eggs are laid in a single layer, spaced out. Mean clutch size is 122 (n=43).

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