Biol 425 Final Exam Name




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Biol 425 Final Exam Name



Write your name on every page! This exam is worth 150 points. There are 5 sections. The last two sections are essay questions, so budget your time accordingly. Read the questions and instructions carefully!

Section I. Matching (1 point each, 30 points total)


Match the terms on the right (by writing the corresponding letter or number on the lines provided) with the short definitions or descriptions on the left. There may be more than one correct answer per description, and the same answer may be used for multiple questions, but only one correct answer is required for full credit. Any incorrect answers will result in no credit for that question.


1.




red panda




a.

artiodactyl tusk

2.




ultimate killing machines




b.

Bovidae

3.




the smoking gun found in †Artiocetus




c.

Insectivora

4.




most rodents




d.

cynodonts

5.




ever-growing incisors




e.

Didelphidae

6.




mesial drift




f.

double-trochleated astragalus

7.




grouping based on overall similarity




g.

Erethizontidae

8.




mesaxonic




h.

even-toed ungulates

9.




graviportal




i.

evolutionary systematics

10.




possess a non-bony cranial appendage




j.

Felidae

11.




non-monophyletic




k.

formerly considered an ursid

12.




symplesiomorphies




l.

Glires

13.




formerly thought to be whale ancestors




m.

hypercarnivory

14.




derived therapsids




n.

kangaroos

15.




former Alaskan afrotherians




o.

mesonychian condylarths

16.




procumbent lower incisors




p.

Microchiroptera

17.




at least some members have a baculum




q.

Monotremata

18.




a possible evolutionary constraint




r.

Multituberculata

19.




do not shed their head ornamentation




s.

myomorphous

20.




least speciose eutherian order




t.

Myrmecophagidae

21.




forked penis




u.

not reflective of common ancestry

22.




edentulous




v.

Odontoceti

23.




most speciose artiodactyl family




w.

Phocidae

24.




xenarthrous processes




x.

Pholidota

25.




extinct rodent-like mammals




y.

Primates

26.




New World porcupines




z.

Proboscidea, Sirenia

27.




wastebasket taxon




aa.

proboscidean tusk

28.




claws on first finger only




bb.

protrogomorphy

29.




possess double-trochleated astragalus




cc.

Rhinocerotidae

30.




lack external pinnae




dd.

Tapiridae













ee.

Tubulidentata













ff.

phenetics


Section II. True or false (2 points each, 30 points total)


31. T F Among living mammals, only the order Odontoceti possesses more than the

maximum number of teeth predicted by the primitive eutherian dental formula
32. T F According to recent phylogenies based on molecular data, whales should be classified in the order Perissodactyla to make the order monophyletic.
33. T F Foregut fermenters have more efficient digestion per unit food than hindgut fermenters do.
34. T F The cannon bone results from fusion of the tibia and fibula (hindlimb) and radius

and ulna (forelimb) in artiodactyls.


35. T F Antlers are composed mostly of bone and are shed annually.
36. T F The absence of a cecum is not reflective of lipotyphlan monophyly
37. T F Though they are superficially dog-like, hyenas are in the carnivoran suborder

Feliformia


38. T F According to the "Island Rule," large-bodied species should evolve increased

body size on islands.


39. T F Proportionally fewer large-bodied mammals went extinct at the end of the

Pleistocene.


40. T F Xenarthran diversity is currently at an all-time high.
41. T F

The Short Fuse model hypothesizes that metatherian orders originated before the

K/T boundary but didn't diversify until after
42. T F Most living rodents (in terms of the number of species) are hystricognathic
43. T F Modern mammals that employ echolocation are found only in the orders

Chiroptera and Cetacea


44. T F The fossil record indicates a gradual transition from gliding to powered, sustained

flight in the lineage leading to bats


45. T F Fossil evidence suggests that pelycosaurs may have been able to regulate their

body temperature internally



Section III. Multiple choice/fill in the blanks/circle the correct answer. Fill in the blanks or circle the correct option (options are in bold) (1 point for each blank or multiple choice, 30 points total)


46. This hoofprint was left by what order of mammals? _______________________.

C

ircle the term(s) that apply to this foot morphology.


