Butterflies and skippers of the afrotropical region




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Tanzania – Mount Oldeani (TL); probably the Ngorongoro range (Kielland, 1990).

Note: Specimens from Mount Kilimanjaro are similar to topotypical material but have a less extended and more brownish basal blackish patch on the hind wing underside (Kielland, 1990: 150).



Acraea (Actinote) acuta nigromaculata Kielland, 1990
Acraea acuta nigromaculata Kielland, 1990. Butterflies of Tanzania 150 (363 pp.). Melbourne.

Type locality: Tanzania: “Uluguru Mts., Bondwa Mt., 2100 m.”. Holotype (male) in the Natural History Museum, London.

Desription:

“This large race is particularly distinct on the underside of the wings, and in having more black h.w. spots than in other races. Male. F.w. nearly black with rather small white to cream spots arranged in the usual pattern; h.w. median patch cream, of the usual angled form, but more sprinkled with distinct black spots in the cell and internervular spaces 1b, 2, 4, 5, 6 and 7. Underside with apex of f.w. and h.w. distal half dusted with pale-yellowish scales in the internervular spaces, and with clearly indicated blackish veins and a blackish, longitudinal line in the middle between each vein (in ssp. acuta the veins are less clearly indicated due to the brown internervular dusting); black spots as on the upperside; spots are also present in the basal area; the basal area is paler than in acuta which is brownish. Length of f.w. 24-27 mm; average 25.3 mm. Female. Both surfaces identical with those of the male, but a little larger. No other form is known as far as I know. Length of f.w. 26.2-28 mm; average 27 mm.” (Kielland, 1990: 150).



Distribution: Tanzania (north-east).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Uluguru Mountains; Bondwa Mountain (TL) (Kielland, 1990).
Acraea (Actinote) acuta rubrobasalis Kielland, 1990
Acraea acuta rubrobasalis Kielland, 1990. Butterflies of Tanzania 149 (363 pp.). Melbourne.

Type locality: Tanzania: “Lushoto Usambara, Magamba Forest”.

Description:

“Smaller than other races, and with distinctly shorter f.w., but distal margin incurved as in acuta. Male brownish-black with all pale markings orange; f.w. pale markings larger than in the other races; postdiscal spot in space 2 oblong and distally pointed; pale area of h.w. with black veins. Female form near handmani How., orange-brown with black veins and apical half black with white markings; h.w. entirely orange-brown.” (Kielland, 1990: 149).



Distribution: Tanzania (north-east).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – West Usambara Mountains (Kielland, 1990).
rubrobasalis Howarth, 1969 (as f. of Acraea ansorgei acuta). Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 38: 147 (141-156). Tanzania: “Lushoto Usambara, Magamba Forest”.

Acraea (Actinote) alciope Hewitson, 1852
Acraea alciope Hewitson, 1852 in Hewitson, 1851-6. Illustrations of new species of exotic butterflies 1: 57 ([124] pp.). London.

Acraea (Actinote) alciope. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 55mm. Budongo For, W. Uganda. 5.10.72. Ed Balyetagara. (Henning collection - H148).
Type locality: “West Africa”.

Distribution: Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea (Bioko), Congo, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Uganda (south-west), Zambia.

Recorded from Gambia by Pierre (1981), probably erroneously (Larsen, 2005a).



Specific localities:

Ghana – Bia N.P. (Larsen, 2005a); Boabeng-Fiema (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Zambia – Known from a single female taken at Ikelenge by Heath (Heath, et al., 2002).

Common name: Alciope acraea.

Habitat: Most types of forest and also degraded areas as long as there is abundant shade (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: A fairly common species; during the dry season females may be abundant, and outnumber males (Larsen, 2005a). Males establish territories in sunny places along forest roads, defending these territories aggresively (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages:
Pierre, 1981.
Larval food:

Theobroma cacao (Theobromaceae) [Smith, 1965; may refer to A. aurivillii (Larsen, 2005a: 448)].

Fleurya species (Urticaceae) [Larsen, 2005a].

Musanga species (Urticaceae) [Larsen, 2005a].
macarina Butler, 1868 (as sp. of Planema). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1868: 221 (221-224). Ghana: “Gold Coast”.
cydonia Ward, 1873 (as sp. of Acraea). Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 10: 59 (59-60, 151-152). Cameroon: “Cameroons”; Angola.
cretacea Eltringham, 1912 (as female f. of Acraea alciope). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1912: 325 (1-374). Nigeria: “Lagos”.
fumida Eltringham, 1912 (as female f. of Acraea alciope). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1912: 325 (1-374). Nigeria: “Lagos”.
edea Strand, 1914 (as f. of Acraea alciope). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 79 (A.12.): 106 (97-144). Cameroon: “Kamerun; Bassagebiet, Edea”.
lomana Strand, 1914 (as f. of Acraea alciope). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 79 (A.12.): 106 (97-144). Cameroon: “Lom im Bassagebiet”.
alberici Dufrane, 1945 (as female ab. of Acraea alciope alciope). Bulletin et Annales de la Société Royale Entomologique de Belgique 81: 107 (90-143). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kamituga, Camp Kélé”.
vulpinopsis Birket-Smith, 1960 (as f. of Acraea alciope alciope). Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Afrique Noire (A) 22: 963 (521-554, 924-983, 1259-1284). Cameroon: “French Cameroons, South of Marak Station”.

Acraea (Actinote) alciopoides Joicey & Talbot, 1921
Acraea disjuncta form alciopoides Joicey & Talbot, 1921. Bulletin of the Hill Museum, Witley 1: 49 (40-166).

Type locality: Uganda: “West Semliki River, near Lesse”; Democratic Republic of Congo: “Ituri Forest, N.W. Beni”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (east - Ituri), Uganda (west), Tanzania (north-west).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Kere Hill, Minziro Forest (Congdon and Collins, 1998; single male)

Habitat: Forest.

