Botanical root meanings as compiled from website

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Roots: P
pachy- = thick (Pachyrhizus = thick root / pachyphyllum = thick-leaved / Pachypodium = thick + foot)
palle- / palli- pale = (pallidus / pallidiflora = pale flower) (pallescens)
palm- = referring to a hand, a palm (usually leaf-shape) (palmata)
palustr- = referring to a swamp, marsh (palustris)
-panax = referring to a plant in the Aralia family, usually the genus Panax, which includes the Ginseng plant; panax comes from two Gr. words which mean all- afflictions, and the sense was (at least for Karl Linnaeus) that ginseng heals these diseases; (Oreopanax = mountain panax)
pandur- = referring to a fiddle (shape) (pandurata / panduriforme = fiddle-form / pandurifolia = fiddle-shaped leaves)
panicul- = referring to a panicle (paniculatus)
pannos- = ragged, hairy (pannosa)
papaver- = referring to the poppy (papaveracea)
papyr- = referring to paper (Papyrus) (papyrifera paper-bearing)
papil- = referring to a butterfly (papilionaceus = like the pea-family whose individual flowers are somewhat similar in form to a butterfly)
papill- = referring to nipples (papillosus)
paradis- = referring to gardens, paradise, parks (paradisiaca)
paradox- = unusual, strange, anomalous (paradoxus)
pard- = referring to a leopard (spotted) (pardalinus)
part- = referring to parts or a part (partitus)
parthen- = referring to a virgin, i.e., asexual reproduction (Parthenocissus = virgin's vine)
parv- = small (parviflora = small-flowered)
patagon- = referring to Argentina (patagoniensis)
patell- = referring to a disk (patellaris)
patens = spreading
patul- = spreading (patulus)
pauci- = few (pauciflora = few-flowered)
pavon- = referring to a peacock (pavonicus)
pectin- = referring to a comb, having teeth, finely-divided (pectinifera = comb-bearing) (pectinatus)
pector- = referring to the breastbone (shape) (pectoralis)
ped- = referring to a foot (shape), or, by extension, a basal structure (pedicillatus = having a stalk) often also mean palmate, which word, itself, refers not to a foot but to a hand, as in a palmate leaf; (Pedilanthus = foot (shoe) flower), one common name is Slipper Spurge (spurge is a general common name applied to many plants in the Euphorbia Family) (pedatum)
pedunc- = referring to a peduncle (pedunculatus)
pelluc- = pellucid, having translucent dots/spots (pellucidus)
pelt- = peltate, stalk attached to the center, as opp. to the margin, from the Gr. for a shield of some sort (peltophorum = bearing a shield)
pelvi- = referring to the pelvis (shape) (pelviformis)
pendul- = referring to an earring, hanging, drooping (penduliflora = hanging flowers / pendula)
penn- = referring to a feather (pennatus)
penta- = referring to the number five (pentanthus = five-flowered)
per- / peri- = surrounding (perfoliata = leaf surrounding a stem)
peregrin- = foreign (peregrina)
perenn- = perennial (perennis)
persic- = referring to Persia (Iran) (persica)
-persic(...) = referring to a peach (Lycopersicum ((the tomato)) = wolf-peach probably because this fruit was originally believed to be deadly poisonsous)
perspic- = transparent, clear (perspicuus)
pertus- = perforated (pertusum)
-pes = referring to a foot or stalk (longipes = long-stalked)