    1. mesaxonic

    2. paraxonic

    3. graviportal

    4. unguligrade

    5. digitigrade

47. Postcranial bones may be either lost or gained in some mammals. Animals adapted for cursoriality/arboreality often lack the___________________ bone typically present in the pectoral girdle, while fully marine/volant mammals may possess extra ________________________. DOUBLE-JEOPARDY QUESTION. CHANGE OR REPLACE. SOME STUDENTS WOULD FORGET TO WRITE INT HE BLANK. OTHERS SAID 'VERTEBRAE' FOR MARINE MAMMALS. BAD QUESTION (POST-2008 GRADING, AND SEE HARD COPY KEY FROM 2006).


48. The ________________ is often referred to as the Age of Dinosaurs, while the

________________ is referred to as the Age of Mammals. The transition between these two eras

is known as the _____________________.

49. Which of the two pictured species would you expect to have (circle A or B for each):




A

Bunodont cheekteeth? A B


The most reduced cecum? A B
Plantigrade foot posture? A B
Well-developed carnassials? A B

B

50. A single pair of ever-growing incisors (upper and lower) is diagnostic of the order



. Two other eutherian orders that have one or more species with ever-growing incisors are and .
51. Name two living mammalian orders in which gliding has evolved: and .
(For 1 extra credit point, name a third: ).

52. In terms of species diversity, the most successful family of living mammals is Bovidae/Muridae/Procaviidae.


53. Among primates, arboreal quadrupeds tend to have long/short tails, terrestrial quadrupeds have a broad/narrow thorax, arboreal leapers have short/long hindlimbs, and brachiators have short/long curved fingers.
54. Mysticete whales are characterized by teeth/baleen, a(n) symmetric/asymmetric skull, and do/don't use echolocation to find their prey.
55. Primates in the suborder are believed to have colonized Madagascar via overwater dispersal/a landbridge connection, and members of the other suborder are thought to have reached the same way.

Section IV. Short answer (no more than a couple of sentences; 5 points each, 20 points total). Confine your answers to the space provided!

56. Briefly describe three ways a mammal can respond to climate change. Provide two examples presented in class and comment on whether or not they conform to our expectations based on certain ecotypic 'rules' (that's a hint!).

57. Almost all mammals have two generations of teeth. What is this condition called? How have elephants modified this condition? In what way to metatherians and eutherians differ with regard

to this condition?

58. What are three ways a cursorial mammal can increase running speed? Provide a morphological AND taxonomic example of each (e.g., "phalanges elongated and modified into wings to provide lift, found in all bats [common names OK]").

59. Why are there so darn many species of rodents?



Section V. Not-so-short answer (confine your answer to the space provided; be concise but complete. 20 points each, 40 points total).

60. Name three mammalian Orders or Families (your choice, may be a combination of both) with species that specialize on ants and termites. What is the technical term for “specializing on ants and termites?” What are three adaptations mammals have for ant eating and what does each allow the mammal to do? Finally, why are many extant ant-eating mammals relatively unchanged from their oldest fossil relatives?

61. Why should a non-systematist (say, for example, an ecologist, behaviorist, functional morphologist, or physiologist) who isn't interested primarily about taxonomy care about phylogeny? Use at least one example from lecture in defending your answer.
SEE NOTES ON PRINTED TEST FROM 2006/2008. THEY BOMBED THIS TWO YEARS IN A ROW! REWORD, MAKE MORE EXPLICIT, WHATEVER.

Extra credit 1: Draw a rooted phylogenetic tree relating all of the below characters from Winnie the Pooh based on the molecular tree shown throughout lecture. 1 point per correct node. Label the tips (taxa) using the names of the characters: left to right, Kanga, Piglet, Pooh, Rabbit, Tigger, Eeyore.




Extra credit 2: Provide a plausible adaptive explanation for why whales don't have bacula (1 point).



Extra credit 3: What is a mammal (3 points, but it needs to be a very good answer limited to the space provided BELOW).


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