Butterflies and skippers of the afrotropical region




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Type locality: Angola: “Cabinda, Ambriz”.

Distribution: Cameroon, to Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda (west).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea (Acraea) indentata (Butler, 1895)
Planema indentata Butler, 1895. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 16: 416 (415-417).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Cameroons; Barombi”.

Distribution: Cameroon.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea (Acraea) leopoldina (Aurivillius, 1895)
Planema leopoldina Aurivillius, 1895. Entomologisk Tidskrift 16: 112 (111-112).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Leopoldville”.

Distribution: Cameroon, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Acraea (Acraea) leopoldina leopoldina (Aurivillius, 1895)
Planema leopoldina Aurivillius, 1895. Entomologisk Tidskrift 16: 112 (111-112).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Leopoldville”.

Distribution: Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo (south).
albofasciata Le Doux, 1937 (as female f. of Planema poggei brevimacula). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 29: 171 (151-187). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Uele Niangara”.
mixta Le Doux, 1937 (as f. of Planema poggei leopoldina). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 29: 171 (151-187). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kapanga”.
Acraea (Acraea) leopoldina brevimacula (Talbot, 1928)
Planema poggei brevimacula Talbot, 1928. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines 16: 217 (217-220).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: Ruschuru, Kivu”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (east).
schoutedeni Le Doux, 1937 (as ssp. of Planema poggei). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 29: 172 (151-187). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kindu, Lusuku”.
Acraea (Acraea) leopoldina macrosticha (Bethune-Baker, 1908)
Planema macrosticha Bethune-Baker, 1908. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (8) 2: 472 (469-482).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Makala”.

Distribution: Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo (north).
intermissa Gaede, 1916 (as var. of Planema leopoldina). Internationale Entomologische Zeitschrift 9: 111 (105-106, 109-112, 125-126). Cameroon: “Pama-Quelle, Neu-Kamerun”.

Acraea (Acraea) macaria (Fabricius, 1793)
Papilio macaria Fabricius, 1793. Entomologia Systematica emendata et aucta 3 (1): 174 (488 pp.).

Type locality: [West Africa.]

Distribution: Senegal, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana.

Misattributed to the Madagascar fauna by Mabille [1887] (Lees et al., 2003). Recorded erroneously from Nigeria (Larsen, 2005a).



Specific localities:

Senegal – Basse Casamance (Larsen, 2005a).

Sierra Leone – Freetown (Owen & Owen, 1972).

Common name: Black-spot bematistes.

Habitat: Wetter forest of good quality (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: A generally scarce butterfly (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Adenia species (Passifloraceae) [Owen & Owen, 1972 (Sierra Leone)].

Acraea (Acraea) macarista (Sharpe, 1906)
Planema macarista Sharpe, 1906. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (7) 18: 76 (75-76).

Acraea (Acraea) macarista macarista. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 68mm. Entebbe, Uganda. 1/2/73. Rev Falke. (Henning collection - H134).
Type locality: Uganda: “Entebbe”.

Distribution: Cameroon, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Sudan, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia.

Habitat: Dense forest (Kielland, 1990). The nominate subspecies in Tanzania occurs at altitudes between 800 and 1 500 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: Flies together with forms of Pseudacraea eurytus which are good mimics of macarista (Kielland, 1990).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Acraea (Acraea) macarista macarista (Sharpe, 1906)
Planema macarista Sharpe, 1906. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (7) 18: 76 (75-76).

Acraea (Acraea) macarista macarista. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 68mm. Entebbe, Uganda. 1/2/73. Rev Falke. (Henning collection - H134).
Type locality: Uganda: “Entebbe”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Sudan, Kenya (west), Tanzania (north-west), Zambia (north-west).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Mpanda and Kigoma Districts (Kielland, 1990).

Zambia – Ikelenge (Heath, et al., 2002).
moforsa Suffert, 1904 (as ssp. of Planema formosa). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 37 (12-107). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Mukenge”.
plagioscia Bethune-Baker, 1908 (as sp. of Planema). Annals and Magazine of Natural History (8) 2: 471 (469-482). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Beni-Mawambe, Congo Free State”.
vendita Wichgraf, 1911 (as sp. of Planema). Internationale Entomologische Zeitschrift 5: 174 (173-175). “Victoria-Nyanza-See”.
distincta Le Doux, 1937 (as f. of Planema macarista macarista). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 29: 175 (151-187). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kapanga”.
Acraea (Acraea) macarista latefasciata (Suffert, 1904)
Planema formosa latefasciata Suffert, 1904. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 37 (12-107).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Jaunde, Camerun”.

Distribution: Cameroon, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea.
rileyi Le Doux, 1937 (as ssp. of Planema macarista). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 29: 176 (151-187). Equatorial Guinea: “Span. Guinea, Bonito-Gebiet”. [Invalid; junior secondary homonym of Acraea rileyi Le Doux, 1931 [Acraeinae].]