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea (Actinote) alicia (Sharpe, 1890)
Telchinia alicia Sharpe, 1890. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 5: 442 (440-443).

Acraea (Actinote) alicia alicia. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 37mm. Impenetrable Forest, 6000', Uganda. 30.1.72. I. Bampton. (Henning collection - H151).
Type locality: Kenya: “Mombasa to the Ulu mountains”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia.

Recorded, in error, from Ghana by Berger (1981) and from Cameroon (Larsen, 2005a).



Habitat: Montane forest and farmland (Kielland, 1990). In Tanzania ssp. mbulu occurs at altitudes from 1 800 to 2 400 m and ssp. uzungwae from 1 500 to 2 000 m (Kielland, 1990).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Acraea (Actinote) alicia alicia (Sharpe, 1890)
Telchinia alicia Sharpe, 1890. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 5: 442 (440-443).

Acraea (Actinote) alicia alicia. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 37mm. Impenetrable Forest, 6000', Uganda. 30.1.72. I. Bampton. (Henning collection - H151).
Type locality: Kenya: “Mombasa to the Ulu mountains”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania (north), Malawi, Zambia.

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Mount Meru; Mount Kilimanjaro (Kielland, 1990).

Zambia – A single male from Ikelenge, taken by Heath (Heath, et al., 2002).
cappadox Oberthür, 1893 (as sp. of Acraea). Études d’Entomologie 17: 23 (17-36). Kenya: “Kilimandjaro”.
planesium Oberthür, 1893 (as sp. of Acraea). Études d’Entomologie 17: 24 (17-36). Kenya: “Kilimandjaro”.
cabiroides Poulton, 1908 (as female f. of Acraea alicia). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1908: 529 (529-533). Kenya: “Weithaga, N. Kikuyu, British East Africa”.
tenelloides Poulton, 1908 (as female f. of Acraea alicia). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1908: 531 (529-533). Kenya: “Weithaga, N. Kikuyu, British East Africa”.
interruptana Strand, 1914 (as ab. of Acraea bonasia alicia). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 79 (A.12.): 99 (97-144). Cameroon: “Alen”.
ornata Dufrane, 1945 (as ab. of Acraea alicia). Bulletin et Annales de la Société Royale Entomologique de Belgique 81: 108 (90-143). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kamituga”.
suffusa Dufrane, 1945 (as ab. of Acraea alicia). Bulletin et Annales de la Société Royale Entomologique de Belgique 81: 108 (90-143). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kamituga”.
Acraea (Actinote) alicia mbulu Kielland, 1990
Acraea alicia mbulu Kielland, 1990. Butterflies of Tanzania 150 (363 pp.). Melbourne.

Type locality: Tanzania: “Mbulu, Mamahisara, 1900 m.”. Holotype (male) in the Natural History Museum, London.

Description:

Male. Upperside f.w. red median and basal areas extended almost as in A. bonasia, and without red spots, but median red band narrower due to the more extended basal blackish-brown area; lower part of the band much paler than the upper part. Underside f.w. brown markings extended in comparison with ssp. alicia; subapical yellow bar narrower; h.w. brown margin almost as in bonasia, and often with red spots. Length of f.w. 15 mm. Female unknown.” (Kielland, 1990: 150).



Distribution: Tanzania (northern highlands).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Hasama Forest; Nou Forest; Mamahisara area (Kielland, 1990).
Acraea (Actinote) alicia uzungwae Kielland, 1990
Acraea alicia uzungwae Kielland, 1990. Butterflies of Tanzania 150 (363 pp.). Melbourne.

Type locality: Tanzania: “Mufindi, Lugoda, 1950 m.”. Holotype (male) in the Natural History Museum, London.

Description:

Male. Upperside f.w. red area large as in ssp. alicia; subapical red bar wider than in ssp. mbulu; h.w. median red band much wider, nearly as wide as in ssp. alicia, but black border with rounded marginal red spots in all the males. Underside similar to that of spp. mbulu, but f.w. subapical band considerably wider, h.w. marginal border brighter, and with larger marginal yellow spots; subbasal band a little wider, with a red centre in most specimens. Length of f.w. 17-20 mm. Female. Upperside as the male, but h.w. marginal border much wider, not as wide as in the female of A. bonasia and subbasal band more concentrated, with reddish centre as in the male. Length of f.w. 19-22 mm.”



Distribution: Tanzania (southern highlands).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Uzungwa Range, from Mufindi to Dabaga (Kielland, 1990).

Acraea (Actinote) althoffi Dewitz, 1889
Acraea althoffi Dewitz, 1889. Entomologische Nachrichten. Berlin 15: 102 (101-110).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Umgegend von Mukenge”.

Distribution: Cameroon, Gabon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Central African Republic, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania.

Habitat: Forest.

Habits: The flight is slow and gliding, and not high above the ground. Flowers are visited (Congdon and Collins, 1998).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Acraea (Actinote) althoffi althoffi Dewitz, 1889
Acraea althoffi Dewitz, 1889. Entomologische Nachrichten. Berlin 15: 102 (101-110).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Umgegend von Mukenge”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (south and central - Sankuru, Lualaba).
Acraea (Actinote) althoffi bitjana Bethune-Baker, 1926
Acraea althoffi f. bitjana Bethune-Baker, 1926. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (9) 17: 384 (384-402).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Bitje, Cameroons”.

Distribution: Cameroon, Gabon.
Acraea (Actinote) althoffi neavei Poulton, 1924
Acraea althoffi neavei Poulton, 1924. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of London 1924: 144 (140-145).

Type locality: Uganda: “S. T. Toro; Daro or Durro Forest, 4000-5000 ft.”.

