Brain mass, body mass and encephalization quotient of Afrotheria




Дата канвертавання25.04.2016
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Brain mass, body mass and encephalization quotient of Afrotheria.

Original data are mainly from the adult specimens of Jerison [1973], Shultz and Dunbar [2010], Boddy et al. [2012] (http://homopan.wayne.edu/brainbodydb/brainbody_list.php), Shoshani et al. [2006] for proboscideans and O’Shea and Reep [1990] for sirenians. For the specimen we measured by ourselves, the adult body mass are from literature and from the AnAge database [Tacutu et al., 2013].






brain mass (g)

body mass (g)

EQ

Chrysochloris_sp.

1,13

70,00

0,55

Chrysochloris_asiatica

0,70

49,00

0,44

Chrysochloris_asiatica_2

0,53

60,00**1

0,29

Chrysochloris_asiatica_3

0,69

60,00**1

0,38

Chlorotalpa_sp.

1,29

70,00

0,63

Chlorotalpa_sthulmanni_1

1,37

60,30

0,74

Chlorotalpa_sthulmanni_2

0,74

39,80

0,53

Tenrec_eucaudatus_1

2,57

832,00

0,24

Tenrec_eucaudatus_2

2,80

345,00

0,47

Tenrec_eucaudatus_3

2,71

230,00

0,60

Tenrec_eucaudatus_4

2,18

900,00**1

0,19

Tenrec_eucaudatus_5

2,42

900,00**1

0,22

Echinops_telfairi_1

0,62

87,50

0,26

Echinops_telfairi_2

0,52

60,00

0,28

Hemicentetes_semispinosus

0,83

110,00

0,30

Hemicentetes_sp.

0,73

80,00

0,33

Limnogale_mergulus

1,15

92,00

0,47

Microgale_sp.

0,72

50,00

0,44

Microgale_cowani

0,42

15,20

0,57

Microgale_dobsoni_1

0,56

32,60**1

0,46

Microgale_dobsoni_2

0,63

32,60**1

0,51

Microgale_dobsoni_3

0,57

32,60**1

0,47

Microgale_talazaci

0,79

50,40

0,48

Oryzoryctes_hova

0,58

44,20

0,39

Oryzoryctes_sp.

0,67

50,00

0,41

Micropotamogale_lamottei

0,80

64,20

0,42

Micropotamogale_sp.

1,44

70,00

0,71

Potamogale_velox_1

4,16

660,00

0,46

Potamogale_velox_2

3,93

640,00

0,44

Potamogale_velox_3

4,04

650,00**1

0,45

Potamogale_velox_4

4,41

650,00**1

0,49

Setifer_setosus_1

1,34

140,00

0,41

Setifer_setosus_2

1,51

248,00

0,32

Elephantulus_sp.

