Butterflies and skippers of the afrotropical region




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Type locality: [Tanzania]: “Langenburg am Nyassa See”.

Diagnosis: Differs from ssp. montana in that the hindwing band is darker yellow in females and the forewing band is narrower in both sexes (intermediates do, however, occur) (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Tanzania (south and west), Democratic Republic of Congo (Shaba), Malawi (north), Zambia (north).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Malawi border at Tukuyu to Mpanda and Kigoma (Kielland, 1990).

Zambia – Mwinilunga; Chiwoma; Solwezi; Mufulira; Kitwe; Ndola; Mpongwe; Lufubu River; Mbala (Heath, et al., 2002).
Acraea (Acraea) aganice nyassae (Carpenter, 1920)
Planema aganice race nyassae Carpenter, 1920. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 53: 98 (84-98).

Type locality: [Malawi]: “Mt. Mlanje, Nyasaland”.

Distribution: Malawi (south).
Acraea (Acraea) aganice orientalis (Ungemach, 1932)
Planema aganice orientalis Ungemach, 1932. Mémoires de la Société des Sciences Naturelles (et Physiques) du Maroc 32: ? (1-122).

Type locality: [Ethiopia]: “Bouré”.

Distribution: Sudan (south), Ethiopia (south-west), Uganda ? (north).
Acraea (Acraea) aganice ugandae (van Someren, 1936)
Bematistes aganice ugandae van Someren, 1936. Journal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural History Society 12: 152 (147-199).

Type locality: [Uganda]: “Mawakotal”.

Distribution: Uganda, Kenya (northern shores of Lake Victoria, from the Kavirondo Gulf in Kenya to Budda in Uganda).

Acraea (Acraea) alcinoe Felder & Felder, 1865
Acraea alcinoe Felder & Felder, 1865, in Felder & Felder [1865-7]. Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte Novara 368 (549 pp.). Wien.

Type locality: Guinea-Bissau: “Africa septentrionali-occidental: Ins. Bissao”.

Distribution: Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Sao Tome and Principe, to Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, Burundi, Tanzania.

Common name: Alcinoe bematistes.

Habitat: Forest, including degraded habitat (Larsen, 2005a). Dense lowland forest (Kielland, 1990). In Tanzania ssp. camerunica occurs at altitudes between 800 and 950 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: A relatively common butterfly (Larsen, 2005a). Flies quite low down in shady parts of the forest (Kielland, 1990).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Adenia cisampelloides (Passifloraceae) [Bernaud, 1995 (Cameroon)].
Acraea (Acraea) alcinoe alcinoe Felder & Felder, 1865
Acraea alcinoe Felder & Felder, 1865, in Felder & Felder [1865-7]. Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte Novara 368 (549 pp.). Wien.

Type locality: Guinea-Bissau: “Africa septentrionali-occidental: Ins. Bissao”.

Distribution: Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria.

Specific localities:

Ghana – Wli Falls (Larsen, 2005a).
godmani Butler, 1895 (as sp. of Planema). Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 16: 415 (415-417). Sierra Leone.
timandra Karsch, 1893 (as sp. of Acraea). Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 38: 196 (1-266). Togo: “Pereu”.
Acraea (Acraea) alcinoe camerunica (Aurivillius, 1893)
Planema alcinoe var. camerunica Aurivillius, 1893. Entomologisk Tidskrift 14: 285 (257-292).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Bonge”.

Distribution: Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea (Bioko), to Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Kenya (west - Kakamega Forest), Burundi, Tanzania (north-west).

Specific localities:

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Tanzania – Kasoge Forest; Kemfu Forest; Luntampa; Kasye Forest; Mihumu (Kielland, 1990).

Note: Larsen (2005a) states that this subspecies “is hardly needed”, presumably implying that it is poorly differentiated from the nominate subspecies.
salvini Butler, 1895 (as sp. of Planema). Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 16: 415 (415-417). Equatorial Guinea: “Fernando Po”; Cameroon: “Cameroons”.
Acraea (Acraea) alcinoe nado (Ungemach, 1932)
Planema nado Ungemach, 1932. Mémoires de la Société des Sciences Naturelles (et Physiques) du Maroc 32: 72 (1-122).

Type locality: Ethiopia: “Bouré”.

Distribution: Ethiopia (south-west).
Acraea (Acraea) alcinoe racaji (Pyrcz, 1991)
Bematistes alcinoe racaji Pyrcz, 1991. Lambillionea 91: 370, 373 (362-373).

Type locality: Sao Tome and Principe: “Terreiro Velho, Principe Isl.”.

Distribution: Sao Tome and Principe (island of Principe).

Acraea (Acraea) consanguinea (Aurivillius, 1893)
Planema consanguinea Aurivillius, 1893. Entomologisk Tidskrift 14: 282 (257-292).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Itoke, Bonge; Gebiete des Camerunflusses”.