Distribution: Uganda (excluding Bwamba Valley), Kenya (west), Tanzania (north-west).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Minziro Forest; Munene Forest; Kikuru (Congdon and Collins, 1998).
telloides Eltringham, 1912 (as female f. of Acraea althoffi). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1912: 254 (1-374). Uganda: “Entebbe”.
ochreata Eltringham, 1912 (as female f. of Acraea althoffi). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1912: 254 (1-374). Uganda: “Entebbe”.
drucei Eltringham, 1912 (as female f. of Acraea althoffi). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1912: 254 (1-374). Uganda: “Entebbe”.
lycioides Carpenter, 1931 (as female f. of Acraea althoffi). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of London 6: 64 (62-65). Uganda: “Buninga Sese Isles”.
budongoensis Carpenter, 1935 (as female f. of Acraea althoffi). Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London 10: 22 (22-23). Uganda: “Budongo Forest”.
albicans Stoneham, 1936 (as female f. of Acraea althoffi). Bulletin of the Stoneham Museum (27): [2] ([3 pp.]). Uganda: “Mabira Forest”.
albireducta Stoneham, 1936 (as female f. of Acraea althoffi). Bulletin of the Stoneham Museum (27): [2] ([3 pp.]). Uganda: “Budongo Forest”.
ochrafasciata Stoneham, 1936 (as replacement name for Acraea althoffi f. ochreata Eltringham). Bulletin of the Stoneham Museum (27): [2] ([3 pp.]).
ochrareducta Stoneham, 1936 (as female f. of Acraea althoffi). Bulletin of the Stoneham Museum (27): [2] ([3 pp.]). Uganda: “Mabira Forest”.
ochramaculata Stoneham, 1936 (as female f. of Acraea althoffi). Bulletin of the Stoneham Museum (27): [3] ([3 pp.]). Uganda: “Katera”.
heliconioides Stoneham, 1936 (as male f. of Acraea althoffi). Bulletin of the Stoneham Museum (27): [3] ([3 pp.]). Uganda: “Budongo Forest”.
Acraea (Actinote) althoffi rubrofasciata Aurivillius, 1895
Acraea althoffi var. rubrofasciata Aurivillius, 1895. Entomologisk Tidskrift 16: 111 (111-112).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Bangala”.

Distribution: Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo (north and east), Uganda (west - Bwamba Valley).

Acraea (Actinote) pseudepaea Dudgeon, 1909
Acraea pseudepaea Dudgeon, 1909. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of London 1909: 53 (50-54).

Acraea althoffi pseudepaea Dudgeon, 1909. Ackery et al., 1995.

Acraea pseudepaea Dudgeon, 1909. Pierre et al., 2003.

Type locality: Nigeria: “Ila”.

Distribution: Guinea, Liberia (east), Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria (west).

Specific localities:

Guinea – Nzerekore (Larsen, 2005a); Nimba Mountains (H. Warren-Gash teste Larsen, 2005a).

Liberia – Haut-Cavally (Larsen, 2005a).

Ivory Coast – Sipolilo (Plowes teste Larsen, 2005a); Yeale (H. Warren-Gash teste Larsen, 2005a).

Ghana – Atewa Range (Larsen, 2005a).

Nigeria – Ila (TL).

Common name: Dudgeon’s acraea.

Habitat: Forest.

Habits: It is locally and seasonally common (Larsen, 2005a). Males are known to mudpuddle (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea (Actinote) amicitiae Heron, 1909
Acraea amicitiae Heron, 1909. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 19: 148 (141-178).

Type locality: Uganda: “Mubuku Valley, E. Ruwenzori”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Kivu), Uganda (Kigezi), Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania (west and south-west).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Mount Mahale (Kielland, 1990).

Habitat: Montane forest (Kielland, 1990). In Tanzania it is found at altitudes from 1 600 to 2 000 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: Males are often seen mud puddling but females, apparently, are rarely seen (Kielland, 1990).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Urera hypselodendron (Hochst) Wedd. (Urticaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 323].
polychroma Rebel, 1911 (as sp. of Acraea). Annalen des (K.K.) Naturhistorischen Museums. Wien 24: 410 (409-414). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Nordwestufer des Tanganika-Sees”.
flavina Jackson, 1956 (as female f. of Acrea [sic] amicitiae polychroma). Journal of the East Africa Natural History Society 23: 69 (63-102). Uganda: “Kigezi, Mafuga Forest”.
lutea Berger, 1981 (as female f. of Acraea amicitiae). Les Papillons du Zaire 198 (543 pp.). Bruxelles. Democratic Republic of Congo?” “Ruwenzori: Kalonge”.
alba Berger, 1981 (as female f. of Acraea amicitiae). Les Papillons du Zaire 198 (543 pp.). Bruxelles. Democratic Republic of Congo?” “Ruwenzori: Kalonge”.
intermedia Berger, 1981 (as female f. of Acraea amicitiae). Les Papillons du Zaire 198 (543 pp.). Bruxelles. Burundi: “Bugarama (Burundi)”.

Acraea (Actinote) ansorgei Grose-Smith, 1898
Acraea ansorgei Grose-Smith, 1898. Novitates Zoologicae 5: 351 (350-358).

Type locality: Kenya: “Nandi Station”.