2,36

120,00

0,81

Elephantulus_fuscipes

1,33

57,00

0,75

Elephantulus_rufescens

1,28

58,00**2

0,71

Elephantulus_rupestris

1,27

61,50**3

0,68

Elephantulus_rozeti_1

1,23

48,00**1

0,78

Elephantulus_rozeti_2

1,30

48,00**1

0,82

Elephantulus_rozeti_3

1,07

48,00**1

0,68

Elephantulus_brachyrhynchus

1,07

45,30**1

0,70

Macroscelides_proboscideus

1,24

40,00**1

0,88

Petrodromus_tetradactylus_1

3,27

210,00**1

0,77

Petrodromus_tetradactylus_2

2,48

210,00**1

0,58

Rhynchocyon_cirnei_1

6,10

490,00

0,82

Rhynchocyon_cirnei_2

5,70

525,00

0,73

Rhynchocyon_cirnei_3

5,80

507,50

0,76

Rhynchocyon_cirnei_4

5,60

507,50

0,73

Rhynchocyon_cirnei_5

5,00

507,50

0,65

Rhynchocyon_petersi_1

5,40

370,00

0,87

Rhynchocyon_petersi_2

5,80

370,00

0,94

Rhynchocyon_chrysopygus

5,78

540,00**1

0,73

Orycteropus_afer_1

72,00

52500,00

0,43

Orycteropus_afer_2

115,45

70000,00**4

0,57

Orycteropus_afer_3

99,40

70000,00**4

0,49

Amphiorycteropus_depereti

70,63

56000,00**5

0,40

Plesiorycteropus_germainepetterae

20,17

8293,00**6

0,41

Elephas_maximus_1

4550,00

2267430,00

2,20

Elephas_maximus_2

5220,00

3216000,00

2,00

Elephas_maximus_3

5000,00

3450400,00

1,82

Elephas_maximus_4

6075,00

2128000,00

3,06

Elephas_maximus_5

6075,00

3190098,00

2,34

Loxodonta_africana_1

5712,00

6654000,00

1,35

Loxodonta_africana_2

9000,00

4380000,00

2,80

Loxodonta_africana_3

4000,00

5174400,00

1,11

Loxodonta_africana_4

4050,00

1793300,00

2,29

Loxodonta_africana_5

4420,00

3505000,00

1,60

Loxodonta_africana_6

9000,00

4380100,00

2,80

Loxodonta_africana_7

5712,00

6654000,00

1,35

Loxodonta_africana_8

5300,00

5550000,00

1,41

Loxodonta_africana_9

4480,00

2750000,00

1,90

Loxodonta_africana_10

4210,00

4000000,00

1,39

Loxodonta_africana_11

4100,00

2160000,00

2,04

Loxodonta_africana_12

4000,00

2537000,00

1,79

Paleoloxodon_antiquus

5446,00

3649880,00

1,91

Mammuthus_meridionalis

5828,00*1

7942167,00**7

1,22

Mammut_americanum_1

3862,00*2

6384056,00**7

0.94

Mammut_americanum_2

4630,00

2300000,00

2,21

Moeritherium_lyonsi

240,00

1000000,00

0,20

Arsinoitherium_zitelli

1405,40*2

1005000,00**8

1,17

Dugong_dugon_1

250,00

262000,00

0,51

Dugong_dugon_2

282,00

300000,00

0,52

Dugong_dugon_3

422,50*3

224181,80

0,95

Trichechus_manatus_1

364,00

756000,00

0,37

Trichechus_manatus_2

396,00*3

622370,00

0,45

Trichechus_inunguis

277,50*3

480000,00**1

0,38

Hydromalys_gigas_1

1225,00

6738250,00**9

0,29

Hydromalys_gigas_2

1150,00

6738250,00**9

0,27

Hydromalys_gigas_3

1110,00

6738250,00**9

0,26

Hydromalys_gigas_4

1650,00*3

6738250,00**9

0,39

Metaxytherium_sp.

500,00*3

1303400,00**9

0,35

Protosiren_fraasi

185,00*4

542000,00**9

0,23

Eosiren_libyca

152,60*4

228000,00**9

0,34

Prorastomus_sirenoides

86,90

98155,50**10

0,34

Procavia_capensis_1

20,00

1930,00

1,08

Procavia_capensis_2

19,40

2275,00

0,93

Procavia_capensis_3

19,00

2760,00

0,80

Procavia_capensis_4

19,20

3500,00

0,69

Procavia_capensis_5

17,30

2458,00**1

0,79

Heterohyrax_brucei

19,50

2457,00**1

0,89

Seggeurius_amourensis

4,90

2932,00**11

0,20

*1: brain mass calculated after the figure of Dechaseaux [1958] using the method described by Jerison [1973].

*2: brain mass calculated after the figure of Andrews [1906] using the method described by Jerison [1973].

*3: brain mass after Pilleri [1990].

*4: brain mass after Gingerich [1994].

**1: body mass after AnAge database.

**2: body mass after Koontz and Roeper, 1983.

**3: body mass after Smit et al., 2008.

**4: body mass after Shoshani et al., 1988.

**5: A.depereti was 20% smaller than O.afer after Lehmann [2009].

**6: body mass after MacPhee [1994].

**7: body mass after the best and 2nd best estimations of Christiansen [2004].

**8: body mass after Sanders et al. [2010].

**9: body mass after Sarko et al. [2012].

**10: Prorastomus display a mix of primitive terrestrial (e.g.quadrupedality) and derived aquatic (e.g. ribs pachyosteosclerosis) traits [Gheerbrant et al., 2005]. Thus we choose to average the body masses given by the equations based on sirenians log body mass=-3.704+4.084xlog condylobasal length [Sarko et al., 2012] and on archaic ungulates log body mass=3.03(logM1-M3 length)-0.39 [Damuth, 1990].

