Avenella Drejer (1838), Fl. Excurs. Hafn. 32. S lerchenfeldia Schur (1866), Enum. Pl. Transsilv. 753. Comments: (1) The separation of Avenella from Deschampsia must be discussed

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37.15  Avenella Drejer (1838), Fl. Excurs. Hafn. 32.

S Lerchenfeldia Schur (1866), Enum. Pl. Transsilv. 753.


(1) The separation of Avenella from Deschampsia must be discussed. It is not in accordance with current NW European and North American usage but may be defended if we decide to apply a comparatively narrow genus concept, as considered for other families. (Elven)

37.15.1  Avenella flexuosa (L.) Drejer (1838), Fl. Excurs. Hafn. 32.

B Aira flexuosa L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 65.

S Deschampsia flexuosa (L.) Trin. (1836), Bull. Sci. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg 1: 66; Lerchenfeldia flexuosa (L.) Schur (1866), Enum. Pl. Transsilv. 753.


(1) The separation of two subspecies must be discussed. The variation is often considered as clinal in NW Europe. If they are accepted, it should be ascertained whether also the southern subspecies reaches the Arctic. Some survey of herbaria is needed. Subspecies are therefore only tentatively included. (Elven)

WARNING! Subspecies will be omitted if not well justified.  Avenella flexuosa (L.) Drejer subsp. flexuosa

S Deschampsia flexuosa (L.) Trin. subsp. flexuosa; D. flexuosa (L.) Trin. var. flexuosa.

2n= 28 (4x).



(1) I very much doubt whether the southern entity reaches the arctic parts of Iceland and Norway. Scoggan (1978) reports this race from N Ungava Peninsula (at 59N) and from Komartovik in N Labrador (at 5922'N), which should be in the arctic parts. (Elven)  Avenella flexuosa (L.) Drejer subsp. corsica (Tausch) Holub (1988), Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 23: 413.

B Aira corsica Tausch (1837), Flora (Regensburg) 20: 102).

S Deschampsia flexuosa (L.) Trin. subsp. corsica (Tausch) K. Richter (1890), Pl. Europ. 1: 57; Deschampsia flexuosa (L.) Trin. var. montana (L.) Ledeb. ***; Avenella flexuosa (L.) Drejer subsp. montana (L.) Á. Löve & D. Löve (1956), Acta Horti Gothob. 20, 4: 128; Lerchenfeldia flexuosa (L.) Schur subsp. montana (L.) Tzvelev (1971), Nov. Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 7: 44; Lerchenfeldia montana (L.) Khokr. (1993), Byull. Mosk. Obshch. Ispyt. Prir., Biol., 97, 6: 98.

2n= 28 (4x)

2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list several counts, five as arctic; Knaben & Engelskjøn (1967 S & N Norw).



(1) As shown by Kerguélen (1975, Lejeunea 75: 130) and Conert (1998: 315), the name Aira montana L. (1753, Sp. Pl. 65) must be rejected as a basionym of the montana name as the materials filed in LINN under this name belong to Agrostis rupestris and Poa flexuosa. Linné's diagnosis might also fit an Agrostis. (Elven)

37.16  Vahlodea Fr. (1842), Bot. Not. 1842: 141, 178.
37.16.1  Vahlodea atropurpurea (Wahlenb.) Fr. ex Hartm. (1843), Handb. Skand. Fl., ed. 4, 30.

B Aira atropurpura Wahlenb. (1812), Fl. Lapp. 37.

S V. atropurpurea (Wahlenb.) Fr. ex Hartm. subsp. atropurpurea; Deschampsia atropurpurea (Wahlenb.) Scheele (1844), Flora 27: 56.

T Finland: Enare socken vid Sotajoki, 22.08.1802, Wahlenberg scripsit (UPS) lectotype, selected by Moberg & Nilsson (1991, Nord. J. Bot. 11: 293).

2n= 14 (2x).

2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list several counts, one Greenlandic and two Norwegian.


Comments: See V. flexuosa.

37.16.2  Vahlodea flexuosa (Honda) Ohwi (1933), Acta Phytotax. Geobot. (Kyoto) 2: 33.

B Erioblastus flexuosus Honda (1930), J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo (Bot.) 3: 143.

S V. paramushirensis (Kudo) Roshev. in Kom. (1934). Fl. SSSR 2: 242, 750; V. atropurpurea (Wahlenb.) Fr. ex Hartm. subsp. paramushirensis (Kudo) Hultén (1927), K. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Handl., ser. 3, 5, 1: 111 [basionym: Deschampsia atropurpurea (Wahlenb.) Scheele var. paramushirensis Kudo (1922), J. Coll. Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 11: 71].

2n= 14 (2x).

2nD Taylor & Mulligan (1968); Hämet-Ahti & Virrankoski (1971).



(1) The arguments given by Tzvelev (Fl. Arct. URSS) might be sufficient for recognition of this entity as a species separate from V. atropurpurea, but treatment as subspecies is an alternative, for three reasons: (1) In the circumpolar area, three entities are recognised, the amphi-Atlantic 'atropurpurea', the Northwest American and Aleutian 'latifolia', and the amphi-Beringian 'paramushirensis'/-'flexuosa'. The two latter are sympatric in the Aleutian Islands and southern Alaska, i.e. for both of them for about half their total area, whereas the former is completely allopatric from both the two latter ones. This pattern could be 'racial' rather than 'special'. (2) The two Pacific entities are insufficiently separated morphologically, acc. to Porsild (1951), Hultén (1968a, 1968b) and Scoggan (1978), and if they are merged, the 'latifolia' name has priority at species level (1840) well before 'flexuosa' (1930). (3) Tzvelev's proposal, by omitting the 'latifolia' synonyms, implies that the latter taxon either is considered as a separate third species (non-arctic) or that it is united with V. atropurpurea s. str. with which it neither overlaps nor intergrades.

The proposal is therefore: either (1) subsp. atropurpurea [amphi-Atlantic, arctic], subsp. paramushirensis [amphi-Beringian, arctic, of which the 'flexuosa' names are synonyms], and subsp. latifolia (Hook.) A.E. Porsild (1951), Bull. Natl. Mus. Can. 121: 86; basionym: Aira latifolia Hook. (1840), Fl. Bor. Amer. 2: 243 [NW American, non-arctic]; or (2) subsp. atropurpurea and subsp. paramushirensis (incl. subsp. latifolia). (Elven)

37.17  Milium L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 61.
37.17.1  Milium effusum L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 61.


2n= (1) 14 (2x). (2) 28 (4x).

2nD (1) Sokolovskaya & Strelkova (1960 N Rus). (2) Löve & Löve (1975) list numerous counts, one Icelandic.



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