Distribution: Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast (Warren-Gash, pers. comm., 2002), Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia.

Common name: Blood-brother bematistes.

Habitat: Forest of good quality (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: Very scarce west of the Dahomey Gap (i.e. ssp. satina) but commoner in the eastern part of its range (Larsen, 2005a). Individuals hover around trees and bushes (Congdon & Collins, 1998).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Barteria nigritiana (Passifloraceae) [Bernaud, 1995 (Cameroon)].
Acraea (Acraea) consanguinea consanguinea (Aurivillius, 1893)
Planema consanguinea Aurivillius, 1893. Entomologisk Tidskrift 14: 282 (257-292).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Itoke, Bonge; Gebiete des Camerunflusses”.

Distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon.

Specific localities:

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).
inaequalis Le Doux, 1931 (as f. of Planema consanguinea). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1931: 58 (49-59). Gabon: “Ogowe, Gabun”.
Acraea (Acraea) consanguinea albicolor (Karsch, 1895)
Planema albicolor Karsch, 1895. Entomologische Nachrichten. Berlin 21: 280 (275-286).

Type locality: Uganda.

Distribution: Uganda (south-east), Tanzania (north-west).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Kikuru Forest; a small forest near Bukoba town (Congdon & Collins, 1998).
arenaria Sharpe, 1902 (as sp. of Planema). Entomologist 35: 135 (135). Uganda: “Entebbe”.
flava Le Doux, 1931 (as f. of Planema consanguinea albicolor). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1931: 59 (49-59). Uganda: “Sesse-Insel; N.W. Victoria-Njansa; Entebbe”.
Acraea (Acraea) consanguinea intermedia (Aurivillius, 1899)
Planema consanguinea var. intermedia Aurivillius, 1899 in Aurivillius, 1898-9. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapakademiens Handlingar 31 (5): 120 (1-561).

Acraea (Acraea) consanguinea intermedia. Female. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 78mm. Lac Titina, 4.31S, 11.5E, Congo Rep. 9 Nov. 1990. Bampton/Dowsett. (African Butterfly Research Institute, Nairobi).
Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Congogebiet: Mukenge, Bena-Bendi”.

Distribution: Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola, Zambia.

Specific localities:

Zambia – a single male recorded from Mwinilunga Township (Dening) (Heath, et al., 2002).
conspicua Le Doux, 1937 (as f. of Planema consanguinea). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 29: 183 (151-187). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kapanga; R. Kapelkeze”.
peregrina Le Doux, 1937 (as f. of Planema consanguinea). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 29: 183 (151-187). Angola.
Acraea (Acraea) consanguinea sartina (Jordan, 1910)
Planema consanguinea sartina Jordan, 1910. Novitates Zoologicae 17: 462 (462-469).

Type locality: Ghana: “Bansu, Axim”.

Distribution: Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast (Warren-Gash, pers. comm., 2002), Ghana.

Specific localities:

Sierra Leone – Kambui Hills (Owen & Owen teste Larsen, 2005a).

Ivory Coast – Tai forest (H. Warren-Gash teste Larsen, 2005a).

Acraea (Acraea) elongata (Butler, 1874)
Planema elongata Butler, 1874. Cistula Entomologica 1: 212 (209-217).

Type locality: Gabon: “Gaboon”.

Distribution: Nigeria (Cross River loop), Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Recorded, in error, from Ghana by Ackery et al., 1995 (Larsen, 2005a).



Specific localities:

Nigeria – Oban Hills (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Common name: Elongate bematistes.

Habitat: Primary forest (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: An uncommon species that flies, slowly, in dark dense forest (Larsen, 2005a). Pseudacraea kuenowii gottbergei is a wonderful mimic of this species and is almost impossible to distinguish in flight (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
serena Schultze, 1923 in Schultze and Aurivillius, 1923 (as var. of Planema elongata). Ergebnisse der Zweiten Deutschen Zentral-Afrika Expedition 1 (17): 1117 (1113-1242). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Belg. Kongo: Kimuenza”. [Invalid; junior secondary homonym of Papilio serena Fabricius, 1775 [Acraeinae]].
varia Le Doux, 1937 (as f. of Planema elongata). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 29: 164 (151-187). Democratic Republic of Congo: “District de Stanleyville (Prêtres de Sacré-Coeur)”.

Acraea (Acraea) epaea (Cramer, 1779)
Papilio epaea Cramer, 1779 in Cramer, [1779-80]. Die Uitlandsche Kapellen voorkomende in de drie waerrelddeelen Asia, Africa en America 3: 64 (176 pp.). Amsteldam & Utrecht.

Acraea (Acraea) epaea epaea. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 63mm. Abidjan. Nov ‘66. (Henning collection - H137).