Diagnosis: Very similar to H. acuta but the genitalia are distinctive (figured in Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Kenya, Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
conjuncta Grose-Smith, 1898 (as sp. of Acraea). Novitates Zoologicae 5: 351 (350-358). Kenya: “Nandi Station”.
nandensis Sharpe, 1899 (as sp. of Planema). Annals and Magazine of Natural History (7) 3: 244 (243-244). Kenya: “Nandi”.
silacea Eltringham, 1912 (as female f. of Acraea conjuncta). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1912: 320 (1-374). Kenya: “Aberdare Hills”.
mutata Eltringham, 1912 (as female f. of Acraea conjuncta). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1912: 320 (1-374). Uganda: “Mt. Kokanjero, S.W. of Elgon”.
pica Eltringham, 1912 (as female f. of Acraea conjuncta). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1912: 320 (1-374). Uganda: “Mt. Kokanjero, S.W. of Elgon”.
lutealba Eltringham, 1912 (as female f. of Acraea conjuncta). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1912: 320 (1-374). Uganda: “Mt. Kokanjero, S.W. of Elgon”.
suffusa Eltringham, 1912 (as female f. of Acraea conjuncta). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1912: 320 (1-374). Uganda: “Mt. Kokanjero, S.W. of Elgon”.
interrupta Eltringham, 1912 (as f. of Acraea conjuncta). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1912: 320 (1-374). Uganda: “Mt. Kokanjero, S.W. of Elgon”.
aurivilliana Bryk, 1925 (as f. of Acrea [sic] ansorgei). Entomologische Rundschau 42: 27 (27, 31-32). Kenya/Uganda: “Mt. Elgon”.
loveni Bryk, 1925 (as f. of Acrea [sic] ansorgei). Entomologische Rundschau 42: 27 (27, 31-32). Kenya/Uganda: “Mt. Elgon”.
jefferyi Bryk, 1925 (as f. of Acrea [sic] ansorgei). Entomologische Rundschau 42: 27 (27, 31-32). Kenya/Uganda: “Mt. Elgon”.
aurata Bryk, 1931 (as female f. of Acraea ansorgei). Entomologische Rundschau 48: 147 (146, 176). Kenya: “Nandi, Äquat. Africa”.
vansomereni Bryk, 1931 (as female f. of Acraea ansorgei). Entomologische Rundschau 48: 147 (146, 176). Uganda: “Nandi, Limoru”.
bantu Bryk, 1931 (as ssp. of Acraea ansorgei). Entomologische Rundschau 48: 176 (146, 176). Uganda: “Kokanieri”.
paulinae Bryk, 1931 (as f. of Acraea ansorgei). Entomologische Rundschau 48: 176 (146, 176). Kenya: “Mt. Kenya”.
bryki Le Doux, 1931 (as female f. of Acraea ansorgei). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1931: 58 (49-59). Kenya/Uganda: “Mount Elgon, Äquat.-Afrika”.”.
rufoniger van Someren, 1936 (as f. of Acraea ansorgei). Journal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural History Society 12: 168 (147-199). Kenya: “Uplands”.
luteflava van Someren, 1936 (as f. of Acraea ansorgei). Journal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural History Society 12: 168 (147-199). Kenya: “Tuso”.
tricolor van Someren, 1936 (as f. of Acraea ansorgei). Journal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural History Society 12: 168 (147-199). Kenya: “Uplands”.
flavipuncta van Someren, 1936 (as f. of Acraea ansorgei). Journal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural History Society 12: 168 (147-199). Kenya: “Uplands”.
adaurantica van Someren, 1936 (as f. of Acraea ansorgei). Journal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural History Society 12: 168 (147-199). Kenya: “Uplands”.
chrysippoides van Someren, 1936 (as f. of Acraea ansorgei). Journal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural History Society 12: 168 (147-199). Kenya: “Escarpment”.
flaveola van Someren, 1936 (as f. of Acraea ansorgei). Journal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural History Society 12: 169 (147-199). Kenya: “Uplands”.
wickhami Gabriel, 1939 (as female f. of Acraea ansorgei). British Museum (Natural History) Ruwenzori Expedition 1934-5 3 (3): 62 (51-95). Uganda: “Bwamba Pass”.
uniformis Gabriel, 1939 (as female f. of Acraea ansorgei). British Museum (Natural History) Ruwenzori Expedition 1934-5 3 (3): 63 (51-95). Uganda: “Namwamba Valley”.
elgonensis Howarth, 1969 (as female f. of Acraea ansorgei ansorgei). Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 38: 144 (141-156). Uganda: “W. Elgon, Bufumbo Forest”.
jacksoni Howarth, 1969 (as female f. of Acraea ansorgei ansorgei). Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 38: 145 (141-156). Uganda: “Kigezi, Mafuga Forest”.
gabrieli Howarth, 1969 (as female f. of Acraea ansorgei ansorgei). Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 38: 146 (141-156). Kenya: “Uplands”.

Acraea (Actinote) aurivillii Staudinger, 1896
Acraea aurivillii Staudinger, 1896. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 9: 209 (193-240).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Inneren Kameruns, Barombi Station”.

Diagnosis: Male similar to H. alciope but with an unbroken, bright orange band across the forewing and large orange discal area on hindwing. Females extremely variable (Congdon & Collins, 1998).

Distribution: Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Ethiopia.

Common name: Large alciope acraea.

Habitat: Forest.

Habits: Apparently rarer than the closely-related A. alciope (Larsen, 2005a). Circles slowly around trees in dense forest. The flight and behaviour is very similar to that of Mimacraea eltringhami (Congdon & Collins, 1998).

Early stages:
Pierre, 1981. [Ivory Coast]
Larval food:

Adenia species (Passifloraceae) [Carcasson].

Laportea podocarpa (Urticaceae) [Pierre, 1981 (Ivory Coast)].

Urera flamigniana (Urticaceae) [Pierre, 1981 (Ivory Coast)].

Urera gravenreuthii (Urticaceae) [Pierre, 1981 (Ivory Coast)].

Urera thorneri (Urticaceae) [Pierre, 1981 (Ivory Coast)].

Pouzolzia denudata (Urticaceae) [Pierre, 1981 (Ivory Coast)].

Urera hypselodendron (Urticaceae) [Congdon & Collins, 1998: 33 (Tanzania)].
Acraea (Actinote) aurivillii aurivillii Staudinger, 1896
Acraea aurivillii Staudinger, 1896. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 9: 209 (193-240).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Inneren Kameruns, Barombi Station”.

Distribution: Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo (south and east), Burundi, Uganda, Kenya (west), Tanzania (north-west), Zambia (north; Larsen, 2005a).