Acraea (Acraea) obliqua (Aurivillius, 1913)
Planema obliqua Aurivillius, 1913 in Seitz, 1908-25. Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde, Stuttgart (2) 13 Die Afrikanischen Tagfalter: 243 (614 pp.).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Fonga Tunga”.

Distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda.

Common name: Yellow-banded bematistes.

Habitat: Submontane forest (above 1 300 m) (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: Quite common in Nigeria (Larsen, 2005a). Flies high up, with a slow sailing flight, mainly on the edges of the forest (Larsen, 2005a). A form of Pseudacraea eurytis is an excellent mimic (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Adenia cisampelloides (Passifloraceae) [Bernaud, 1995 (Cameroon)].
Acraea (Acraea) obliqua obliqua (Aurivillius, 1913)
Planema obliqua Aurivillius, 1913 in Seitz, 1908-25. Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde, Stuttgart (2) 13 Die Afrikanischen Tagfalter: 243 (614 pp.).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Fonga Tunga”.

Distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon.

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Obudu Plateau (Larsen, 2005a); Mambilla Plateau (Larsen, 2005a).
Acraea (Acraea) obliqua elgonense (Poulton, 1927)
Planema elgonense Poulton, 1927. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of London 2: 37 (36-37).

Type locality: Uganda: “W. Elgon District”.

Distribution: Uganda (western slopes of Mt Elgon).
ela Rumbucher, 1992 (as female f. of Bematistes elgonense). Lambillionea 92 (3):231, 232 (231-232). Uganda: “Mt Elgon”.
Acraea (Acraea) obliqua kivuensis (Joicey & Talbot, 1927)
Planema obliqua kivuensis Joicey & Talbot, 1927. Encyclopédie Entomologique (B.3. Lepidoptera) 2: 12 (1-14).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “North-West Kivu: Kivu-Oso Watershed, 4,500-6,000 feet”.

Distribution: Uganda (west - highlands), Democratic Republic of Congo (east - Kivu, Ituri).
toroense Poulton, 1929 in Eltringham et al., 1929 (as ssp. of Planema elgonense). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 77: 489 (475-504). Uganda: “Kibale Forest, near Fort Portal, Toro”.

Acraea (Acraea) persanguinea (Rebel, 1914)
Planema persanguinea Rebel, 1914. Annalen des (K.K.) Naturhistorischen Museums. Wien 28: 235 (219-294).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Rutschuru-Ebene”.

Distribution: Uganda (south-west), Rwanda, Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo (Mongala, Uele, Lualaba).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
consanguinoides Le Doux, 1931 (as sp. of Planema). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1931: 58 (49-59). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Stanley-Falls, Congo”.

Acraea (Acraea) poggei Dewitz, 1879
Acraea poggei Dewitz, 1879. Nova Acta Academiae Caesarea Leopoldino-Carolinae Germanicum Naturae Curiosorum 4 (2): 190 (173-212).

Acraea (Acraea) poggei poggei. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 74mm. Zambia, N.W. Province, Kamapanda, 12° 00'S; 24° 03'E. 1500 m. 31.III.1997. F.M. Kayombo. (Newport Collection).

Acraea (Acraea) poggei poggei. Female. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 78mm. Tanzania, Bukoba, Minziro Forest. 25.II.1991. J. Kielland. (Newport Collection).
Type locality: [Angola]: “Guinea”. [False locality.]

Distribution: Zambia, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Tanzania, Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Ethiopia.

Habitat: Forest and riverine thicket (Kielland, 1990). In Tanzania the nominate subspecies occurs at altitudes from 800 to 2 000 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: Often flies high up in the forest canopy and unlike similar congenerics is not restricted to the darker parts of the forest (Kielland, 1990).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Adenia spp. (Passifloraceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 322].

Vitis species (Vitaceae) [Kielland, 1990: 146].
Acraea (Acraea) poggei poggei Dewitz, 1879
Acraea poggei Dewitz, 1879. Nova Acta Academiae Caesarea Leopoldino-Carolinae Germanicum Naturae Curiosorum 4 (2): 190 (173-212).

Acraea (Acraea) poggei poggei. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 74mm. Zambia, N.W. Province, Kamapanda, 12° 00'S; 24° 03'E. 1500 m. 31.III.1997. F.M. Kayombo. (Newport Collection).

Acraea (Acraea) poggei poggei. Female. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 78mm. Tanzania, Bukoba, Minziro Forest. 25.II.1991. J. Kielland. (Newport Collection).
Type locality: [Angola]: “Guinea”. [False locality.]

Distribution: Zambia (north-west and north-east), Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo (Shaba), Tanzania (west).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Mpanda and Kigoma Districts (Kielland, 1990).