petiol- = referring to a petiole, leaf stalk (petiolatus / petiolaris)
petr- = referring to rocks (Petrocallis = rock beauty) (petraea)
phaedr- = splendid (Phaedranthus = splendid flower)
phalae- = referring to a moth (Phalaenopsis = moth-like)
phaner- = obvious, open (phanerophlebia = conspicuously-veined)
phell- = referring to cork (Phellodendron = cork tree)
phil- = loving, desirous of (Philodendron = tree loving because they often grow thereon)
-phil(...) = loving, desirous of (anemophilus = wind-loving)
-phleb(...) = referring to veins
-phloe(...) = referring to bark
phlog- = referring to a flame (Phlogacanthus = flame + thorn)
phoeni- = referring to the genus Phoenix or the color purple - (Phoenix is the date palm genus) (phoenicolasius = purple hair)
pholid- = referring to a scale (Pholidocarpus = scaly fruit - a genus of palms)
-phor(...) = bearing, carrying (cladophora = branch-bearing)
phora- = referring to a thief (Phoradendron = thief of a tree - the mistletoe genus)
-phorb(...) = referring to food or fruit
phot- = referring to light, shining (Photinia, because of the glossy foliage)
phragm- = referring to a wall or fence or hedge
phryg- = referring to Asia Minor, Phrygian
phyl- = referring to leaves
phys- = referring to a bladder (Physalis; Physocarpus = bladder fruit)
-phyt(...) = referring to a plant (calophytum = beautiful plant)
pict- = painted, variegated (picta)
pil- = referring to a cap (Pilocarpus = cap-shaped fruit) (pileata)
pili- = referring to hairs (pilifera = hair-bearing)
pilos- = hairy (pilosus)
pilul- = referring to a globule (Pilularia = a little ball)
pini- = referring to a pine tree (pinicarpus = fruits like a pine cone)
pinn- = referring to a feather (pinnata)
pipt- = falling, descending (Pipturus = descending tail)
pisc- = referring to a fish (Piscidia = fish + kill - the Fish- Poison Tree of tropical America)
pis- = referring to the genus Pisa, the Pea (pisifera = pea-bearing)
pit- = referring to pitch or resin (Pittosporum = resinous seed)
pithec- = referring to a monkey, an ape (Pithecoctenium = monkey's comb)
placat- = calm (placatus)
plag- = referring to an oblique angle, sideways (Plagianthus = flowers at an angle)
plan- = flat (planifolia = flat-leaved / planatus / planipes = flat + foot, i.e., stalk)
platan- = referring to a plantain, or the Plane Tree genus, Platanus (platanoides)
platy- = broad, flat (Platycerium = flat horn - the stag-horn fern)
plect- = plaited (Plectocomia = plaited hair)
plectr- = referring to a spur (Plectranthus = spurred flower)
plei- = many (Pleiogynium = many female parts)
plen- = full (plenissimus= very full)
pleur- = referring to a side, or a cavity, or ribs (Pleurospermum = ribbed seed)
-plex = referring to trunks or stems (multiplex = many-trunked)
plicat- = folded, pleated (plicatus)
plum- = referring to a plume or feather (plumosus)
plumb- = referring to lead (the metal) (Plumbago, referring to the color of the flowers of this genus)
pluri- = many (plurifolia = many-leaved)
pluv- = referring to rain (pluvialis)

pod- = referring to a stalk - or FOOT (Podocarpus = stalked fruit / podophyllus = stalked leaf)

pogo- = referring to a beard (Pogostemon = bearded stamen)
-pogon = referring to a beard (Andropogon = man/male + beard)