Specific localities:

Cameroon – Barombi Station (TL); Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Tanzania – Minziro forests (Congdon and Collins, 1998).
alicia Grose-Smith, 1900 (as sp. of Planema). Novitates Zoologicae 7: 546 (544-547). Uganda: “Port Alice”. [Invalid; junior secondary homonym of Telchinia alicia Sharpe, 1890 [Acraeinae].]
latifasciata Grünberg, 1910 (as ab. of Acraea aurivillii). Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1910: 164 (146-181). Uganda: “Sesse-Inseln im Victoria-Nyanza”.
bakossua Strand, 1912 (as ab. of Acraea alciope). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 77 (1.4. Supplementhefte): 114 (107-123). Cameroon: “Bakossu”.
tella Eltringham, 1912 (as female f. of Acraea alciope). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1912: 326 (1-374). Uganda: “Entebbe, Pt. Alice”.
smithi Aurivillius, 1922 (as replacement name for Planema alicia). In: Rothschild, M., Extrait du voyage de M. le Baron Maurice de Rothschild en Ethiopie et Afrique Orientale Anglaise 345 (333-386). Paris. [Invalid; junior primary homonym of Acraea smithi Mabille, 1879 [Acraeinae].]
bombensis Stoneham, 1937 (as ssp. of Acraea alciope). Bulletin of the Stoneham Museum (32): [1] ([3 pp.]). Uganda: “Bombo”.
ochrextensa Stoneham, 1937 (as ssp. of Acraea alciope). Bulletin of the Stoneham Museum (32): [1] ([3 pp.]). Kenya: “Kakamega”.
flavifasciata Stoneham, 1937 (as f. of Acraea alciope). Bulletin of the Stoneham Museum (32): [2] ([3 pp.]). Uganda: “Katera”.
Acraea (Actinote) aurivillii schecana Rothschild & Jordan, 1905
Acraea alciope schecana Rothschild & Jordan, 1905. Novitates Zoologicae 12: 184 (175-191).

Type locality: Ethiopia: “Scheko”.

Distribution: Ethiopia (south-west).

Specific localities:

Ethiopia – Scheko (TL); Oumbi (Ungemach, 1932).
vidua Ungemach, 1932 (as female f. of Acraea alciope). Mémoires de la Société des Sciences Naturelles (et Physiques) du Maroc 32: 72 (1-122). Ethiopia: “Oumbi”.

Acraea (Actinote) baxteri Sharpe, 1902
Acraea baxteri Sharpe, 1902. Entomologist 35: 40 (40-42).

Acraea (Actinote) baxteri baxteri. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 49mm. Chowa, Nyika, Zambia. 16 Mar 85. I. Bampton. (Henning collection - H140).
Type locality: Tanzania: “Mpapwa, German East Africa”.

Diagnosis: Superfically similar to Acraea insignis but forewing upperside with a clear subapical band and with the hind wing underside brown and black-spotted in the basal half (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia.

Habitat: Montane forest (Kielland, 1990). In Tanzania the nominate subspecies is found at altitudes from 1500 to 2600 m, ssp. subsquamia at around 2600m, and ssp. oldeani from 2000 to 2300 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: Males fly high among the tree tops settling from time to time on choice perches (Kielland, 1990). Bampton (vide Heath, et al., 2002) noted that specimens in the Chowa Forest, Nyika Plateau, only appeared in the early afternoon, flying high among trees in front of a large rock.

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Urera species (Urticaceae) [Heath, et al., 2002: 42].
Acraea (Actinote) baxteri baxteri Sharpe, 1902
Acraea baxteri Sharpe, 1902. Entomologist 35: 40 (40-42).

Acraea (Actinote) baxteri baxteri. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 49mm. Chowa, Nyika, Zambia. 16 Mar 85. I. Bampton. (Henning collection - H140).
Type locality: Tanzania: “Mpapwa, German East Africa”.

Distribution: Tanzania (south), Malawi (north), Zambia.

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Mount Rungwe; Southern Highlands; Uzungwa Range; Rubeho Mountains; Ukaguru Mountains; Uluguru Mountains; Nguru Mountains; Kanga Mountains; Usambara Mountains; Pare Mountains (Kielland, 1990).

Zambia – Chowa Forest on the Nyika Plateau (Heath, et al., 2002).
fuelleborni Thurau, 1903 (as sp. of Acraea). Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 48: 133 (117-143). Tanzania: “Langenburg”.
Acraea (Actinote) baxteri oldeani Kielland, 1990
Acraea baxteri oldeani Kielland, 1990. Butterflies of Tanzania 152 (363 pp.). Melbourne.

Type locality: Tanzania: “Arusha Region, Oldeani, 2000 m.”. Holotype male in the Natural History Museum, London.

Description:

“Differs from ssp. subsquamia in the extended basal black area of the h.w. in both sexes, and the veins which are less strongly indicated in black. In the male the distal margin of the basal black patch is very uneven and indented along the veins; the red post-discal area narrow; f.w. subapical hyaline band narrow in spaces 5 and 6, but normally wide in space 4. Underside h.w. basal patch brown with black spots poorly developed in comparison with other populations and spots in spaces 1 and 2 are placed more distal. Female with two forms, one pale-yellow and the other as the male; f.w. subapical hyaline band wider than in the male, but narrower than in females of other populations. Length of f.w., male 27.8-28.2 mm; female 28.8-29.2 mm.”



Distribution: Tanzania (north).

Specific localities:

Tanzania - Mount Oldeani (Kielland, 1990).
Acraea (Actinote) baxteri philos Le Cerf, 1933
Acraea baxteri philos Le Cerf, 1933. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 38: 158 (158).

Type locality: Kenya: “Marakwet; Campi Cherangani”.