Zambia – Matonchi; Kamapanda; Ikelenge; Mwinilunga; Kalungwishi River (Heath, et al., 2002).
entalis Jordan, 1910 (as sp. of Planema). Novitates Zoologicae 17: 462 (462-469). Angola: North Bailunda”.
amela Hering, 1936 (as ssp. of Planema poggei). Mitteilungen der Deutschen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 7: 22 (21-22). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Mukenge”.
flava Le Doux, 1937 (as f. of Planema poggei nelsoni). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 29: 169 (151-187). Tanzania: “Kalenga, Kambaza”.
Acraea (Acraea) poggei nelsoni Grose-Smith & Kirby, 1892
Acraea nelsoni Grose-Smith & Kirby, 1892 in Grose-Smith and Kirby, 1887-92. Rhopalocera exotica, being illustrations of new, rare and unfigured species of butterflies 1: 10 (183 pp.). London.

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Aruwini”.

Diagnosis: Differs from the nominate subspecies in that, on the forewing upperside, the apical patch is reduced in size and the inner margin of the ochreous band is straighter (Congdon and Collins, 1998),

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (north-east), Tanzania (north-west), Sudan, Uganda, Kenya (west).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Minziro forests; Rumanyika Game Reserve (Congdon and Collins, 1998).
paragoga Hering, 1936 (as ssp. of Planema poggei). Mitteilungen der Deutschen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 7: 22 (21-22). Tanzania: “Ukerewe, Bukoba”; Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kiwu”; “Victoria Nyansa”.
Acraea (Acraea) poggei ras (Ungemach, 1932)
Planema nelsoni ras Ungemach, 1932. Mémoires de la Société des Sciences Naturelles (et Physiques) du Maroc 32: 71 (1-122).

Type locality: Ethiopia: “Oullaga; Youbdo, Guebba”.

Distribution: Ethiopia (south-west).

Acraea (Acraea) pseuderyta Godman & Salvin, 1890
Acraea pseuderyta Godman & Salvin, 1890. In: Jameson, J.J., Story of the rear column of the Emin Pasha relief expedition: 429 (426-445).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Yambuya Camp”.

Distribution: Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan, Uganda (west).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
dewitzi Staudinger, 1896 (as sp. of Acraea). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 9: 209 (193-240). Central African Republic: “Njamnjam”.
angulata Suffert, 1904 (as ssp. of Planema formosa). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 38 (12-107). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Mukenge”.

Acraea (Acraea) quadricolor (Rogenhofer, 1891)
Planema quadricolor Rogenhofer, 1891. Annalen des (K.K.) Naturhistorischen Museums. Wien 6: 458 (455-466).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Meru”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania.

Habitat: Montane forest. In Tanzania the various subspecies occur at the following altitudes: ssp. quadricolor – above 1 400 m, ssp. leptis – 1 000 to 2 150 m, ssp. itumbana 900 to 2 340 m, ssp. uluguru – 2 140 m, ssp. mahale – 1 700 m, ssp. morogoro – 1 300 to 2 300 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: Males defend territories from perches (Kielland, 1990).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Adenia cissampeloides (Planch) Harms (Passifloraceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 322].

Vitis spp. (Vitaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 322].

Passiflora species (Passifloraceae) [Kielland, 1990: 148; ssp. latifasciata].
Acraea (Acraea) quadricolor quadricolor (Rogenhofer, 1891)
Planema quadricolor Rogenhofer, 1891. Annalen des (K.K.) Naturhistorischen Museums. Wien 6: 458 (455-466).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Meru”.

Distribution: Tanzania (north-east).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Mount Meru; Mount Kilimanjaro; Oldeani (Kielland, 1990).
Acraea (Acraea) quadricolor itumbana (Jordan, 1910)
Planema quadricolor itumbana Jordan, 1910. Novitates Zoologicae 17: 463 (462-469).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Itumba”. Kielland (1990) notes that the type locality refers to the Itumba District on the Itigi-Rungwa road south-east of Tabora.

Diagnosis: Differs from the nominate subspecies in the generally wider forewing postdiscal orange band (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Tanzania (east).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Itumba District (TL); Mufindi; Uzungwa Range; Ukaguru Mountains; Rubeho Mountains; Kiboriani Mountains; Chugu Mountain; Mangaliza Mountain (Kielland, 1990).
Acraea (Acraea) quadricolor latifasciata (Sharpe, 1892)
Planema latifasciata Sharpe, 1892. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1891: 635 (633-638).

Type locality: Kenya/Uganda: “Mount Elgon”.

Diagnosis: This subspecies and ssp. morogoro have a yellow median hindwing band (white in the other subspecies) (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Ituri, Kivu), Uganda (west), Burundi, Kenya (west of Rift Valley), Tanzania (north-west).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Ngara District at Rulenge (Kielland, 1990).
pallescens Gabriel, 1939 (as ab. of Bematistes quadricolor latifasciata). British Museum (Natural History) Ruwenzori Expedition 1934-5 3 (3): 65 (51-95). Uganda: “Namwamba Valley”.
Acraea (Acraea) quadricolor leptis (Jordan, 1910)
Planema quadricolor leptis Jordan, 1910. Novitates Zoologicae 17: 463 (462-469).