Acraea (Acraea) epaea epaea. Female. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 70mm. Abidjan, Ivory Coast. Mar ‘66. (Henning collection - H137A).
Type locality: Sierra Leone: “Sierra Leona”.

Diagnosis: Differs from B. aganice in that the forewing has a large orange (male) or white (female) patch in the lower median area; somewhat smaller size; weaker flight (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Congo, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia.

Misattributed to the Madagascar fauna by Mabille [1887] (Lees et al., 2003). Recorded, in error, from Gambia (Larsen, 2005a).



Common name: Common bematistes.

Habitat: Forest, including quite strongly degraded forest. Also in dense Guinea savanna in West Africa (Larsen, 2005a). In Tanzania the nominate subspecies occurs at altitudes between 800 and 1 200 m (occasionally up to 1 500 m); ssp. paragea is found around 900 m; ssp. melina at about 1 100 m and ssp. epitellus from sea-level to 1 750 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: This is by far the commonest of the acraea species belonging to the bematistes group (Larsen, 2005a). Sometimes they stray far from their natural habitat; Larsen (2005a) noted numbers feeding from the flowers of teak trees in a plantation. Females are often seen fluttering low down in search of host-plants (Larsen, 2005a). Acraea jodutta is probably a co-mimic. Both sexes of A. epaea are the primary models for Elymniopsis bammakoo and Pseudacraea eurytus. The female is the model for the female of Papilio cynorta (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Lindaeckeria schweinfurthii (Flacourtiaceae) [Heath et al., 2002: 41].

Lindaeckeria dentata (Passifloraceae) [Larsen, 2005a].

Adenia cisampelloides (Passifloraceae) [Larsen, 2005a].
Acraea (Acraea) epaea epaea (Cramer, 1779)
Papilio epaea Cramer, 1779 in Cramer, [1779-80]. Die Uitlandsche Kapellen voorkomende in de drie waerrelddeelen Asia, Africa en America 3: 64 (176 pp.). Amsteldam & Utrecht.

Acraea (Acraea) epaea epaea. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 63mm. Abidjan. Nov ‘66. (Henning collection - H137).

Acraea (Acraea) epaea epaea. Female. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 70mm. Abidjan, Ivory Coast. Mar ‘66. (Henning collection - H137A).
Type locality: Sierra Leone: “Sierra Leona”.

Distribution: Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Congo, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo (west), Tanzania (north-west), Zambia.

Specific localities:

Senegal – Basse Casamance (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Tanzania – Mpanda to Malagarazi River in Kigoma (Kielland, 1990).

Zambia – Ikelenge (Heath et al., 2002).
gea Fabricius, 1781 (as sp. of Papilio). Species Insectorum 2: 32 (499 pp.). Hamburgi & Kilonii. “Africa aequinoctiali”.
sublutosa Strand, 1914 (as ab. of Planema epaea). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 79 (A.12.): 107 (97-144). Equatorial Guinea: “Span.-Guinea, Alen Benitogebiet; Weg in der Urwald bei Malen”.
Acraea (Acraea) epaea angustifasciata (d'Abrera, 1980)
Bematistes epaea angustifasciata d'Abrera, 1980. Butterflies of the Afrotropical region 113 (593 pp.). Melbourne.

Type locality: Uganda: “Sese Is. In L. Victoria”.

Distribution: Uganda (central and south), Kenya (west).

Note: Larsen (2005a), on the advice of D. Bernaud, considers this subspecies to be redundant.
angustifasciata Grünberg, 1910 (as ab. of Planema epaea). Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1910: 165 (146-181). Uganda: “Sesse Inseln im Victoria-Nyansa”.
Acraea (Acraea) epaea bicolorata (Le Doux, 1937)
Planema epaea bicolorata Le Doux, 1937. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 29: 160 (151-187).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kafakumba; Kapanga”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (south-east).

Note: Larsen (2005a), on the advice of D. Bernaud, considers this subspecies to be redundant.
insolita Le Doux, 1937 (as f. of Planema epaea). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 29: 158 (151-187). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kapanga”.
aurata Le Doux, 1937 (as f. of Planema epaea). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 29: 159 (151-187). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kapanga”.
nigrita Le Doux, 1937 (as ssp. of Planema epaea). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 29: 160 (151-187). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kapanga”.
Acraea (Acraea) epaea epitellus Staudinger, 1896
Acraea epitellus Staudinger, 1896. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 9: 207 (193-240).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Lindi”.

Distribution: Kenya (coast), Tanzania (coast).

Specific localities:

TanzaniaRondo Plateau near Lindi; Dendene Forest; Pugu Hills; Pemba Island; East Usambara; Uluguru Mountains; Nguru Mountains; Masagati Forest south of Ifakara (Kielland, 1990).