Distribution: Uganda (north-east), Kenya.
lutea Carpenter and Jackson, 1950 (as female f. of Acraea baxteri subsquamia). Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 19: 105 (97-108). Kenya: “Northern frontier district, Mt. Nyiro”.
Acraea (Actinote) baxteri subsquamia Thurau, 1903
Acraea fuelleborni var. subsquamia Thurau, 1903. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 48: 135 (117-143).

Type locality: Tanzania: “N.-Usambara, Umgegd. v. Mlolo”.

Diagnosis: Compared to the nominate subspecies the black basal area on the hind wing is more extensive than in the nominate subspecies and the black border is a little wider (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Tanzania (north-east).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Mount Longido, at 2600 m (Kielland, 1990); Mount Kilimanjaro (Eltringham, 1912; Carcasson, 1961); western slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro (Cordeiro, 1995).

Acraea (Actinote) bonasia (Fabricius, 1775)
Papilio bonasia Fabricius, 1775. Systema Entomologiae 464 (832 pp.). Flensburgi & Lipsiae.

Acraea (Actinote) bonasia bonasia. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 38mm. Kabweluma Falls, Kalungwishi River, 3000', Zambia. 7.7.75. I. Bampton. (Henning collection - H150).
Type locality: Sierra Leone: “Sierra Leon”. Holotype in the Banks collection, London (Larsen, 2005a).

Distribution: Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Ethiopia.

Common name: Bonasia acraea.

Habitat: Forest of all types, including secondary forest (Heath, et al., 2002; Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: Migration by this species has been recorded (Owen & Chanter, 1972). In the Nigeria/Cameroon region males come to mudpuddle in their thousands at altitudes of about 1 100 m (Larsen, 2005a). Males also visit patches of urine and animal excrement (Larsen, 2005a; fig. 5.44, p. 451). On one occasion a cluster of males on a piece of animal dung was raided by ants; a few ants would hold the butterfly and bite off the flapping wings, then carry the body away (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages:
Jiggins et al., 2003: 70.

The eggs are laid in a single layer, spaced out. Mean clutch size is 198 (n=3).


Larval food:

Clappertonia ficifolia (Tiliaceae) [Owen, 1971 (Sierra Leone); Pierre & Vuattoux, 1978 (Ivory Coast)].

Triumfetta macrophilla Schum (Tiliaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 323; Jiggins et al., 2003: 70].

Triumfetta ruwenzorensis Sprague (Tiliaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 323].

Triumfetta species (Tiliaceae) [Bernaud, 1995 (Cameroon)].

Hibiscus species (Malvaceae) [Bernaud, 1995 (Cameroon)].

Triumfetta brachyceras (Tiliaceae) [Heath et al., 2002: 44].
Acraea (Actinote) bonasia bonasia (Fabricius, 1775)
Papilio bonasia Fabricius, 1775. Systema Entomologiae 464 (832 pp.). Flensburgi & Lipsiae.

Acraea (Actinote) bonasia bonasia. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 38mm. Kabweluma Falls, Kalungwishi River, 3000', Zambia. 7.7.75. I. Bampton. (Henning collection - H150).
Type locality: Sierra Leone: “Sierra Leon”.

Distribution: Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea (Bioko), Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan (south), Uganda (west), Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya (west), Tanzania (north-west), Zambia (north-east).

Specific localities:

Senegal – Dakar (Larsen, 2005a); Basse Casmance (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Kenya – Kakamega Forest (Larsen, 2005a).

ZambiaKalungwishi River; Lufubu River; Lumangwe Falls; Mbala (Heath, et al., 2002).
cynthius Drury, 1782 (as sp. of Papilio). Illustrations of Natural History 3: index et 52 (76 pp.). London. Sierra Leone: “Sierra Leon”.
praeponina Staudinger, 1896 (as sp. of Acraea). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 9: 202 (193-240). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kuilu”.
siabona Suffert, 1904 (as ssp. of Acraea bonasia). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 32 (12-107). Togo: “Misahähe, Togo”.
implicata Schultze, 1923 in Schultze and Aurivillius, 1923 (as ab. of Acraea bonasia). Ergebnisse der Zweiten Deutschen Zentral-Afrika Expedition 1(17): 1131 (1113-1242). Equatorial Guinea: “Fernondo-Po, Sta. Isabel, Basilé”.
tristis Schultze, 1923 in Schultze and Aurivillius, 1923 (as ab. of Acraea bonasia). Ergebnisse der Zweiten Deutschen Zentral-Afrika Expedition 1(17): 1132 (1113-1242). Cameroon: “Akoms” ... des Süd-Kameruner Urwald-gebietes”.
flavistrigata Le Cerf, 1927 (as female f. of Acraea bonasia). Encyclopédie Entomologique (B. 3. Lepidoptera) 2: 54 (44-58). Ghana: “Isasi, Ashanti”.
obscura Dufrane, 1945 (as ab. of Acraea bonasia bonasia). Bulletin et Annales de la Société Royale Entomologique de Belgique 81: 109 (90-143). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kamituga”.
Acraea (Actinote) bonasia banka Eltringham, 1912
Acraea bonasia banka Eltringham, 1912. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1912: 226 (1-374).

Type locality: Ethiopia: “Abyssinia; Banka, Malo”.

Distribution: Ethiopia (highlands).

Specific localities:

Ethiopia – Banka, Malo (TL).

Acraea (Actinote) buschbecki Dewitz, 1889
Acraea buschbecki Dewitz, 1889. Entomologische Nachrichten. Berlin 15: 102 (101-110).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Quango”.

Distribution: Cameroon, to Democratic Republic of Congo (west, central and south).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
zaire Rogenhofer, 1890 (as sp. of Acraea [Telchinia]). Annalen des (K.K.) Naturhistorischen Museums. Wien. 4: 551 (547-554). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Fallstation des oberen Congo”.

Acraea (Actinote) burgessi Jackson, 1956
Acraea burgessi Jackson, 1956. Journal of the East Africa Natural History Society 23: 69 (63-102).