Type locality: Kenya: “Kikuyu Escarpment”.

Diagnosis: Differs from the nominate ssp. as follows: ground colour paler; forewing postdiscal band narrower; hind wing white band wider with the outer border indistinct (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Kenya (east of Rift Valley), Tanzania (north-east).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Usambara Mountains; South Pare Mountains (Kielland, 1990).
Acraea (Acraea) quadricolor mahale (Kielland, 1990)
Bematistes quadricolor mahale Kielland, 1990. Butterflies of Tanzania 147 (363 pp.). Melbourne.

Type locality: Tanzania: “Kigoma, Mahale Mt., Lukandamira, 1700 m.”. Holotype (male) in the Natural History Museum, London. The female is not known (Kielland, 1990).

Description:

Male. Upperside f.w. post-discal band orange, moderately wide, not narrowing towards costa as it is in itumbana, therefore its shape is quite different, standing nearly perpendicularly on the costa; h.w. median white band comparatively wide, not convex in its outer border, widest near hind margin, its angle to the costa sharp as that of ssp. uluguru, but the band is wider. Underside as the upperside , but paler, slightly paler than in itumbana. Length of f.w. 33 mm. Female unknown.”



Diagnosis: Upperside forewing orange postdiscal band not narrowing towards the costa as it does in ssp. itumbana; underside slightly paler than that of itumbana (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Tanzania (west).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Mount Mahale (Kielland, 1990).
Acraea (Acraea) quadricolor morogoro (Carpenter & Jackson, 1950)
Bematistes quadricolor morogoro Carpenter & Jackson, 1950. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 19: 105 (97-108).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Morogoro district, Masakati”.

Diagnosis: Has a yellow median band on the hind wing upperside as in ssp. latifasciata but forewing postdiscal orange band is paler, wider and widest in the middle (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Tanzania (north-east)

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Nguru Mountains; Kanga Mountains; Nguu Mountains (Kielland, 1990).
Acraea (Acraea) quadricolor uluguru (Kielland, 1990)
Bematistes quadricolor uluguru Kielland, 1990. Butterflies of Tanzania 147 (363 pp.). Melbourne.

Type locality: Tanzania: “Morogoro, Uluguru Mts., Bondwa Mt., 2140 m.”. Holotype (male) in the Natural History Museum, London. The female is not known (Kielland, 1990).

Description:

Male. Upperside f.w. basal half reddish-brown, slightly paler than in ssp. itumbana; postdiscal orange band wide (as in normal itumbana); h.w. median white band more evenly tapering towards costal margin, its outer border not convex as it is itumbana, its position forms a sharper angle to the costa, with its upper end reaching costal margin closer to the apex of the wing. Markings on the underside as above, but distal part of wings paler. Length of f.w. 32.8 mm. Female. Not known.”



Diagnosis: Differs from ssp. itumbana as follows: upperside forewing basal reddish-brown colouration slightly paler; hind wing median white band more evenly tapering towards costal margin, its outer border not as convex as in itumbana, its position forming a sharper angle to the costa, with its upper end reaching the costal margin closer to the apex of the wing (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Tanzania (east).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Mount Bondwa in the Uluguru Mountains (TL) (Kielland, 1990).

Acraea (Acraea) scalivittata (Butler, 1896)
Planema scalivittata Butler, 1896. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 18: 159 (159-163).

Acraea (Acraea) scalivittata scalivittata. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 64mm. Chowa, Nyika, Zambia. 7 Mar 1983. R.J. Dowsett. No. 747. (Henning collection - H132).
Type locality: Malawi: “Kasungu Mountains, Nyika”.

Distribution: Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia.

Habitat: Montane forest (Heath, et al., 2002). In Tanzania it is found at altitudes from 1 700 to 2 340 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: Appears to be very common for short periods at certain times (especially March-April) but rare to absent most of the time (Kielland, 1990).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Adenia species (Passifloraceae) [Congdon, vide Kielland, 1990: 148].

Adenia stolzii (Passifloraceae) [Congdon & Bampton, unpublished 2003; Mufindi, Tanzania].
Acraea (Acraea) scalivittata scalivittata (Butler, 1896)
Planema scalivittata Butler, 1896. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 18: 159 (159-163).

Acraea (Acraea) scalivittata scalivittata. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 64mm. Chowa, Nyika, Zambia. 7 Mar 1983. R.J. Dowsett. No. 747. (Henning collection - H132).
Type locality: Malawi: “Kasungu Mountains, Nyika”.

Distribution: Zambia (east), Malawi (north), ?Tanzania (west).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Bisi Mountain in Ufipa (Collins, in Kielland, 1990).