**11: body mass calculated after the equation for nonselenodont ungulates log body mass=3.03(logM1-M3 length)-0.39 [Damuth, 1990].

References

Andrews CW (1906): A Descriptive Catalogue of the Tertiary Vertebrata of Fayum, Egypt. British Museum (Natural History), London.

Boddy AM, McGowen MR, Sherwood CC, Grossman LI, Goodman M., Wilman DE (2012): Comparative analysis of encephalization in mammals reveals relaxed constraints on anthropoid primate and cetacean brain scaling. J Evol Biol 25:981–994.

Christiansen P (2004): Body size in proboscideans, with notes on elephant metabolism. Zool J Linn Soc 140: 523–549.

Damuth J (1990): Problems in estimating body masses of archaic ungulates using dental measurements; In Damuth J & Mac-Fadden BJ (Eds): Body size in mammalian paleobiology Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp229–253.

Dechaseaux C (1958): L'encephale d'Elephas meridionalis. Ann. Pal. 44: 267-278.

Gheerbrant E, Domning D, Tassy P (2005): Paenungulata (Sirenia, Proboscidea, Hyracoidea, and relatives); in Rose KD, Archibald JD (eds): The Rise of Placental Mammals: Origins and Relationships of the Major Extant Clades. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, pp 84–105.

Gingerich PD, Domning DP, Blane CE, Uhen MD (1994): Cranial morphology of Protosiren fraasi (Mammalia, Sirenia) from the middle Eocene of Egypt: a new study using computed tomography. Contr Mus Pal Univ Michigan 29:41-67.

Jerison HJ (1973): Evolution of the brain and intelligence. New York, Academic Press.

Koontz F, Roeper N (1983): Elephantulus rufescens. Mammalian Species 204:5.

Shultz S, Dunbar R (2010): Encephalization is not a universal macroevolutionary phenomenon in mammals but is associated with sociality. PNAS 107(50):21582-21586.

Lehmann T (2009): Phylogeny and systematics of the Orycteropodidae (Mammalia, Tubulidentata). Zool J Lin Soc 155:649–702.

MacPhee RDE (1994): Morphology, adaptations, and relationships of Plesiorycteropus, and a diagnosis of a new order of eutherian mammals. Bull Am Mus Nat Hist 220:1-214.

O'Shea TJ, Reep RL (1990): Encephalization Quotients and Life-History Traits in the Sirenia J Mammal 71(4):534-543.

Pilleri G (1990): Endocranial cast of Metaxytherium (Mammalia: Sirenia) from the Miocene of Cerro Gordo, Almeria, Spain. Contributions to the Paleontology of some Tethyan Cetacea and Sirenia (Mammalia) 2:103-113.

Sanders WJ, Rasmussen DT, Kappelman J (2010): "Embrithopoda"; In Werdelin L & Sanders WJ (eds): Cenozoic Mammals of Africa. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, The University of California Press, pp115-122.

Sarko DK, Domning DP, Marino L, Reep RL (2010): Estimating body size of fossil sirenians. Mar Mammal Sci 26:937–959.

Shoshani J, Goldman CA., Thewissen JGM (1988): Orycteropus afer. Mammalian Species 300:1-8.

Shoshani J Kupsky WJ Marchant GH (2006): Elephant brain: Part I: Gross morphology, functions, comparative anatomy, and evolution. Brain Res Bull 70(2):124-157.



Smit HA, Robinson TJ, Watsonb J, Jansen van Vuurena B (2008): A New Species of Elephant-shrew (Afrotheria: Macroscelidea: Elephantulus) from South Africa. J Mammal 89:1257-1268

Tacutu R, Craig T, Budovsky A, Wuttke D, Lehmann G, Taranukha D, Costa J, Fraifeld VE, de Magalhaes JP (2013): "Human Ageing Genomic Resources: Integrated databases and tools for the biology and genetics of ageing." Nucl Acids Res 41:1027–1033. http://genomics.senescence.info/species/


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