Type locality: Uganda: “Kigezi District, Mafuga Forest”.

Distribution: Uganda (Kigezi), Democratic Republic of Congo (north Kivu).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea (Actinote) cabira Hopffer, 1855
Acraea cabira Hopffer, 1855. Berichte über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Königl. Preuss. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1855: 640 (639-643).

Acraea (Actinote) cabira. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 41mm. Mariepskop, Transvaal. 15.4.55. H. Cookson. (Transvaal Museum - TM3506).
Type locality: Mozambique: “Mossambique”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (east), Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia (Copperbelt eastwards), Mozambique, Zimbabwe (east), South Africa (Limpopo Province, Mpumalanga, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape Province), Swaziland.

Recorded, in error, from West Africa by Boorman, 1961 (Larsen, 2005a).



Specific localities:

Tanzania – In most parts of the country in suitable habitat (Kielland, 1990).

Zambia – Mufulira; Ndola; Mpongwe; Kanona; Luangwa Valley; Shiwa Ngandu; Mbala (Heath, et al., 2002).

Mozambique – Maputo (Van Son, 1963); Inhambane (Van Son, 1963).

Zimbabwe – Mount Selinda (Van Son, 1963).

Limpopo Province – Mica (Swanepoel, 1953); Letaba (Swanepoel, 1953); Duivelskloof (Swanepoel, 1953); Sibasa (Swanepoel, 1953); Entabeni Forest (Swanepoel, 1953); Louis Trichardt (Swanepoel, 1953); Shilouvane (Van Son, 1963); Legalameetse Nature Reserve (“Malta Forest”) (Van Son, 1963); Woodbush (Van Son, 1963); Mountain Inn (Van Son, 1963); Soutpansberg (Pringle, et al. 1994).

Mpumalanga – Barberton (Swanepoel, 1953); Nelspruit (Swanepoel, 1953); Marieps Kop (Swanepoel, 1953); Acornhoek (Van Son, 1963); Buffelskloof Nature Reserve (Williams).

KwaZulu-Natal – Durban (Swanepoel, 1953); Verulam (Swanepoel, 1953); Eshowe (Swanepoel, 1953); St Lucia Bay (Swanepoel, 1953); Sarnia (Van Son, 1963); Stanger (Van Son, 1963).

Eastern Cape Province – Ngqeleni (Van Son, 1963); Port St Johns (Pringle et al., 1994).

Swaziland – Mlawula N. R. (www.sntc.org.sz).

Common name: Yellow-banded acraea.

Habitat: Riverine forest (Heath et al., 2002) and escarpment forest (Pringle et al. 1994). In Tanzania in forests, riverine forest and heavy woodland, from near sea-level to 2 100 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: A somewhat gregarious species that usually flies low down, although at times it can fly high up (Van Son, 1963). Large numbers of specimens were seen flying around a jacaranda tree in a garden at Mount Selinda, apparently attracted by honey-dew (Van Son, 1963). Specimens are readily attracted to flowers (Van Son, 1963).

Flight period: All year (Van Son, 1963).

Early stages:
Trimen & Bowker, 1887, Vol. 1: 174 [as Acraea Cabira Hopff.; Springvale, KwaZulu-Natal coast].

Larva. Bluish-green with yellow-ochreous longitudinal lines and transverse bands. Head and segments two, three, and four, yellowish-brown. Longitudinal lines three, a dorsal and two subdorsal ones. From the transverse band on each segment arise the spines, which are rigid and of moderate length, black on the second, twelfth, and thirteenth segments, yellow-ochreous on the rest. The band is marked on each side with a bluish-green subdorsal spot and a black spiracular ring.” “Pupa. Whitish-green, with the usual pattern of the markings slightly marked, the dorsal markings more pronounced than the others. Mr W.D. Gooch, from whose pencil sketches and notes the above descriptions are made, states that these larvae are very abundant near Springvale, on the Natal Coast, and that there are three broods in the year. They are gregarious, and when young fasten leaves together with silk, feeding on the under side of the leaves. The pupal state usually lasts during ten days, but sometimes only seven days.”


Clark, in Van Son, 1963: 56; plate XIX.

Egg: The eggs are laid in a rather untidy mass. The first are laid in a more or less neat and regular manner, but subsequent eggs are laid on top of these, three or four deep. They are 0.5 mm in diameter and 0.9-1.0 mm high. The ribs and bracing are very faint. There are about 24 longitudinal ribs braced by 20 cross-braces, but in some eggs they are missing. They are a pale watery whitish yellow at first, darkening to pale dull yellow. The larva hatches after 9 to 12 days. Larva: After hatching the larvae eat the discarded shells. They are gregarious till the penultimate instar when they break up into smaller groups and finally separate. There are two distinct groups, one taking six, the other seven instars. When disturbed, the larvae jerk their heads back over their body and fall to the next leaf, or to the ground, and go through wiggling contortions, then lay still with the head thrown back. The development proceeds as follows: Six instar group: 1st instar 1.5mm, growing to 2.75 mm in 8 days; 2nd instar growing to 4.75 mm in 5 days; 3rd instar growing to 7.5 mm in 6 days; 4th instar growing to 11.5 mm in 5 days; 5th instar growing to 14 (male) or 16 (female) mm in 5 days; 6th instar growing to 22 (male) or 27.5 (female) mm in 8 days. Seven instar group: 1st instar 1.25mm, growing to 2.25 mm in 9 days; 2nd instar growing to 3.35 mm in 6 days; 3rd instar growing to 6.25 mm in 5 days; 4th instar growing to 9.25 mm in 5 days; 5th instar growing to 12.5 mm in 5 days; 6th instar growing to 14 mm in 6 days; 7th instar growing to 22 (males) or 27.5 (females) mm in 7 days. Pupa: The pupa is suspended by cremastral hooks only. That of the male is 15 mm long, of the female 18 mm. The white portions are a shiny, porcelain white which varies slightly in size, especially on the abdomen.”


