Assessment of customer satisfaction towards mobile money transfer services in tanzania: case study of vodacom’s m-pesa




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1.4 Research questions


The study will be guided by the following research questions:

1. To what customers are satisfied with M-PESA services?

2. What are the contributing factors for customer satisfaction with M-PESA services?

3. What measures are being taken to ensure customers are satisfied with M-PESA services?



1.5 Scope and significance of the study   


The findings of this study will assist members of the general public, subscribers of mobile phone services, mobile phone companies and other stakeholders of the mobile telephone sector to become aware of the extent to which customers of M-Pesa are satisfied with the service, factors contributing to customer satisfaction with M-PESA services and the measures taken by Vodacom to ensure that customers are satisfied with M-PESA services.
The study will also serve as a stepping stone to future researchers on the same or similar topics by suggesting areas that need further studies to be conducted. Also, successful completion of the study will enable the researcher to partially fulfil the conditions for the award of a Masters degree in Business Administration offered by the Open University of Tanzania (OUT). The study will shade knowledge on different people to access the availability of the service and hence to deploy all necessary requirements to unbanked areas where banks and people with no bank account cannot access this service, the service has created employment to other citizen.

The study will add much to the body of knowledge in the field of banking and benefits derived from the industry. The literature will be beneficial to the society at large as it will add much to their level of understanding.


The finding will be helpful to financial institutions and Government at large on mobile money transfer services as the contributing factor on economic development hence to be used as the base line during budgeting and other decision making. The findings are helpful in telecommunication industry hence they will be used by Tanzania Communication Regulatory Authority (TCRA) on policy formulations.

1.6 Limitation of the study


In conducting this study, the researcher expects to face the following limitations that may affect the effectiveness of the study:
1.6.1 Time constraint

This study will be carried out for a short period to follow the deadline of the academic calendar of OUT. Time constraint may affect both, the quality and quantity of the research study because the researcher will have to use fewer respondents.


1.6.2 Financial limitation

Lack of adequate finances may affect the quality and quantity of data collected during the study. This may hamper the researcher to conduct the study effectively because the researcher will not be able to interview as many respondents.



1.6.3 Lack of local empirical literature

Local empirical literature on challenges facing adoption of mobile money transfer services is very lacking, as a result, the researcher will have to rely mostly on literature from developed countries. This may not give a true picture because challenges in one country may differ from challenges in another country.


CHAPTER TWO

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW


2.1 Introduction

This chapter reviews the literature used by the researcher on the subject matter. It explores various aspects and issues concerning mobile money transfer and related matters.



CUSTOMER SATISFACTION CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK


Customer record

(The customer record is not necessary if each respondee is a unique customer)

-A unique customer identifier

-Demographic information about the customer(e.g. role, location type of service provided by the customer, service received etc















Survey Record

-Demographic information about the product/service being provided.

-Service provided by Vodacom M-pesa
-Money transaction made through M-Pesa
-Other service being provided by using Mobile money transfer services







Response record

-Score for the satisfaction level

-Score for the importance level





Question Record

-A unique question identifier

- Question text





Comment Record

-A unique comment identifier

-Comment text




Source: Field study data (2011)

Customer records will be revealed from services being undertaken by the vendor, this the one who enjoys the service provided by Vodacom M-Pesa. The variables will be different services being done through the use of mobile money transfer services (Vodacom M-Pesa). The services will involve different activities or services available through the use of Vodacom M-Pesa. The response record will involve unique response identifier where each customer or vendor will be having a unique response hence to make good result for research findings. Different comments will be provided through the use of question record and comment record where all respondents will use their own comments and text to explain their satisfaction on mobile money transfer services.

Unique customer identifier is that data which will be used to explain the state of customer on application of mobile money transfer services. Every customer has its unique feeling on all activities and outcome resulted from mobile money transfer services. This will be verified by the response from unique response identifier and the result will be obtained from unique question identifier or unique comment identifier.
Demographic information about customers is that data which will be gathered basing on location expressing services being provided or service received and also it identify about location type. In rural areas the user of vodacom M-Pesa can be categorized differently with those who are receiving this service from town with different options of application on Vodacom M-Pesa.
Service provided by Vodacom M-Pesa is the main objective of this topic to view how far the service is beneficial to society at large. It views in details transactions and other services being perfomed by using Vodacom M-Pesa. The score of satisfaction level will be viewed and the score for the importance level also will be established through this framework. These scores will be made possible for findings made through comment record as comment text.