poli- = gray, white (poliofolia = gray-leaved / polifolia)
polit- = polished (polita)
poly- = many (polyanthemos = many-flowered)
pom- = referring to an apple - any fruit similar in shape to an apple (pomacea / pomifera = apple-bearing)
ponderos- = ponderous (ponderosus)
popul- = referring to the poplar (shape) (populifolia = poplar- leaved / populnea)
porc- = referring to a pig (porcinus)
-potam(...) = referring to a river (megapotamicum = large river)
poten- = powerful (Potentilla = diminutive of potens, referring to the supposed medicinal properties of this the Cinquefoil genus))
praecox = premature, early
praest- = noble, distinguished (praestans)
prasin- = referring to the color green (prasinus)
praten- = referring to a meadow (pratensis)
precator- = referring to prayer (precatorius)
premn- = referring to a tree (Epipremnum = growing on trees
prim- = prime, first (Primula, because of its early blooming in Spring)
primul- = referring to the genus Primula, the primrose (primulaceus / primuloides = like Primula)
princ- = princely, of first (prime) quality (princeps)
probosc- = referring to a nose (proboscidea)
procer- = tall (procerum)
procumb- = lying down, procumbent, bending forwards (procumbens)
procur- = extended (procurrens)
propend- = hanging, drooping (propendens)
propinqu- = near, related (propinquus)
pruin- = having a bloom (referring to color and texture) (pruinosa)
prun- = referring to a plum, usually to the color (prunifolius = prune-leaved)
prur- = itch causing (pruriens)
pseud- = false (Pseudolarix = false Larch)
psit- = referring to a parrot (psittacinus)
pter- = referring to a wing (Pterocarya = winged nut; and Pteris, a genus of ferns) (pteranthus = winged flower)
-pter(...) = referring to a wing - ALSO Gr. for a fern (tetraptera = four-winged) (the fern appellation would seem to have come about via the resemblance of the feather part of a wing in close-up to a fern frond -- fascinating, no?)
ptych- = referring to a fold, a wrikle (Ptychosperma = folded seed)
pub- = referring to down (hairs) (puberulatus pubigerus)
pudic- = shrinking, closing, modest (Mimosa pudica, so named because the pinnate leaves fold up the leaflets at night or when touched)
pulchel- = beautiful (pulchellus)
pulchr- = beautiful (pulchra)
pulver- = powdery (pulverulenta)
pulvin- = referring to a cushion (pulvinatus)
pumil- = small, dwarf (pumila)
punctat- = dotted, spotted (punctatus / punctatissima = very much dotted)
pung- = sharp, pointed, pungent, piercing (pungens)
punic- = referring to Punica (Carthage/N.Afr.) Punica, the pome- granate, native to that area OR the color reddish-purple (puniceus)
purpur- = referring to the color purple (purpurea)
-pus = referring to a foot (or basal structure, like a stalk) (leptopus = skinny-stalked / brachypus = short-stalked)
pusil- = insignificant, obscure, small, dwarf (pusillus)
pycn- = thick, dense (Pycnanthemum = densely flowered) (pycnostachya = dense + spike (flowers))
pygm- = pygmy, small, dwarf (pygmaea)
pyr- = referring to a pear, or actually any fruit - OR to FIRE (pyriformis = formed like a pear) (Pyracantha = fire thorn)
pyren- = referring to grain (Pyrenacantha = grain + thorn)) HOWEVER, pyrenaicus refers to the Pyrenees Mts. of France!
