Biological Anthropology Chapter Guide – Chaps 13-15

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Biological Anthropology Chapter Guide – Chaps 13-15
Know the species as they are grouped (as we did in class). You will not be asked to distinguish among species in a pair or a group. (I. e., don’t waste time memorizing details that distinguish Ardipithecus from Kenyanthropus or Paranthropus boisei from P. robustus.) Know details about the names in bold.

Earliest hominins:





Australopithecus anamensis
Au. afarensis

Paranthropus aethiopicus

P. boisei

P. robustus

Au. africanus

Au. garhi

Early Homo:

Homo habilis / H. rudolfensis

First real humans:

Homo erectus / Homo ergaster

Archaic humans:

H. antecessor

H. heidelbergensis

H. neanderthalensis

Homo sapiens sapiens

Specialized / generalized hominins

Cradle of Humankind

Rift Valley


Middle Awash

Lake Turkana



Shanidar Cave


Blombos Cave

Instead of thought questions, here’s a thought diagram. On the timeline:

1. Draw the Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene epochs (draw lines across page at appropriate dates).

2. Along the left margin: Add the names of each epoch in small print (leave room for the next step).

3. On the left side: Add the hominin groups.

4. On the right side: Add the hominin species to where they belong in time.

5. Wherever it fits: Draw a line from each marker on the time line to someplace you have space. Add the “First” of hominin anatomy that occurred at that time, along with a fossil example. Http://

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