2.2 Theoretical literature review

This section gives a brief overview of on theories used by the researcher to describe Mobile Money Transfer services. These theories are relevant to this study because they describe various means through which Mobile Money Transfer services can be provided.


2.2.1 Application of new technology in service theory

This theory explains so far how the technology has contributed to improve mobile money transfer services. The theory has a number of advantages to society as it explain in details how so far this new technology has improved the service delivery as banking business has increased.( (Hock Bee, 1999). The theory explain in details it availability and expansion to rural areas where other technology were not available hence effect a number of advantages through effecting transactions and payments systems. The banking industry technology has got positive competition which has resulted to positive impact on mobile money transfer services (Morawczynski and Pickens (2009).


Chapman and Holtham (2004) in the theory on application of new technology in service delivery have helped many organizations to improve services. In this theory they argued that application of new technologies creates potential for improvement in delivery of services as it is in recent developments in mobile phone technologies which has resulted in a rise in volume of banking business performed through the mobile phone such as mobile money transfers (Hock Bee, 1999). Vodacom M-Pesa as the positive effect towards new technology as the theory suggest it has brought a number of positive impacts as to make easy transactions on matters which were not easy (FinAccess (2009). This theory has its weakness as it does not explain how so far it brought changes to areas where are unbanked (BOT report on Balancing Act Africa, issue 541 February 2011). The technology theory has been new to society such that it reveals no positive effect as it is new to society. Technological developments have brought many changes to society as transactions have been possible at every stage with no any limit. (BOT report on Balancing Act Africa, issue 541 February 2011). This is another weakness resulted by technological theory as it tries to excel mobile money transfer services with no boarder of control hence reveal shortfalls to users of this services.
2.2.2 Adoption of Mobile Money Transfer services theory

Since 2005, Mobile Money Transfer services have been used in a number of ways in developing countries. It is the theory which explains the adoption of money transfer services and its effect to developing countries. A study conducted by Porteous (2006) on the adoption of Mobile Money Transfer services in Africa found out that Mobile Money Transfer s in Africa are in the following forms; transmitting airtime, paying bills and transferring money. The forms which has been explains in this theory base much on the activities being conducted by the society such as paying bills, as it is for water bills, electricity (LUKU), DSTV, Star times etc. There are also a few m-money systems in developing countries that allow international money transfers. In this theory it is much explaining its impact to developing countries for transacting e money while the matter of mobile money transfer services is wider than it has been stated in this theory. The positive effect of this theory is it explaining the actual situation being performed on adoption to mobile money transfer services as it explaining it effect in developing countries. Although this adoption theory has positive effect there are other negative effect whereby it does not explain how so far it has benefited the society and its impact to development of the society at large particularly in developing country and focusing on the society living in rural areas (FinMark Trust 2008).


2.2.3 Mobile Money Transfer services theory

This is the theory which explains mobile money transfer services as the means of transferring money to different beneficiaries through money transactions as being provided either by banks or mobile phone companies. It is the system which is provided through the use of telecommunication systems.


The study by Porteous (2006) which involved a survey of mobile phone users in Kenya and South Africa, also found that some forms of Mobile Money Transfer services are offered entirely by banks while others are offered entirely by mobile phone companies and others are offered in partnership between banks and mobile phone companies. Most Mobile Money Transfer systems users to store value in an account accessible by the handset, convert cash in and out of the stored value account, and transfer value between users.

Majority of Mobile Money Transfer subsystems in Africa involve the use of a “pseudo account” by purchasing “electronic money” (emoney) from an agent, usually a third party or someone who works for the mobile phone operator or bank. The user can then send e-money to another recipient with a phone, who then withdraws the e-money from their local transfer agent. Fees are generally charged for each transaction (Porteous, 2006).


The most popular Mobile Money Transfer system in Africa is M-Pesa (“M” for Mobile, “Pesa” for “Money” in Swahili). Although M-Pesa has been touted as “banking the unbanked”, on average, M-Pesa users are wealthier, better educated, urban and “already banked”. The theory has proved to have some weakness which fails to reward the society on direct benefit provided by transfer and security of their transactions. Morawczynski and Pickens 2009). It is recommended that the system is accessable hence it reach to all areas which are not reachable by other banks.
2.2.4 Penetration of Mobile Money Transfer services theory

Penetration theory is that theory which states how so far the mobile money transfer services has captured the market. A study conducted by FinMark Trust (2006) on the penetration of banking services in East Africa found out that less than 30 percent of East Africans have formal bank accounts.


