This chapter presents the overall research design, location of the study, sample of the study, sample size, sampling techniques used to select respondents, nature of the study, data collection techniques that will be used to collect relevant information and data analysis as well as sources of data collection techniques.
According to Churchill (2002), a research design is a master plan specifying methods and procedures for collecting and analyzing the required data. It is a means that is to be followed in completing a research study. The research design helps the researcher to obtain relevant data to fulfill the objectives of the study. There are three types of research designs namely; exploratory, descriptive and causal research designs.
Exploratory research design is good for studies which emphasize on formulating a problem for more precise investigation from an operational point of view. In descriptive research design, the major emphasis is on determining the frequency with which something occurs or the extent to which two variables vary. Causal research design is suitable for research studies whose major emphasis is on determining the cause and effect relationship.
This research study has used exploratory research design because in exploratory research designs, major emphasis is on discovery of ideas and insights, which in this study is to discover insights on the extent to which customers of Vodacom are satisfied with M-Pesa services, contributing factors for customer satisfaction and measures taken by Vodacom to ensure that customers are satisfied. The approach has enabled the researcher to collect data by using methods of data collections such as questioners and interview (face to face) that have in the end helped in understanding better the problem and have enabled to address the research questions that are in the introductory part of this study. This has worked through selection of a sample from a large population that responded to the questionnaires in order to get the real information from the respondents.
The respondents were selected from those individuals who are using mobile money transfer services (Vodacom M-Pesa).It was assumed that the responses would provide a broader insight of the impact on customer satisfaction towards mobile money transfer services. The questionnaires were desired in such a way that they were simple and easily understood by the respondents. The questionnaire type of survey was chosen for the fact that it could help the researcher cover a wider and extensive area of the research. It also gave the respondents time to organize themselves on their responses and therefore be able to give comprehensive views.
The research could not use other means of data collection such as literature survey, telephone interviews and observations due to some reasons. Literature survey was not preferred because the researcher wanted to understand the current situation and therefore it was better to have current views from the practitioners that would give the real picture. Telephone interviews could not be possible as it was difficult to get telephone numbers for the intended sample. Therefore the main method used was questionnaires that were distributed to the respondents on hand. The questionnaires were not channeled to respondents through their postal addresses for the purposes of minimizing low reponses.
Area of study
This study will be conducted in Dar es Salaam region (Temeke districts, Kinondoni districts and Ilala districts). The districts were selected due to population and have many users of mobile money transfer services as the report reviewed from Mobile phone compaies. The Head Offices of Vodacom where the researcher got data and information on the study. The researcher also visited the offices of Tanzania Communications Regulatory Authority (TCRA) to find information on regulatory and policy issues regarding the subject matter.
Population refers to an entire group of individuals, events or objectives having common observable characteristics. It is the aggregates of all that conforms to a given specification (Mugenda and Mugenda 2003).The targeted population for this study is divided into two groups of people namely Vendors for M-Pesa and staffs from Vodacom. Clients gave useful informatation about Mobile money transfer services (Vodacom M-Pesa) how they satisfy their needs as customers and staffs provided useful information about their servo stice rendered to customers and efforts being made to strength the service and challenge being raised by customer and how are overcome aiming to satisfy their customers.
Kothari (2006) defines sample as a collection of some parts of the population on the basis of which judgment is made. A sample is small enough to make data collection convenient and large enough to be a true representative of the population from which it had been selected. Sample size refers to a number of items to be selected from the population of the study to constitute a sample. The sample must be optimum, i.e., it fulfills requirements of efficiency, reliability and flexibility. The sample which was used under this research involved all users of M-Pesa where as the reliable information/data collected used to make conclusion on the research problem. Flexibility was considered so as to represent best judgment on the result.
Customer satisfaction on the use of mobile money transfer services (Vodafone M-Pesa).According to Cohen et al (2000), the knowledge gained from the sample is of the total population under study. Large sample increases variability and strength of the revealed information and reliability of test’s results. A total number of 100 users of M-Pesa took part in the study, and 10 staffs from vodacom office.