Note: Larsen (2005a) believes that this taxon is a distinct species.
Acraea (Acraea) epaea homochroa (Rothschild & Jordan, 1905)
Planema epaea homochroa Rothschild & Jordan, 1905. Novitates Zoologicae 12: 185 (175-191).

Type locality: Ethiopia: “Banka, Malo; Kankatito to Djibbe, Djimma”.

Distribution: Ethiopia (south).
Acraea (Acraea) epaea insulana Ackery, 1995
Acraea (Acraea) epaea insulana Ackery, 1995 in Ackery, et al., 1995: 237.

Type locality: Equatorial Guinea: “Basilé, Fernando Po”.

Distribution: Equatorial Guinea (island of Bioko).
insularis Aurivillius, 1910 (as var. of Planema epaea). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale (di Genova) Giacoma Doria (3) 4: 518 (494-530). Equatorial Guinea: “Basilé, Fernando Po”. [Invalid; junior secondary homonym of Acraea insularis Sharpe, 1893 [Acraeinae].]
Acraea (Acraea) epaea kivuana (Jordan, 1910)
Planema epaea kivuana Jordan, 1910. Novitates Zoologicae 17: 462 (462-469).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kwidgwi Island in Lake Kivu”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (east - Kivu).

Note: Larsen (2005a), on the advice of D. Bernaud, considers this subspecies to be redundant.
Acraea (Acraea) epaea lutosa (Suffert, 1904)
Planema epaea lutosa Suffert, 1904. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 36 (12-107).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Mukenge”; Cameroon: “Camerun”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (east), Uganda (west - Bwamba Valley).

Note: Larsen (2005a), on the advice of D. Bernaud, considers this subspecies to be redundant.
cremea Le Doux, 1937 (as f. of Planema epaea). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 29: 159 (151-187). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Uele”.
Acraea (Acraea) epaea melina (Thurau, 1903)
Planema epaea var. melina Thurau, 1903. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 48: 135 (117-143).

Type locality: Tanzania: “N.-Nyassa-See, Langenburg”.

Distribution: Tanzania (south-west), Malawi (north - shores of Lake Malawi).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Tukuyu (Kielland, 1990).
Acraea (Acraea) epaea paragea (Grose-Smith, 1900)
Planema paragea Grose-Smith, 1900. Novitates Zoologicae 7: 547 (544-547).

Type locality: Uganda: “Port Alice, Uganda”.

Distribution: Sudan, Uganda (west), Kenya (west), Tanzania (north-west).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – A small forest in Gombe Stream National Park (Kielland, 1990).

Acraea (Acraea) epiprotea (Butler, 1874)
Planema epiprotea Butler, 1874. Cistula Entomologica 1: 210 (209-217).

Type locality: Gabon: “Gaboon”.

Distribution: Nigeria (south), Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan (south), Tanzania (west).

Recorded, in error, from Ghana by Ackery et al., 1995 (Larsen 2005a).



Specific localities:

Nigeria – Oban Hills (Larsen 2005a).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen 2005a).

Tanzania – Kigoma District: Ntakatta Forest; Mihumu; Mukuyu (Kielland, 1990).

Common name: Insipid bematistes.

Habitat: Lowland forest of good quality (Larsen 2005a). In Tanzania it is found at altitudes from 800 to 1 000 m, occasionally reaching 1 500 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: A fairly common species in the Oban Hills but not elsewhere in Nigeria (Larsen 2005a). The flight is slow and hovering and specimens are usually found in the shadiest parts of the forest where their dark colouration makes them difficult to see (Kielland, 1990). They fly close to the ground (Larsen 2005a). On occasion they may be seen flying through woodland as they cross from one forest to another (Kielland, 1990).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Barteria species (Passifloraceae) [Bernaud & Pierre, 1996].
conformis Schultze, 1923 in Schultze and Aurivillius, 1923 (as ab. of Planema epiprotea). Ergebnisse der Zweiten Deutschen Zentral-Afrika Expedition 1(17): 1117 (1113-1242). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Belg. Kongo: Kimuenza”.

Acraea (Acraea) excisa (Butler, 1874)
Planema excisa Butler, 1874. Cistula Entomologica 1: 212 (209-217).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Congo”.

Distribution: Nigeria (south), Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea (Bioko), Gabon, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo (west).

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Benin (Larsen, 2005a); Okomu (Larsen, 2005a); Sapoba (Larsen, 2005a); Old Ekuri Village, Oban Hills (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Common name: Excised bematistes.

Habitat: Forest with dense understorey (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Adenia cisampelloides (Passifloraceae) [D. Bernaud teste Larsen, 2005a (Cameroon)].

Acraea (Acraea) formosa (Butler, 1874)
Planema formosa Butler, 1874. Cistula Entomologica 1: 213 (209-217).
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