M-Pesa money transfer system, launched in March 2007, has become popular with the unbanked population. A FinAccess (2009) survey found out M-Pesa has grown to over 8.5 million customers (November, 2009), served by over 12,000 agents throughout Kenya. M-Pesa services have expanded to include bill payments, group salary payments and school fee payments. The study also found that over KSh20 billion has been transferred through the system since it was launched. This theory has contributed much easing money transaction on payments of various transactions. Though the theory did not show the impact on using mobile money transfer services for payment purposes for the matter of control and security of the user (Vaughan, 2007). It is recommended that this theory has to be used for estimating the effect of mobile money payment theory as the factor to be taken into consideration as its effect is a one way for control purposes.
2.2.5 Mobile Money Transfer services and keeping balance theory

The study by Morawczynski and Pickens (2009) also found out that M-Pesa users often keep a balance on their M-Pesa accounts, thereby using the system as a rudimentary bank account. M-Pesa users also send smaller but more frequent remittances, suggesting that the use of M-Pesa system might someday allow informal insurance networks to function more efficiently and effectively.


The rapid uptake of M-Pesa and similar m-money services is not surprising when one considers the level of financial development in Kenya and in sub-Saharan Africa. Less than 30 percent of the population in East and Southern African has a formal bank account, ranging from 9 percent in Tanzania to 63 percent in South Africa. These findings are according to a study conducted by FinMark Trust (2008).

In 2006, Kenya had only 450 bank branches and 600 automatic teller machines, or less than two bank branches per 100,000 people (Vaughan, 2007). Kenyans primarily sent money by one of three mechanisms: via Western Union or post office, via intermediaries (such as bus drivers), or via friends or relatives. Wire transfers via Western Union are secure but expensive and not always available in remote rural areas.


2.2.6 Usage and impact of Mobile Money Transfer services theory

Usage theory explains the impacts resulted by mobile money transfer services(Vodacom M-Pesa) the impacts to individuals through personal savings and timing amount of transfers.


Jack and Suri (2009) suggest that that the inconspicuous nature of M-Pesa transfers could allow individuals to increase their personal savings, because friends and relatives would be less likely to know about the timing or amount of transfers. Wilson, Harper and Griffith (2010) find that members of informal savings groups in Nairobi are using M-Pesa to deposit individual savings into their group account.
A variety of qualitative studies provide some insights into the characteristics, patterns and potential impacts of Mobile Money Transfer usage. For example, a study by Morawczynski and Pickens (2009) on usage and impact of mobile financial services in Kenya found out that users often keep a balance on their M-Pesa accounts, thereby using the system as a rudimentary bank account. This theory is much used for financial transactions and keeping of funds and their usage. The theory fails to reveal the impact to users as it does not recognize its impacts to society hence further study has to be applied.

2.2.7 Sending procedure of Mobile Money Transfer services theory

This is the procedure used on transferring process as being explained in the theory.

The study by Morawczynski and Pickens (2009) found out that M-Pesa users send smaller but more frequent remittances, suggesting that the system might allow informal insurance networks to function more effectively. The inconspicuous nature of M-Pesa transfers allows individuals to increase their personal savings, because friends and relatives would be less likely to know about the timing or amount of transfers.
A variety of qualitative studies provide some insights into the characteristics, patterns and potential impacts of M-Pesa usage. For example, Morawczynski and Pickens (2009) find that M-Pesa users in Kenya use it to send money instead of using transport services or friends and relatives because it is more accessible and affordable, although it carries a high risk of theft. This theory also has a number of weaknesses which welcome other research to be conducted for the purpose of enriching the findings. The recommendations base on improving transferring methods hence to satisfy customers.
2.3 Methods used to describe mobile money transfer services

This section gives a brief overview of three methods used by the researcher to describe Mobile Money Transfer services namely; Basic, Network Operator Centric and Service Content Aggregator methods. These methods are relevant to this study because they describe various means through which Mobile Money Transfer services can be provided.