Zambia – Nyika (Heath, et al., 2002).
Acraea (Acraea) scalivittata kiellandianus Koçak, 1996
Acraea scalivittata kiellandi Collins, 1990. Ackery et al., 1995: 245.

Acraea (Acraea) scalivittata kiellandianus Koçak, 1996. Centre for Entomological Studies Miscellaneous Papers 27-28: 12 (10-16).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Mufindi, Dec. 1987, 3 000 m, S. Collins.”. Holotype male in the Natural History Museum, London.

Original description:

Male. Forewing length 30 mm. The submarginal white spots on the forewing are more developed. The principle feature is the hindwing median band which is more ochreous yellow and is much more developed and radiates towards the margin unlike specimens from Zambia and Malawi. Female as male but forewing length 37 mm.”



Diagnosis: Differs from the nominate subspecies chiefly in the hindwing median band, which is more ochreous yellow, is much better developed, radiating toward the margin (Collins, in Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Tanzania (central, south and south-west).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Mufindi (TL); Image Mountain; Nyumbenitu (Collins, in Kielland, 1990); Poroto Mountains; Njombe; Livingstone Mountains; Uzungwa Range; Mount Mangalisa; Chugu Mountain (Kielland, 1990).
kiellandi Collins, 1990 in Kielland, 1990 (as ssp. of Bematistes scalivittata). Butterflies of Tanzania 339 (363 pp.). Melbourne. Malawi: “Kasungu Mountains, Nyika”. [Invalid.]

Acraea (Acraea) tellus (Aurivillius, 1893)
Planema tellus Aurivillius, 1893. Entomologisk Tidskrift 14: 280 (257-292).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Itoki, Ekundu, Kitta”.

Diagnosis: Similar to B. epaea but the forewing orange subapical band is much wider and is not kinked at vein as it is in epaea (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Tanzania.

Common name: Orange Bematistes.

Habitat: Forest of good quality (Larsen 2005a).

Habits: A fairly common butterfly that flies about slowly in shady places in the forest (Larsen 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Adenia spp. (Passifloraceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 322].
Acraea (Acraea) tellus tellus (Aurivillius, 1893)
Planema tellus Aurivillius, 1893. Entomologisk Tidskrift 14: 280 (257-292).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Itoki, Ekundu, Kitta”.

Distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Oban Hills (Larsen 2005a); Okwangwo (Larsen 2005a); Okomu (J. Wojtusiak teste (Larsen 2005a); Makurdi (Larsen 2005a).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen 2005a).
lustella Suffert, 1904 (as ssp. of Planema epaea). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 36 (12-107). Cameroon: “Camerun”; Democratic Republic of Congo: “Mukenge, Congo Staat”.
subapicalis Strand, 1914 (as ab. of Planema tellus). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 79 (A.12.): 107 (97-144). Equatorial Guinea: “Span.-Guinea, Alen Benitogebiet; Weg nach Manononam”.
albofasciata Neustetter, 1916 (as ab. of Planema tellus). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 30: 98 (95-108). Cameroon: “Kamerun, Bipindi”.
helichta Neustetter, 1916 (as ab. of Planema tellus). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 30: 98 (95-108). Cameroon: “Kamerun, Bipindi”.
ferruginea Le Doux, 1937 (as f. of Planema tellus). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 29: 162 (151-187). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Sankuru, Loto”.
bernardi Berger, 1981 (as f. of Bematistes tellus tellus). Les Papillons du Zaire 193 (543 pp.). Bruxelles. Democratic Republic of Congo: “Isiro”.
Acraea (Acraea) tellus eumelis (Jordan, 1910)
Planema tellus eumelis Jordan, 1910. Novitates Zoologicae 17: 462 (462-469).

Type locality: Uganda: “Toro”.

Distribution: Uganda (central and east), Tanzania (north-west).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Ntakatta Forest; Bukoba Region (Kielland, 1990).
Acraea (Acraea) tellus schubotzi (Grünberg, 1911)
Planmea schubotzi Grünberg, 1911. Wissenschaftliche Ergibnisse der Deutschen Zentral-Afrika Expedition 1907-1908. 3 (17): 519 (506-560), 4 pls. Leipzig.

Type locality: No locality given.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Ituri, north Kivu), Uganda (west - Bwamba).

Acraea (Acraea) umbra (Drury, 1782)
Papilio umbra Drury, 1782. Illustrations of Natural History 3: index et 23 (76 pp.). London.

Type locality: Sierra Leone: “Sierra Leon”.

Distribution: Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia.

Common name: Clouded bematistes.

Habitat: Forest, including degraded habitat (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: A relatively common butterfly that flies about slowly in the shade (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Adenia cisampelloides (Passifloraceae) [Bernaud, 1995 (Cameroon)].
Acraea (Acraea) umbra umbra (Drury, 1782)
Papilio umbra Drury, 1782. Illustrations of Natural History 3: index et 23 (76 pp.). London.

