Biol 140 Exam 2 Study Guide Order Carnivora




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BIOL 140

Exam 2

Study Guide
Order Carnivora

Closest relatives in Mammalia not yet known

Some omnivorous/some obligate carnivores

Largest size range of all orders

heterodont

carnassials

digitgrade

plantigrade


*Know latin name/common name, ID characteristics, generalized range, generalized habitat, primary food on ALL of the following… (other specifics listed below)
Family Felidae

4 toes


retractile claws

Puma concolor

Largest NW felid

Extreme human avoidance

Kittens spotted



Lynx Canadensis

May be same species as European lynx

Probably not in Oregon, but sightings?



Lynx rufus

Longer tail than lynx

Family Mephitidae

Anal musk glands for defense

5 toes

non-retractile claws



Spilogale gracilis

Hand stand spraying defense

More acrid than striped, doesn’t spray as far



Mephitis mephitis

Spray up to 20 feet

Accurate to 10



Family Mustelidae

Delayed implantation

5 toes

non-retractile claws



overlapping prints due to bounding gait

Martes americana

Arboreal

Reclusive

smaller than fisher

Martes pennanti

Arboreal

Larger than marten

Any white or yellow rare

Very rare



Mustela erminea

Seasonal coat

Smallest Mustelid in PNW

Male impregnates all females of family

Mustela frenata

Seasonal coat

Tail longer than ermine

Male impregnates all females of family

Mustela vison

Semi aquatic

Anal scent glands like skunks

Male 2x female

Gulo gulo

Largest Mustelid in PNW

Rare in PNW



Taxidea taxus

Digger

Huge front claws

Very pigeon toed

Lontra Canadensis

Playful

More aquatic than mink

Webbed feet

Long wiskers



Enhydra lutris

Armpit pockets

Most aquatic of weasels

Eats/sleeps while floating

Carries favorite “anvil” rock

4 webbed feet

larger than river otter

Family Procyonidae (5 toes)

Basariscus astutus

Small cat/foxlike face

Long ring tail half of total length

Found (in our region) only in SW OR



Procyon lotor

Highly sensitive fore paws

Don’t actually wash food

Use water for softening fore paws

May carry roundworm parasites (may be lethal to humans)

Family Ursidae

Ursus americanus

2nd largest carnivore in PNW

90-95% plant diet

May be more than black

Greatly reduced range

Light hibernator

Heel pad in hind track



Ursus arctos

Largest carnivore in PNW

Shoulder hump

Deep hibernation

Female nurses while sleeping

70-80% plants

biggest track



Family Canidae

5 toes (5th as dew claw, does not show in tracks)

Non-retractile claws (except grey fox)

Canis latrans

Complex communication

Range expansion after wolf extirpation



Canis lupus

Packs

Social hierarchy – feeding/breeding

Ancestor of dogs

Complex communication



Vulpes vulpes

May be other than red

Solitary


Leaping pounce like cats

Vulpes macrotis

Largest ear to head ratio

Smallest fox



Urocyon cinereoargenteus

Only arboreal canid

Fur not prized

Claws semi-retractable
Order Lagomorpha

Formerly in Rodentia

2 families

chisel incisors

2 pairs incisors in uppers

Coprophagy

No hibernation

Leporidae vs Ochotonidae

Hares vs rabbits


Family Leporidae

Pygmy rabbit

Smallest in world

Extirpated from WA

May have been different species

Burrowing

Keystone species

Brush rabbit

Common in Portland

2nd smallest

Eastern cottontail

Introduced from east coast NA

Breed year round

Mountain cottontail

Native cottontail

Snowshoe hare

Hind feet

Seasonal coat

Lynx predator/prey cycle with willow/alder

Black tailed Jackrabbit

2nd largest in PNW

very long ears

long legs

extremely athletic

prolific reproduction in large cycles

oddly missing from Washington

possible keystone species

White tailed Jackrabbit

Largest in PNW

Similar to black tailed but white tail

Not as common as black tailed

Family Ochotonidae

American Pika

Short round ears

Tail not visible

Does not hop (not saltatorial)

More primitive than other rabbits and hares

Most closely related to rodents of all Lagomorphs

Very vocal



Live in colonies in talus slopes/piles

Collect haystacks for winter


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