The methods are classified on three grounds namely; who is legally responsible for the deposit, where can cash be accessed and who carries the payment instruction.
2.3.1 The Basic Method

In the basic method the third-party services and application providers are separated from the cellular network providers. This leads to more business opportunities from the market point of view, as well as more available services from the customers’ point of view. In this method, the Network providers provide the platform and equipment, while vendors are responsible to provide the services (Panagiotakis, et al, 2005).


An example of the Basic Method is the M-Pesa service where by, Vodacom provides the platform for provision of Mobile Money Transfer s by actually carrying out the payment instruction, while M-Pesa agents (vendors) serve as points where cash can be accessed and are responsible for deposit taking and making payments. In essence, Vodacom itself is not responsible for deposit taking or cash payments but provides storage for virtual money in virtual M-Pesa accounts.

2.3.2 The Network Operator Centric Method


In this method, the user subscribe to a mobile network operator, which is responsible to provide users with telecommunication services, and in addition, delivers services and applications offered by a third party. The mobile network provider only charges a fee for facilitating Mobile Money Transfer or transactions made over the network (Panagiotakis, et al, 2005). In this method, the mobile network operator is responsible for facilitating the payment but does not issue the payment instruction.

An example of this Mobile Money Transfer method is the one operated by the National Microfinance Bank (NMB) known as “NMB Mobile” where by the bank issues payment instruction to pay money from one account to another and the mobile phone operator carries out the instruction. One notable limitation is that this method does not allow money to be paid only between NMB bank accounts


2.3.3 The Service Aggregator Centric Method

In this method, the service provider is responsible for providing users with its own services and applications. The mobile phone operator on the other hand allows payments to be made over the phone for services offered by the service provider through the mobile network. It is assumed that the service aggregator comes into directly agreement with a network provider for delivering payments through the network’s infrastructure (Panagiotakis, et al, 2005).


Vivid examples of the Service Aggregator Centric Method of Mobile Money Transfers are the current arrangements made by service providers such as Tanzania National Electric Supply Company (TANESCO), Dar es Salaam Water and Sewage Company (DAWASCO) and Multichoice that allow their customers to make payments for electricity bills or purchase electricity, water bills and digital satellite Television subscription through Vodacom’s M-Pesa.
Under this method, users have to subscribe to both, the service provider and the mobile network provider. However, choice of the mobile network provider is made independently from choice of the service provider. Based on the subscription, the service provider defines the prices, collects the charging information and charges the user based on both transport part and services and contents parts (Panagiotakis, et al, 2005). Then, the apportioning of revenues among mobile network providers and service provider is performed based on the agreements reached among the players. This means that in this method, service and content aggregator undertakes the role of billing and payments providers (Panagiotakis, et al, 2005).

2.3.4 The Service Provider Centric Method


In this method, instead of the service and content aggregator, the service and content providers come directly into agreement with network provider for delivering their applications and services through the latter’s telecommunication infrastructure. The service and content providers define the pricing and payment policies and charge the users based on their usage of transport and services and content (Panagiotakis, et al, 2005).
According to this method, the users come to subscription agreement with the service and content provider, which incorporates the roles of service and content aggregator and billing and payment provider. Furthermore, the service and content provider collects and apportions the revenue among the involved players according to business agreements. The possibility the network operator to charge the user separately for the transport part is not precluded (Panagiotakis, et al, 2005).
2.3.4.1 Categorization of Mobile Money Transfer services

Mobile Money Transfer s and M-banking method differ according to the roles played by the main providers in an M-banking solution: the bank, the mobile phone company and/or a possible third party entity. According to Mobey (2006), M-banking methods are defined by using two critical roles as (i) the issuer of the security element (such as the SIM) used to authenticate and authorize; and (ii) the platform manager. Different scenarios exist where banks and mobile phone companies fill these basic roles in different configurations.


Mobey (2006) believes that the biggest potential for international growth of m-banking exists when personalization bureaux (such as chip/SIM card issuers) take on the role of platform manager, which owns the cryptographic keys that enable service providers to download an application to the security element. Based on the answers to the following four key questions, four m-banking models may be identified:
In this research the model which will be used as the operational model for data collection is basic model where the application of M-Pesa as the case of study being taken into consideration for assessment of customer satisfaction towards Mobile Money Transfer Services (MMT).
2.3.4.2 Who is legally responsible for the deposit?