Type locality: Sierra Leone: “Sierra Leon”.

Distribution: Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon (west).
Acraea (Acraea) umbra carpenteri (Le Doux, 1937)
Planema umbra carpenteri le Doux, 1937. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 29: 180 (151-187).

Type locality: Guinea-Bissau: “Bissagos-Inseln”.

Distribution: Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea.
Acraea (Acraea) umbra hemileuca (Jordan, 1914)
Planema macaria hemileuca Jordan, 1914. Novitates Zoologicae 21: 254 (254).

Acraea umbra hemileuca (Jordan, 1914). Larsen, 2005a: 459.

Type locality: Uganda: “Semliki valley, Toro; Buamba Forest”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (east), Uganda, Kenya (west - Kakamega Forest).
Acraea (Acraea) umbra macarioides (Aurivillius, 1893)
Planema macarioides Aurivillius, 1893. Entomologisk Tidskrift 14: 284 (257-292).

Acraea umbra macarioides (Aurivillius, 1893). Larsen, 2005a: 459

Acraea (Acraea) umbra macarioides. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 73mm. Mamfe, Br Camerun. Nov ‘62. T.H.E. Jackson. (Henning collection - H136).
Type locality: Cameroon: “Kitta Bonge”.

Distribution: Cameroon, Gabon, Democratic Republic of Congo (west), Angola, Tanzania (north-west), Zambia.

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Mihumu Forest; Kemfu Forest; Ntakatta Forest; Lubalizi; Luntampa (Kielland, 1990).

Zambia – Ikelenge; Mwinilunga (Heath, et al., 2002).
rabuma Suffert, 1904 (as ssp. of Planema umbra). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 38 (12-107). Cameroon: “Barombi; Victoria; Ebea; Camerun Oberland; Angabe”.

Acraea (Acraea) vestalis Felder & Felder, 1865
Acraea vestalis Felder & Felder, 1865 in Felder & Felder, [1865-7]. Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte Novara 369 (549 pp.). Wien.

Type locality: “Guinea”.

Distribution: Senegal, Guinea, Burkina Faso, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Tanzania.

Common name: Smoky bematistes.

Habitat: Lowland forest, including somewhat degraded habitat (Larsen, 2005a). In Tanzania ssp. congoensis occurs at altitudes of 800 to 900 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: A relatively common butterfly (Larsen, 2005a). The flight is slow and sailing, specimens keeping to the dense shade of the forest undergrowth (Kielland, 1990). The striata morph of Pseudacraea eurytus is a nearly perfect mimic of A. vestalis (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Adenia cisampelloides (Passifloraceae) [Bernaud teste Larsen, 2005a (Cameroon)].
Acraea (Acraea) vestalis vestalis Felder & Felder, 1865
Acraea vestalis Felder & Felder, 1865 in Felder & Felder, [1865-7]. Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte Novara 369 (549 pp.). Wien.

Type locality: “Guinea”.

Distribution: Senegal, Guinea, Burkina Faso, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria.

Specific localities:

Senegal – Basse Casamance (Larsen, 2005a).

Burkina Faso – Ouagadougou (A. Prost teste Larsen, 2005a).
Acraea (Acraea) vestalis congoensis (Le Doux, 1937)
Planema vestalis congoensis Le Doux, 1937. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 29: 185 (151-187).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Alle, Lushala”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Lualaba, Lushala), Tanzania (west).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Mukuyu and Mihumu in Kigoma District. The forest at the former locality has been destroyed (Kielland, 1990).
Acraea (Acraea) vestalis stavelia (Suffert, 1904)
Planema vestalis stavelia Suffert, 1904. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 39 (12-107).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Malimbo, Camerun”; Togo.

Distribution: Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo (north-west - Mongala).
fasciata Aurivillius, 1913 in Seitz, 1908-25 (as ab. of Planema umbra). Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde, Stuttgart (2) 13 Die Afrikanischen Tagfalter: 241 (614 pp.). Cameroon: “Cameroons”.

Subgenus Actinote Hübner, 1819
= Gnesia Doubleday, 1848 in Doubleday & Westwood, [1846-52]. The genera of diurnal Lepidoptera, London: 141 (1: 1-250 pp.; 2: 251-534 pp.). London. Type-species: Papilio circeis Drury, by subsequent designation (Scudder, 1875 (Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 10: 179 (91-293)).).

Acraea (Actinote) acerata Hewitson, 1874
Acraea acerata Hewitson, 1874. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (4) 13: 381 (380-383).

Acraea (Actinote) acerata. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 35mm. Kankumba isle, Zambezi river, East Caprivi. 30.6.1987. R.D. Stephen. (Transvaal Museum - TM3505).
Type locality: [Ghana]: “Between Mansu and the River Prah”.

Diagnosis: Both sexes show colour and pattern variation (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan, Rwanda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Angola, Mozambique, Zimbabwe (north-west), Botswana (north), Namibia (north).