Roots: Q
quadr- = referring to the number four (quadrangularis = four-angled / quadriaurita = four-eared)
querc- = referring to the oak (quercifolia = leaves like an oak)
quin- = referring to the number five (quinquifolius = five- leaved / quinatus)
Roots: R
racem- = referring to a raceme (racemosa)
radic- = referring to a root (Radicula = little root) (radicans usually means that the plant tends to root from its stem)
radio- / radia- = rayed, radiate (radiatus)
ramos- = referring to branches (ramosus / ramosissima = very- branched)
ran- = referring to a frog (Ranunculus = little frog, because most of the species grow where frogs live, i.e., marshes, ponds)
raph- / rhap- / rhaph- = referring to a needle (Rhapidophyllum, a palm genus, = needle-leaf)
reclin- = reclined, bent backwards (reclinatum)
recurv- = recurved (recurvatus)
rediviv- = restored, revived (rediviva)
refulg- = bright (refulgens)
regal- = regal (regalis)
regin- = referring to a queen (regina)
regl- = referring to a standard or model (paradigm) (regla)
reni- = referring to a kidney (reniform)
rep- = creeping (repens reptans repanda)
resect- = cut off, curtailed (resectus)
reticul- = reticulated, referring to a net, net-veined (reticulata)
retor- = twisted back (retortus)
retro- = backwards (retroflexus = bent backwards)
retus- = notched (retusus)
rex / reg- = referring to a king, royal (regalis)
rhamn- = referring to the genus Rhamnus, the buckthorn
rhiz- = referring to a root (Acanthorrhiza = thorny root)
rhod- = referring to the color red/rose (Rhododendron = rose + tree) (rhodantha = red-flowered)
rhomb- = rhomboid, (rhomboideus / rhombifolia = rhomboid-shaped leaves)
rhop- = referring to a club (shape) (Rhopalostyle = club-shaped flower style)
rhync- = referring to a nose or snout (Rhynchanthus = snout- shaped flower)
rhyt- = referring to a fold, a wrinkle (Rhytiglossa = wrinkled tongue / rhytidophyllum = wrinkled leaf)
ricin- = referring to the genus Ricinus, the castor-oil tree (ricinifolia)
ringens = referring to a hole
ripa- = referring to the banks of a river (riparia)
rivu- / riva- = referring to rivers, streams (rivularis / rivale / rivalis)
robust- = robust (robusta)
-rops = referring to a bush (Chamaerops = dwarf bush)
rose- = referring to the color rose (what else?!?) (rosea)
rostr- = referring to a beak (shape) (rostratus)
rotund- = round (rotundifolia = round-leafed)
rube- = referring to the color red (rubella)
rubig- = referring to rust (color) (rubiginosa)
rub- / rubr- = referring to the color red (rubens / rubra)
ruf- = referring to the color red (rufescens / rufida)
rug- = wrinkled (rugosa)
-rump(...) = referring to a rupture, a break (erumpens = breaking out of)
rup- = referring to rocks (rupicola = cliff-dwelling) (rupestris)
rut- = referring to the color red (rutilans)

Roots: S
sacc- = referring to a bag (saccifera = sac-bearing)
sacchar- = referring to sugar (Saccharum, the sugar cane genus)
sagit- = referring to an arrow (sagittarius)
salic- / salig- = referring to the genus Salix, the willow (salignifolia = willow-leaved / salicifolia)
sal- = referring to salt (salinus / salicolus)
salp- = referring to a tube (Salpiglossis = tube + tongue)
salv- = referring to helping, saving, healing (Salvia, from the medicinal properties of some species of this the Sage genus)
sambuc- = referring to the genus, Sambucus, the elderberry (sambucoides = like Sambucus)
sanct- = holy, revered (sanctum)
sang- = referring to blood (Sanguinaria, the Blood-Root)
sapid- = tasty (sapidus)
sapien- = referring to ancient wise men/writers/sages (sapientia)
sap- = referring to soap (Sapindus = soap + India)
sarco- = referring to flesh (sarcomentum / sarcodes)
sarment- = referring to runners (sarmentosa)
sativ- = referring to cultivation (sativa)
saur- = referring to a lizard (Saururus = liazrd's tail)