Usually, mobile phone companies and other issuers of prepaid balances can also become issuers of e-money. The legal situation can seemed blurred when mobile phone companies pool individual deposits into one aggregated account at a bank, which has no sight of or role in administering the underlying individual accounts; however, when the bank itself does not recognize the individual accounts, deposit pooling is effectively issuance of e-money (ibid).

An example of a company uses this model is Celpay Holdings of Zambia. Although Celpay has retail functionality, enabling funds to be deposited via banks into virtual Celpay accounts from which they can be transferred by mobile phone, the focus of its business model has become business to business payments around the logistics chains of large corporates with far flung distribution, such as breweries and oil companies (ibid).
2.3.4.3 Whose brand is most exposed to the public?

This consideration is related to the issue of responsibility for the deposits, through the reputation risk involved. Note that in many developed countries, where there may be small banks with limited penetration, the brands of the few mobile phone companies with much larger client’s bases may be far more valuable.


An example of a company that uses this model is MTN Mobile Money of South Africa as a joint venture between the country’s second largest network operator MTN and large commercial bank, Standard Bank. Mobile Money starter packs are available via MTN agents and bank branches; and account opening takes place remotely through an interactive process and the Mobile Money menu is downloaded over the air to SIM card.
2.3.4.4 Where can cash be accessed?

The key question here is whether, in addition to conventional banking outlets such as branches or ATMs, additional agent networks brought into the offering for cash back or taking deposits, such as airtime merchants. An example of this model is M-Pesa which is a Mobile Money Transfer platform developed by Vodafone Group. M-Pesa is a person-to-person transfer of money.


2.4 Empirical literature review

Since 2005, Mobile Money Transfer services have been used in a number of ways in developing countries. It is the theory which explains the adoption of money transfer services and its effect to developing countries. A study conducted by Porteous (2006) on the adoption of Mobile Money Transfer services in Africa found out that Mobile Money Transfer s in Africa are in the following forms; transmitting airtime, paying bills and transferring money.


The study by Morawczynski and Pickens (2009) found out that M-Pesa users send smaller but more frequent remittances, suggesting that the system might allow informal insurance networks to function more effectively. The inconspicuous nature of M-Pesa transfers allows individuals to increase their personal savings, because friends and relatives would be less likely to know about the timing or amount of transfers.
A variety of qualitative studies provide some insights into the characteristics, patterns and potential impacts of M-Pesa usage. For example, Morawczynski and Pickens (2009) find that M-Pesa users in Kenya use it to send money instead of using transport services or friends and relatives because it is more accessible and affordable, although it carries a high risk of theft. During the study, 7.4% to 53.9% of respondents indicated that they had transferred money to someone else’s mobile phone. The majority of the transfers conducted were as a favour to family and friends – however there is also significant usage of money pay for goods and services. On the other hand, 4.8% to 68% of respondents surveyed indicated that they had received money from someone else before.
Another study conducted by Financial Sector Deepening (FSD) Kenya (FSD, 2008) which included a survey of over 3, 000 M-Pesa customer in Kenya revealed beyond any doubt that more than 80 percent of users were happy with the service, many claiming that their life was better off because of it. The survey showed that the majority of customers used the service for domestic remittances: on average sending about US$25 per transaction.
Among the customer complaints revealed by the study was that agents sometimes ran out of cash, the occasional case of attempted fraud and the occasional network complication. However the overall view of M-Pesa by customers was remarkably positive. M-Pesa had substantially changed the market for domestic transfers, almost eliminating the role of bus companies and post office (FSD, 2008).
The FSD (2008) study also revealed that a significant group used M-Pesa to buy pre-paid airtime directly from their accounts, and an intriguing 21 percent said that they used the service to ‘store money’. However, an analysis of inactive accounts showed that only 1.6 percent (60,000 out of 4 million) remained inactive for more than 30 days. The average residual amount held in these accounts after 30 days was just Ksh 1,468, or approximately US$2.

This corresponds to 60% of Safaricom’s customer base, 23% of the entire population, and 40% Kenyan adults. M-Pesa is currently responsible for over $320 million per month in person-to-person (P2P) transfers. On an annualized basis, this is equal to roughly 10% of Kenyan Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Although transactions per customer have been on a rising trend, they remain quite low, probably still under two P2P transactions per month.