Specific localities:

Ghana – near Cape Coast (Larsen, 2005a).

Nigeria – Kaduna (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Rwanda – Kigali (Larsen, 2005a).

Tanzania – Very common in the western parts; less common in the east and north (Kielland, 1990).

Zambia – Victoria Falls; Mufulira; Mbala (Heath, et al., 2002).

Mozambique – Posto de Catandica (Pringle, et al. 1994).

Zimbabwe – Victoria Falls (Carcasson and Mitton); Honde Valley (Chitty); Pungwe Bridge (Paré).

Botswana – Shakawe; Kasane (Pinhey).

NamibiaOkavango River, Ovamboland (Van Son, 1963); Rundu; Outschi (Pennington); Katima Mulilo (Ficq).

Common name: Small yellow-banded acraea.

Habitat: Mainly in disturbed areas in the forest zone (Larsen, 2005a). Usually near water (Heath et al., 2002) or in riverine bush (Pringle et al., 1994). In Tanzania it is found at altitudes from 800 to 2 000 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: Sometimes uncommon but abundant following periodic population irruptions (Larsen, 2005a). The flight is weak (Pringle et al. 1994). It is a well known pest of sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) (Kielland, 1990; Azeferegne et al., 2001). Migratory behaviour was observed in Kigali, Rwanda by Larsen (2005a).

Flight period: Probably all year (Van Son, 1963).

Early stages:
Van Someren & Rogers, 1926: 83.

“Eggs are laid in bunches or groups on the underside of the leaves of a species of Solanum. The newly-emerged larva is a greyish yellow or green, becoming pale greenish in the third stage, with the spines of first two and last three segments blackish or brownish; the remainder yellowish; lateral body line yellowish; head brownish with black inverted V in centre. Pupa white or creamy with usual black lines and dots.”


Larsen, 1999. [egg].
Jiggins et al., 2003.

Eggs are laid in a single layer, with the individual eggs touching one another. The mean clutch size was 165 (n=20).


Larval food:

Solanum species (Solanaceae) [Van Someren & Rogers, 1926: 83].

Ipomoea batatas Linnaeus (Convolvulaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 323].

Merremia hederaca (Convolvulaceae) [Pierre & Vuattoux, 1978 (Ivory Coast)].

Lepistemon owariense (Convolvulaceae) [Pierre & Vuattoux, 1978 (Ivory Coast)].

Ipomoea repens (Convolvulaceae) [Kielland, 1990: 149].

(Possibly) Zea species (Poaceae) [Kielland, 1990: 149].



Passiflora species (Passifloraceae) [Ackery et al., 1995].

Vernonia species (Asteraceae) [Ackery et al., 1995].

Ipomoea whytei (Convolvulaceae) [Heath, et al., 2002: 44].

Ipomoea species (Convolvulaceae) [Larsen, 2005a (Oban Hills, Nigeria)].
vinidia Hewitson, 1874 (as sp. of Acraea). Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 11: 130 (130-132). Angola.
tenella Rogenhofer, 1891 (as sp. of Acraea [Telchinia]). Annalen des (K.K.) Naturhistorischen Museums. Wien 6: 457 (455-466). Tanzania: “Taveta”.
abbotti Holland, 1892 (as sp. of Acraea). Entomologist (Supplement) 25: 89 (89-95). “Eastern Africa”.
brahmsi Suffert, 1904 (as sp. of Acraea). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 15 (12-107). Cameroon: “Viktoria, Camerun”.
diavina Suffert, 1904 (as ssp. of Acraea vinidia). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 31 (12-107). Cameroon: “Viktoria, Camerun”.
pullula Grünberg, 1911 (as sp. of Acraea). Wissenschaftliche Ergibnisse der Deutschen Zentral-Afrika Expedition 1907-1908. 3 (17): 516 (506-560), 4 pls. Leipzig. Rwanda: “Mohasi-See”.
ruandae Grünberg, 1911 (as ab. of Acraea vinidia). Wissenschaftliche Ergibnisse der Deutschen Zentral-Afrika Expedition 1907-1908. 3 (17): 516 (506-560), 4 pls. Leipzig. Rwanda: “Mohasi-See”.
burigensis Strand, 1913 (as ab. of Acraea acerata vinidia). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 79 (A.2.): 171 (171-175). Tanzania: “Burigsee”.
alluaudi Le Cerf, 1927 (as f. of Acraea acerata tenella). Encyclopédie Entomologique (B. 3. Lepidoptera) 2: 53 (44-58). Kenya: “Voï, Monts Taita, Est africain britannique”.
hoursti Le Cerf, 1927 (as ssp. of Acraea acerata). Encyclopédie Entomologique (B. 3. Lepidoptera) 2: 54 (44-58). Niger: “Tombouctou à Say”.

Acraea (Actinote) actinotina (Lathy, 1903)
Telipna actinotina Lathy, 1903. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1903: 194 (183-206).