sax- = referring to a rock (Saxifraga = rock-breaker / saxicolus / saxosus / saxatilis / saxorum)
scal- = referring to a ladder (scalaris)
scand- = climbing (scandens)
scap- = referring to a scape (scaposa)
scaph- = referring to a boat (Scaphosepalum = boat + sepal)
schiz- / schis- = cut, divided, split (schizophylla = cleft leaves)
scia- = referring to an umbrella, shade (Sciadophyllum)
-scia(...) = referring to an umbrella (Polyscias = many umbrellas, referring to the large and abundant foliage of this genus)
scirp- = referring to the genus Scirpus, the bulrush (scirpoides)
scler- = hard (sclerocarpus = hard fruit)
scopul- = referring to a cliff (scopulorum = of the cliffs)
scorp- = referring to a scorpion, a coiled structure (scorpioides)
scut- = referring to a salver or dish or shield (shape) (Scutellaria) (scutatum)
seb- = referring to wax, tallow (sebiferum)
-sect(...) = cut (pinnatisect = pinnately cut)
secund- = referring to a side (secundiflora = flowers on one side)
sed- = sedentary (Sedum)
selen- = referring to the moon (Selenicereus = moon cactus, because it's night-blooming)
semi- = semi, half (Semiarundinaria something like a reed, a genus of bamboo)
semper- = always (sempervirens = evergreen / Sempervivum = living for ever))
senil- = old, white-haired (senilis)
sept- = referring to the number seven (septangularia = seven- angled)
seric- = referring to silk (sericeus / sericofera = silk-bearing)
serotin- = late, autumnal (serotina)
serpent- = referring to a snake (serpentarius / serpentinus)
serra- = referring to a saw (serratus / serrula / serrulata)
sesqui- = referring to the number one and 1/2
sessil- = unstalked, sessile (sessilis / sessiliflora = unstalked/ peduncled flowers / sessilifolia = unstalked/ petioled leaves)
seta- / seti- = referring to a bristle (setigera / setacea)

sibir- = referring to Siberia (siberiacus)

sider- = referring to iron (Sideroxylon = iron wood)
-sider(...) = referring to iron (Metrosideros = heart of iron)
sikkim- = referring to N. India (sillimensis)
silic- = referring to sand (siliceus)
silv- = referring to the woods (silvaticus)
simpl- = simple (simplex)
sinensis = native to China
sino- = referring to China
sinu- = sinuous, wavy (sinuata)
-siphon = referring to a tube (Orthosiphon = straight tube usually a flower part)
smilac- = referring to the genus Smilax, Greenbriar
sobol- = referring to offspring (sobolifera = bearing offspring, usually meaning 'runners')
solar- = referring to the sun (solaris)
solen- = referring to a tube (Solenanthus = tube + flower)
-som(...) = referring to the body, the corporeal entity (xanthosoma = yellow body)
somn- = referring to sleep (somniferum = sleep-producing - cf. Papaver somniferum, the opium poppy)
sordid- = dirty, not pure (in appearance) (sordidus)
spath- = referring to a spoon (shape) (Spathiphyllum = leaf-like spathe)
spatu- = referring to a spoon / spatula (shape)
specul- = referring to a mirror (Specularia, Venus's Looking Glass) (speculum)
specios- = showy, spectacular (speciosum)
specta- = spectacular (spectandus)
-sperm(...) = referring to a seed (Dictyosperma = seed with network- markings)
sphaer- = referring to a sphere (sphaerocephala = round-headed)
spic- = referring to a spike (of flowers) (spicatus spicant / spiculifolia = spiked leaf)
spin- = referring to a spine (spinosa / spina-christi = Christ- thorn)
spir- = referring to a spiral (Spiranthes = spiral flowers (inflo- rescence), an orchid)
splend- = splendid (splendida)
-spor(...) = referring to a seed or spore (Hymenospora = mambraneous seed)
spum- = referring to spume or froth (spumaria)
spur- = false (spurius)
squal- = dirty (color) (squalens squalida))
squam- = referring to scales (squamosa / squamata / squamigera)
squarr- = spreading (squarrosa)
-stachy(...) = referring to a spike (of flowers) (Acanthostachys = thorny flower spike)