3.5.2 Sampling procedure
According to Kothari (2006), sampling is defined as the selection of some parts of aggregate of the totality based on which a judgment or inference about the aggregate or totality is made. It is a process of selecting a group of people, events, behaviour, or other elements with which to conduct a study. An important issue influencing the choice of a sampling technique is whether a sampling frame is available, that is, a list of units comprising the study population. During the study, the researcher employed the use purposive sampling method to select respondents from among the population. Purposive sampling enabled the researcher to use judgement to select cases that best answered the research questions and objectives.
3.5.3 Sample size
The research involved a total of 110 respondents which includes; 10 members of staff of Vodacom who were purposely selected from among members of staff of Vodacom from the M-Pesa department, and 100 Vodacom subscribers who frequently use M-Pesa services, who were randomly selected from M-Pesa outlets located in seven different locations in in the three Municipals of the City of Dar es salaam namely; Kariakoo,Buguruni Mbagala, Tandika, Mwenge, Kimara and Manzese.
Data collection methods
During the study, both primary and secondary data collection methods were applied. There are two main types of data collection methods that were used to collect data during the study namely; primary and secondary data collection methods. Primary data collection methods included; observation, questionnaires and interviews. Secondary data collection method that was used to collect data was documentation method.
Questionnaires were used because they enable the researcher to get detailed information on the subject matter. Also, interviews were used because they allow the researcher to have face-to-face discussions with respondents. This method were required and indirect oral examination under which the interviewer has to cross examine persons who has knowledge about the problem or the matter under review and the information obtained to be recorded for the case of the problem under review structured interview were used.(Kothari C.R 2006).The research involved structured questionnaire where the questions were closed with questions of in dichotomous or multiple choice and were presented with exactly the same wording and in the same order to all respondents reply to the same set of questions.( Kothari C.R 2006).Another method that was used to collect data was documentation. Documentation method were used because it helped the researcher simplify the researcher’s task by providing information recorded in form of numbers and percentages and presented by using tables, charts and graphs.
3.6.1 Primary data
The primary data was collected through questionnaire and personal interviews. The questionnaires were distributed to Vodacom clients who use M-Pesa services and non Vodacom clients provided that they use Vodacom M-Pesa service or mobile money transfer service systems. The clients were required to mention how they benefited with the use of Vodacom M-Pesa as the mode of mobile money transfer system.
3.6.2 Secondary data
Secondary data were obtained from Vodacom M-Pesa department and TCRA officies. These were data on the number of transactions being transacted a specified period and trend growth of the market information. TCRA offices provided data on all records being made regarding mobile money transfer system and the growth trend for both customer and volume of transaction record. Another source of secondary data was from the company’s website and from various literature and reports prepared by the companies (both TCRA and Vodacom).
3.7 Research instruments
In order to get good results for the study, the researcher surveyed the area to get information by using questionnaires that were distributed to sample selected and also used face to face interview to gather the information. The questionnaires were administered in three Municipals (Temeke, Illala and Kinondoni). The interview was done to those who were no able to respond on their own due to some reasons such as time constraint and literacy factors.
Table 3.1 shows the questionnaires distribution coverage.
Table 3.1: The questionnaires distribution coverage
During the process of interviewing the respondents, the researcher got time to observe the realities presented by the respondents. This were made possible because the respondents were interviewed at a time their transacting M-Pesa service.
This method was employed especially for the illiterate who could not write and read well as to those were hurry and very busy. This was used to probe and get the required information. The interviewees were made to give the information freely and objectives for the study were fulfilled.
Data analysis and presentation
After data were collected, the analysis was done so as to get the full interpretation nd content of the data by the use of descriptive and explanatory techniques. Explanations were given to give the full understanding of the data, since the researcher was exploring an existing situation i.e Customer satisfaction towards mobile money transfer services (Vodacom M-Pesa). The analysis was supported by Microsoft Excel which is a computer application package. Output of the data analysis was presented in tables.
This chapter described the methodology that was used in this study. It outlined the research design adopted, the population surveyed, and data collection method applied. It also highlighted much on the study area of interest with the reasons that led to the choice of the areas. The explanation of the instruments used to collect data during the research has also been given so as to put the reader in the picture of how data were collected.