Type locality: Nigeria: “Anambara Creek”.

Distribution: Nigeria (central, east).

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Ogruga near Anambra Creek at Nsukka (TL); Ahoada (R. St Leger teste Larsen, 2005a); Sapoba (Soko Plains) (N. McNulty teste Larsen, 2005a).

Common name: Puzzling acraea.

Habitat: Nothing published.

Habits: Normally a rare butterfly which, apparently, has periodic population explosions (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea (Actinote) acuta Howarth, 1969
Acraea ansorgei acuta Howarth, 1969. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 38: 146 (141-156).

Acraea acuta Howarth, 1969. Kielland, 1990: 149 stat. nov.

Acraea (Actinote) acuta acuta. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 39mm. Mugesse, 5500', Misuku Hills, Malawi. 24.6.74. I. Bampton. (Henning collection - H145).
Type locality: Tanzania: “Poroto Mts., 8000 feet, Ihoho Forest”.

Diagnosis: Very similar to H. ansorgei but the genitalia are distinctive (figured in Kielland, 1990). The females are highly polymorphic (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia.

Habitat: Montane forest and mountain summits with evergreen shrubs (Kielland, 1990). In Tanzania the altitudes at which the various subspecies occurs are as follows: nominate ssp. 1 500 to 2 300 m, ssp. rubrobasalis 1 500 to 2 200 m, ssp. nigromaculata 1 400 to 2 150 m and ssp. ngorongoro 2 000 to 2 400 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: Males are territorial, hovering slowly between trees and tall shrubs on ridges and hill tops. They settle often, on exposed leaves (Kielland, 1990).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

(Presumably) Urera species (Urticaceae) [Kielland, 1990: 149].


Acraea (Actinote) acuta acuta Howarth, 1969
Acraea ansorgei acuta Howarth, 1969. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 38: 146 (141-156).

Acraea acuta Howarth, 1969. Kielland, 1990: 149 stat. nov.

Acraea (Actinote) acuta acuta. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 39mm. Mugesse, 5500', Misuku Hills, Malawi. 24.6.74. I. Bampton. (Henning collection - H145).
Type locality: Tanzania: “Poroto Mts., 8000 feet, Ihoho Forest”.

Distribution: Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia.

Specific localities:

TanzaniaSouthern Highlands, north to the Uzungwa Range; Rubeho Mountains; Ukaguru Mountains; Nguru Mountains; Mbulu forests (Marang, Hasama, and Nou Forests) (Kielland, 1990).

Zambia – Nyika (Heath, et al., 2002).
flava Howarth, 1969 (as f. of Acraea ansorgei acuta). Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 38: 147 (141-156). Malawi: “Malawi-Zambian border, 7000 feet”.
alba Howarth, 1969 (as f. of Acraea ansorgei acuta). Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 38: 147 (141-156). Malawi: “Malawi-Zambian border, 7000 feet”.
chrysippina Howarth, 1969 (as female f. of Acraea ansorgei acuta). Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 38: 148 (141-156). Tanzania: “Poroto Mts., 8000 feet, Ihoho Forest”.
handmani Howarth, 1969 (as female f. of Acraea ansorgei acuta). Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 38: 148 (141-156). Malawi: “Malawi-Zambian border, 7000 feet”.
cottrelli Howarth, 1969 (as f. of Acraea ansorgei acuta). Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 38: 148 (141-156). Zambia: “Nyika Plateau”.
australis Howarth, 1969 (as f. of Acraea ansorgei acuta). Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 38: 148 (141-156). Zambia: “Nyika Plateau”.
reducta Howarth, 1969 (as female f. of Acraea ansorgei acuta). Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 38: 148 (141-156). Zambia: “Nyika Plateau”.
radiata Howarth, 1969 (as female f. of Acraea ansorgei acuta). Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 38: 149 (141-156). Malawi: “Malawi-Zambian border, Nyika, 6800 feet”.
Acraea (Actinote) acuta ngorongoro Kielland, 1990
Acraea acuta ngorongoro Kielland, 1990. Butterflies of Tanzania 150 (363 pp.). Melbourne.

Type locality: Tanzania: “Oldeani Mt.”. Described from two males from the type locality. Holotype (male) in the Natural History Museum, London.

Description:

Male. Upperside f.w. pale spots of normal size, in the cell and discal area orange as in ssp. rubrobasalis; submarginal spot in space 4 white; h.w. median pale area orange and reduced by extension of the basal blackish patch which is larger than in other races, reaching over half-way to cell-end and reaching above origin of vein 2. Underside apical area of f.w and distal half of h.w. more or less as in ssp. acuta, but basal area not distinctly outlined in brown, only slightly darker than the median cream area; basal black spots more spaced. Length of f.w. 24.8 and 24.2 mm. No female is known from Oldeani.” (Kielland, 1990: 150).



Distribution: Tanzania (north).

Specific localities:
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