stans = standing, upright
-staphy(...) = referring to a cluster of grapes (Arctostaphylos = bear + grapes, alluding to the fact that bears love to eat the fruit; one of the species of this genus is uva-ursi, meaning grape + bear)
stell- = referring to a star (stellatus)
-stem(...) = referring to stamens (Pentstemon> = five stamens)
sten- = narrow (Stenocarpu = narrow fruit)
steph- = referring to a crown (Stephanandra = crown + anthers)
-steph(...) = referring to a crown (macrostephana = large crown)
-stich(...) = referring to a row (Polystichum many rows (of spore cases on this fern genus))
-stict(...) = referring to spots or glands (chlorosticta = green-spotted)
stigm- = marked (stigmatus)
stipul- = referring to a stipule (stipulata)
stolon- = referring to runners (stolonifera = bearing runners)
-stom(...) = referring to a mouth
stram- = referring to straw (color) (stramineus)
strepto- = twisted (streptophullus = twisted-leaved)
striat- = striped (striatus; viridistriata = green-striped)
strict- = erect, rigid, upright, stiff (stricta)
strig- = referring to stiff hairs or bristles (strigosa / strigillosa)
strob- = referring to a cone (e.g., of a pine) (strobilifera = cone-bearing / strobus / strobilacea / strobilanthes = cone + flower)
strum- = referring to a tumor (strumatus)
styra- = referring to gum (styraciflua = flowing with gum)
suav- = sweet, fragrant (suaveolens)
sub- = somewhat, under, almost, not-quite -- often elided as in suffruticosa, a combining-form of sub and fruticosa = sub-shrubby (subhirtella = somewhat hairy)
suber- = referring to cork (suberosus)
subul- = referring to an awl (shape) (subulata)
suffr- = referring to a shrub (suffruticosa = somewhat shrubby)
sulc- = referring to a furrow (sulcatus)
supin- = prostrate (supinus)
sylv- = referring to forests (sylvatica)
sym- / syn- = together, united (Symphoricarpos = together + to bear + fruit, referring to the clustered fruit)
Roots: T
tabul- = referring to a tablet, therefore flat (shape) (tabuliformis)
tard- = late (tardiflora = late-flowering)
tartar- = referring to Central Asia (tartaricus)
taur- = referring to a bull (taurinus)
taxi- = referring to the genus, Taxa, the Yew (taxifolius = Yew-like leaves)
tect- = referring to a roof (tectorum)
tenax = tenacious
tenebr- = referring to shadows (tenebrosus)
tenell- = small, delicate (tenella)
tenui- = slender, thin (tenuifolia = thin-leaved)
teret- = circular, cylindrical (teretiformis - in the form of a cylinder)
terebinth- = referring to turpentine (usually the smell) (terebenthifolia = leaves with a turpentine-like odor)
tern- = referring to the number three (ternata / ternifolia = three-leaved)
terr- = referring to (the) earth (terrestris)
tessel- = tessellate (a squared pattern) (tessellata)
testud- = referring to a tortoise (testudinaria = like a tortoise shell))
tetra- = referring to the number four (tetragonus = four-angled)
-thal(...) = referring to a branch (Pleurothallis = side branch)
-thamn(...) = referring to a plant, a bush (Rhodothamnus = red plant)
-thec(...) = referring to a sheath (microthecum = small sheath)
therm- = referring to heat, hot springs (thermalis)
thyrs- = referring to a flower cluster (+ or - pyramid-shaped) (thyrsoidea)
tigr- = referring to a tiger (striped) (tigrinus)
til- = referring to the genus Tilia, the Linden tree (tilioides)
tinct- = referring to a dye (tinctoria)
tomentos- = pubescent (tomentosum)
tort- = twisted (tortilus)
toxi- = referring to a poison (Toxicodendron = poison tree)
trachy- = rough (Trachycarpus = rough fruit)
tremul- = trembling, (tremuloides)
tri- = referring to the number three (Trifolium = three leaves, the Clover genus)
trich- = referring to a hair (tricholepis = hairy scale)
trist- = sad, bitter (usually referring to color, or shape, like somber color, or drooping) (tristus / triste)

