Biodiversity and current research status of the Lymantriidae (Lepidoptera: Noctuoidea) in Taiwan




Дата канвертавання22.04.2016
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台灣產毒蛾科(鱗翅目: 夜蛾總科)昆蟲之多樣性與研究現況

Biodiversity and current research status of the Lymantriidae (Lepidoptera: Noctuoidea) in Taiwan


廖士睿 顏聖紘 國立中山大學生物科學系

LIAO Shih-Rei, YEN Shen-Horn



Department of Biological Sciences, National Sun Yat-Sen University
摘要
毒蛾科(Lymantriidae)為鱗翅目(Lepidoptera)夜蛾總科(Noctuoidea)中型態特徵十分特殊的一群;它是由Hampson(1892)根據Lymantria Hübner, 1818所建立,目前全世界已知的毒蛾種類約350屬近2700種。舊世界的熱帶區是全球毒蛾種類多樣性最高的區域,其中熱帶非洲區擁有1004種與東方區擁有742種遠高於其他各個生物地理區。台灣地處東方區,島內目前已記錄有發表的毒蛾種類為20屬102種,相較於其他東方區國家,毒蛾科在台灣的多樣性是相對較高。毒蛾科幼蟲食性甚廣,其中有不少種類是為害農林作物的重要經濟害蟲,除此之外,毒蛾科中所有的種類都具有引起過敏反應的能力,因此毒蛾在公共衛生研究上佔有重大角色。毒蛾科中的成員對人類的生活影響甚大,但是其科下的系統分類研究相對於夜蛾總科卻是相當晚近,導致目前毒蛾科基礎分類研究不甚穩固。早期毒蛾科內研究主要以Ferguson(1978)之假說為主,他認為毒蛾科應於亞科階層有所劃分,但因當時對熱帶地區毒蛾的資訊所得有限,因此他則僅利用新北區種類將此科劃分成毒蛾族Lymantriini以及古毒蛾族Orgyiini;之後Benkhelil(1999)則根據對歐洲種類的觀察建議將這兩個族提升為亞科。Holloway(1999)針對以婆羅洲為主的東南亞種類進行比較大規模的成蟲比較形態學研究,他認為Ferguson所提出的Lymantriini可再被切割為四個族,亦即Lymantriini、黃毒蛾族Nygmiini、雪毒蛾族Leucomini、與白毒蛾族Arctornithini,若包含前述的古毒蛾族,目前毒蛾科則被劃分為五族。毒蛾科高階分類已有初步基礎,但是許多物種所屬的屬級層次單起源性卻備受質疑,且許多屬名的應用也有所爭議。目前針對毒蛾科系統發生的研究中除了Holloway曾對族級以及屬級進行討論外,黃毒蛾族內部系統發生單起源性與各族間的關係也正詳細的探討中。
The Lymantriidae comprises about 2700 species in 350 genera distributed globally and constitutes a unique group within the superfamily Noctuoidea. This family was established based on the genus Lymantria Hübner, 1818 by Hampson(1892). The family reaches the highest diversity in the Old World tropics, especially in the Afrotropical and Oriental regions, where 1004 and 742 species have been recorded, respectively. In Taiwan, 102 species in 20 genera are recognized, and the diversity in Taiwan is relatively high compared with other countries in the Oriental region. Larvae of Lymantriidae are often considered as polyphagous pests of various plants and having sanitary significance due to the urticating setae that cause various allergic syndromes. Although the Lymantriidae plays an important role in public health, the systematics is less investigated and begun very lately. The earlier systematic researches principally followed Ferguson’s(1978) arrangement, separating the family into two tribes, Lymantriini and Orgyiini, based on the Nearctic species alone due to limited information of the Old World species. Benkhelil (1999) suggested elevating both tribes to subfamily level according to observation of the European species. Meanwhile Holloway, when revising the Bornean species, proposing a new classification including Nygmiini, Leucomini, Arctornithini, Orgyiini and Lymantriini. Although Holloway has suggested a new tribal classification for Lymantriidae, the monophyletic status of most genera and their inter-relationships are yet to be investigated.


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