Larval food:

(Similar to) Lamium [Gooch, in Trimen & Bowker, 1887, Vol. 1: 174; Springvale, KwaZulu-Natal coast].



Triumfetta tomentosa Boj. (Tiliaceae) [Platt, 1921].

Hermannia species (Sterculiaceae) [Clark, cited by Van Son, 1963].

Cephalomma species (Tiliaceae) [Kielland, 1990: 153].

Triumfetta rhomboidea (Tiliaceae) [Botha, in Botha & Botha, 2006: 180].
apecida Oberthür, 1893 (as sp. of Acraea). Études d’Entomologie 17: 23 (17-36). Tanzania: “Usambara”.
flavomaculata Lanz, 1896 (as var. of Acraea apecida). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 9: 130 (113-147). Tanzania: “Tanganjika”; Malawi: “Parumbira”.
natalensis Staudinger, 1896 (as var. of Acraea cabira). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 9: 206 (193-240). South Africa: “Natal”; Mozambique: “Delagoa Bay”.
biraca Suffert, 1904 (as ssp. of Acraea cabira). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 33 (12-107). Tanzania: “Langenburg am Nyassa Seee”.
abrupta Grünberg, 1910 (as var. of Acraea apecida). Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1910: 163 (146-181). Uganda: “Sesse-Inseln”.
swinburnei Stevenson, 1940 (as var. of Acraea cabira apecida). Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 3: 98 (88-108). Zimbabwe: “Chirinda Forest”.

Acraea (Actinote) circeis (Drury, 1782)
Papilio circeis Drury, 1782. Illustrations of Natural History 3: index et 24 (76 pp.). London.

Type locality: “Africa”.

Distribution: Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea (Bioko), Congo, Angola (north), Democratic Republic of Congo (south-west).

Specific localities:

Sierra Leone – Freetown (Owen & Chanter, 1972).

Ghana – Atewa Range (Belcastro teste Larsen, 2005a); Boabeng-Fiema (Larsen, 2005a); Aburi Botanical Gardens (Larsen, 2005a); Kakum N.P. (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Common name: White acraea.

Habitat: Mainly wetter forest in good condition, but also in somewhat drier forests (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: Males vigorously defend territories from perches in shafts of sunlight 1.5 to 5 m above the ground (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Urera oblongifolia (Urticaceae) [Owen & Owen, 1972 (Sierra Leone)].

Note: There are two distinct female forms; the male-like female form may belong to a different species (Larsen, 2005a).
mandane Fabricius, 1793 (as sp. of Papilio). Entomologia Systematica emendata et aucta 3 (1): 183 (488pp.). “Africa”.
opis Herbst, 1793 (as sp. of Papilio). Natursystem aller bekannten in- und ausländischen Insekten. Der Schmetterlinge 6: 78 (162 pp.). Berlin. Sierra Leone: “Sierra Leona”.
leona Staudinger, 1896 (as sp. of Acraea). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 9: 199 (193-240). Sierra Leone”.
leonina Bethune-Baker, 1903 (as ssp. of Acraea igola). Annals and Magazine of Natural History (7) 12: 325 (324-334). [West Africa]: “in the neighbourhood of Sierra Leone”.
reversa Eltringham, 1912 (as f. of Acraea servona). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1912: 296 (1-374). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Congo (Bopoto, Ituri Forest, Stanley Pool, Kassai)”. [Determined to be a form of circeus by Pierre and Bernaud (1999: 589).].

Acraea (Actinote) disjuncta Grose-Smith, 1898
Acraea disjuncta Grose-Smith, 1898. Novitates Zoologicae 5: 351 (350-358).

Type locality: Kenya: “Nandi country”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, Uganda.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Urera hypselodendron (Hochst) Wedd. (Urticaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 323].
Acraea (Actinote) disjuncta disjuncta Grose-Smith, 1898
Acraea disjuncta Grose-Smith, 1898. Novitates Zoologicae 5: 351 (350-358).

Type locality: Kenya: “Nandi country”.

Distribution: Kenya (west), Uganda (excluding Toro and Kigezi).
Acraea (Actinote) disjuncta kigeziensis Jackson, 1956
Acraea disjuncta kigeziensis Jackson, 1956. Journal of the East Africa Natural History Society 23: 70 (63-102).

Type locality: Uganda: “Kigezi, Mafuga forest”.

Distribution: Uganda (west - Toro, Kigezi), Democratic Republic of Congo (Kivu, Ituri).

Acraea (Actinote) encedana Pierre, 1976
Acraea encedana Pierre, 1976. Compte Rendu Hebdomadaire des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences., Paris (D) 282: 731 (731-734).

Acraea (Actinote) encedana. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 56mm. Budongo, W. Uganda. 17.9.72. Ed. B. Ralyetagara. (Henning collection - H144).
Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Congo belge, Kadjudja”.

Distribution: Senegal, Gambia, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Benin, Nigeria, Angola, Democratic Republic of Africa, to Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia (north-west and Copperbelt), Mozambique.

Specific localities:

Senegal – Basse Casamance (Larsen, 2005a).

Ghana – Hans Cottage, Cape Coast (Larsen, 2005a).

Nigeria – near Lagos (Larsen, 2005a); Kaduna (R. St Leger teste Larsen, 2005a); Obudu Plateau (Larsen, 2005a).

Democratic Republic of Congo – Kadjudja (TL).

Zambia – Ikelenge; Kabompo River; Solwezi; Chingola; Chishi Island, Lake Bangweulu (Heath, et al., 2002).

Common name: Encedana acraea.

Habitat: Open areas near swampy ground (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: Occurs in very localized but often densely-populated, colonies (Larsen, 2005a). Numbers were once seen feeding from Tridax flowers in Ghana (Larsen, 2005a). See A. encedon for notes on the phenomenon of all-female broods.

Early stages:
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