triti- = referring to the wheat plant (triticina)

trivi- = common, frequent (trivialis)
-trop(...) = turning towards (Heliotropium = turning towards the sun) (also can refer to a keel)
tuberc- = referring to referring to small tuber-like protruberances
tubi- = referring to tube (shape) (tubiflora)
tumid- = swollen (tumidus)
tunic- = referring to a tunic, i.e., covered (tunica / tunicata)
turbin- = shaped like a top (turbinatus)
typh- = smokey, dull (typhina)
Roots: U
ulm- = referring to the genus Ulmus, the elm (ulmifolia = elm-shpaed leaves) (ulmoides = elm-like)
umbel- = referring to umbels (umbellifera = bearing umbels) - an umbel is a flower cluster generally in the form of an umbrella, i.e., the flowers radiate from a central point
umbrac- = referring to an umbrella (shade) (umbraculifera = umbrella-bearing)
unc- = referring to a hook or spine (uncinatus / biuncifera = bearing two-pronged spines)
und- = referring to a wave (undulatus)
ung- = referring to a claw (unguis-cati = cat-clawed) (unguiculatus)
uni- = referring to the number one (uniflora = single-flowered)
urceolat- = referring to an urn (shape) (urceolatus)
uren- = burning, stinging (urens)
-ur(...) = referring to a tail (Leonurus = lion's tail)
urs- = referring to a bear (ursina)
usn- = referring to the genus Usnea, a lichen (usneoides, - the specific name of Tillandsia usneoides, the Spanish Moss)
util- = useful (utilis)
utric- = inflated (utriculata)
uva- / uvi- = referring to a grape (uvifera = grape-bearing / uva- vulpis = fox + grape)
Roots: V
vagans = wandering, erratic
valid- / valer- = strong, true (validus) (Valeriana = strong, referring to the medicinal uses of Valerian)
vari- = variable, various (variatus)
variegat- = variegated (variegata)
velut- = velvety (velutina)
venos- = referring to a vein (venosus)
ventr- = unevenly swollen (ventricosa)
venust- = beautiful (venustus)
vermi- = referring to a worm, spiral form (vermiculatus)
vern- = referring to Spring, vernal (vernalis vernus)
vernic- = referring to varnish (vernicosa)
verruc- = verrucose, warty (verrucosus / verruculosa)
versi- = various(ly) (versiflora = variously-flowered)
vertic- = referring to a whorl (verticillatus)
verus (vera) = genuine, true
vesicul- = referring to vessicles, bladders (vesicularis)
vesper- = referring to the evening - also western (vespertillus vesperinus)
vesti- = clothed, covered (usually with hairs) (vestitus)
villos- = hairy (villosum)
vimin- = referring to a wicker, therefore, long, pliable branches (viminalis)
vin- = referring to wine (vinifera = wine-bearing)
viol- = referring to the genus Viola or the color violet - (violaceus = partaking of the color violet)
vires- = referring to the color green (virescens)
virgat- = referring to a twig (wand) (virgatus)
virgin- = referring to a virgin - usually meanig white (virginalis)
virid- = referring to the color green (viridiflora = green-flowers)
visc- = sticky (Malvaviscus = sticky mallow) (viscaria)
viti- = referring to a grape (vitifolia = leaves like a grape)
vitta- = striped (vittatus)
volub- = twining (volubilis)
vulg- = common (vulgaris)
vulp- = referring to a fox (vulpina)
Roots: X
xanth- = referring to the color yellow (xanthocarpus = yellow-fruited / xanthinus)
xer- = dry (xerocarpa = dry-fruited) (Xeranthemum = dry flower)
xiph- = referring to a sword (xiphioides)
xyl- = referring to wood (Xylobium = wood + life, referring to the epiphytic habit of these orchids)
Roots: Z
zebr- = referring to a zebra (striped) (zebrina)
zeylan- = referring to Ceylon (Sri Lanka) (zeylanica)
zona- = referring to a zone, a band (color/shape) (zonatus / zonale)
zyg- = united (Zygopetalum = united petals, an orchid) (Zygadenus = united (paired) glands)

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