The average transaction size is around US $33, but Vodafone has stated that half the transactions are for a value of less than US $10 and translate into US $7 million in monthly revenue for Safaricom which is equal to 8% of Safaricom revenues. Also, the study revealed that 19% of Safaricom airtime purchases are conducted through M-PESA. Since the launch of the bill pay function in March 2009, there are 75 companies using M-PESA to collect payments from their customers.
The study also shed considerable light on the profile of M-PESA’s early adopters and customer usage patterns. The survey found that the average M-PESA user is, in comparison to non-users, twice as likely to have a bank account (72 percent versus 36 percent), wealthier (65 percent higher expenditure levels), more literate, better educated, and fairly “tech savvy,” which probably makes them more acutely aware of the convenience offered by M-PESA.
More than half the sample uses it primarily for sending and receiving money. Interestingly, 21 percent of M-PESA users report using M-PESA for storing money. However, the survey revealed that less than 1 percent of accounts had balances of over KSh 1,000 (US $13), and a government audit of M-PESA in August 2009 revealed that the average balance on M-PESA accounts was only US $2.70.
The survey also found that 52 percent of respondents use the service on a monthly basis, suggesting that customers have yet to incorporate M-PESA into their daily lives. The survey also found that 98 percent of users report being happy with the service and 84 percent claim that losing M-PESA would have a large, negative effect on how they deal with money transfers.
In her study of M-PESA, Ratan (2008) suggests that the latent demand for domestic remittances is related to urbanization ratios. More propitious markets will be those where the process of rural-urban migration is sufficiently rooted to produce large migration flows, but not so advanced that rural communities are hollowed out. Countries with mid-range urbanization ratios (20 percent to 40 percent).After small pilots involving 500 customers, M-PESA launched nationwide, increasing the likelihood that the service could reach a critical. At launch, Safaricom had 750 stores and had made sure to cover all of Kenya’s 69 district headquarters. It was a massive logistical challenge that led to a great deal of customer and store confusion and, in the first months after launch, several days’ delays to reach customer service hotlines.

The first ethnographic research on M-PESA as one of the earliest success stories in the mobile phone based delivery of financial services to explain the impact of M-PESA to poor people (Morawczynski and Pickens 2009).


The mobile payments systems provides an avenue for linking bank account holders to the unbanked population in the area with the limited access to formal banking services.( BOT report on Balancing Act Africa, issue 541 February 2011). Here two regulators in Tanzania sign a memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on the service as the joint supervision between Bank of Tanzania (BOT) and Tanzania Regulatory Authority (TCRA) as the result of strong growth of mobile payment services in the country. Mobile Payment schemes involve not only funds transfer but also payments of retail goods and services. Mobile payment services are especially used to top-up mobile phone credits, airtime transfers between mobile phones and corporate bill payments-waer and electricity for instance the report say.
The existing arrangement creates gaps in the regulatory framework because two regulators-BOT and TCRA- each with a limited scope of coverage, oversee the mobile payment services the report says, noting that the signed MoU provides a mechanism for regulatory and supervisory coordination between the two regulators. The central bank regulates the financial transactions, the TCRA focuses on the communication infrastructure. The growth in the usage of mobile phones offers great opportunity to extend financial and other services to millions of those in the unbanked community say the report.
2.5 Research gap

Based on the above reviewed empirical literature of empirical literature review, it is evident that extensive research has been done which are related to the research topic in developed and neighboring countries such as Kenya. In the development field, there is great interest in the use of mobile phones to increase citizens’ access to efficient and affordable financial services a practice commonly referred to as mobile money.

Chapman and Holtham (2004) in the theory on application of new technology in service delivery have helped many organizations to improve services. In this theory they argued that application of new technologies creates potential for improvement in delivery of services as it is in recent developments in mobile phone technologies which has resulted in a rise in volume of banking business performed through the mobile phone such as mobile money transfers (Hock Bee, 1999).The research did not explain how far it has positive impact to customer/ users of mobile money transfer services.

A study conducted by Porteous (2006) on the adoption of Mobile Money Transfer services in Africa found out that Mobile Money Transfer in Africa are in the following forms; transmitting airtime, paying bills and transferring money. It did not explain any thing about its impact to customer hence it is the research gap. Thus, it is the objective of this research study to fill that literature gap and contribute in new knowledge.


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