Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) What is it?




Дата канвертавання21.04.2016
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Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)

What is it?

  • The bald eagle, found throughout the Pacific Northwest, is typically found in close association with freshwater, estuarine, and marine ecosystems that provide abundant prey and functional habitat for nesting and communal roosting (Watson et al. 1991).

  • Bald eagle pairs in Oregon often have alternate nests in their territories that are used in different years (Anthony and Isaacs 1981).

  • Bald eagles winter along lakes, streams, and rivers. Their concentrations reflect winter food sources, although perch availability and level of human disturbance are also important (Stalmaster 1980, Steenhof 1978).

  • If sufficient winter food sources are available around a nest site, the nesting pair may remain in the area throughout the winter (Swenson et al. 1986).

  • Fish, waterfowl, and carrion are important winter food sources for bald eagles (USFWS 1986). Most eagles that breed in Oregon winter in the vicinity of their nests (Garrett et al. 1988).

Why is it important to ODOT?

Dates to remember:

  • The bald eagle was removed from the federal list of threatened and endangered species on August 9, 2007.

  • Breeding season is from January 1 – August 31 for Oregon. Nesting behaviors typically begin in January, with egg laying and incubation occurring in February and March (Isaacs et al. 1983). Young are reared throughout April, May, and June. Fledging occurs in July and August.

How does it affect a project?

  • Disturbances during the nesting period may result in increased energy expenditure from avoidance flights, and decreased energy intake due to interference with feeding activities (Knight 1984).

  • See MBTA Topic Sheet: ODOT projects cannot result in a direct loss of migratory bird eggs or adults.

  • See BGEPA Topic Sheet: Special timing and distances may be required to avoid impacts to nesting bald eagles.

How does ODOT comply? How do you address this topic?

  • Access the Isaacs and Anthony bald eagle data layer for the most recent known occurrences of bald eagles. This may be accessed through ODOT’s internal GIS team or by contacting Frank Isaacs directly.

  • See the MBTA Topic Sheet for requirements regarding nest protection.

  • See the BGEPA Topic Sheet. The USFWS published National Bald Eagle Management Guidelines in May of 2007 to advise landowners and land managers when and under what circumstances the protective measures of the BGEPA may apply to their activities.

When do you consider this topic?

Contacts:

  • USFWS / ODOT Statewide Liaison Coordinator

    • Click on the ‘Liaison Contacts’ link on the following page: http://www.oregon.gov/ODOT/HWY/GEOENVIRONMENTAL/biology.shtml

  • ODOT / APHIS Liaison (Statewide)

    • Click on the ‘Liaison Contacts’ link on the following page: http://www.oregon.gov/ODOT/HWY/GEOENVIRONMENTAL/biology.shtml

  • Frank Isaacs, Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit

    • OSU, Dept. Fish and Wildlife, 104 Nash Hall, Corvallis OR 97331

    • Phone: (541) 929-7154

    • Email: isaacsf@onid.orst.edu

Helpful Links:

  • USFWS Division of Migratory Bird Management – Bald and Golden Eagle: http://www.fws.gov/migratorybirds/baldeagle.htm

  • USFWS National Bald Eagle Management Guidelines: http://www.fws.gov/midwest/eagle/guidelines/guidelines.html


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