Appendix sources of data on maximum linear body sizes, species ranges and species numbers for taxa shown in Table 1

Дата канвертавання22.04.2016
Памер37.84 Kb.
Makarieva, A.M., Gorshkov, V.G., Li, B.-L.

Temperature-related limits to body size: An interspecific geographic analysis of maximum body sizes in terrestrial poikilotherms.


Sources of data on maximum linear body sizes, species ranges and species numbers for taxa shown in Table 1
I. Body size sources
Notes: W — largest in the world, GB — largest in Great Britain, A — largest on Wrangel Island (A[rctics])
1. Collembola (springtails)

W, GB: Hopkin 1997; A: Martynova 1970

2. Dermaptera (earwigs)

W: Bass & Dalal-Clayton 1995; GB: Hincks 1956

3. Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, bush crickets)

W: Chung 2002, body length estimate of 12 cm for Macrolyristes imperator is that of a specimen stored in the Natural History Museum of London (Dr. J. Marshall, pers. com.); GB: Hincks 1956

4. Blattodea (cockroaches)

W: Day 1950; GB: Hincks 1956

5. Heteroptera (bugs)

W: Meure & Lauck 1962; GB: Dolling 1991; A: Ler 1988

6 & 7. Odonata: Anisoptera (dragonflies) and Odonata: Zygoptera (damselflies)

W: Silsby 2001; GB: Longfield 1949

8. Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera (butterflies)

W: Kuns 1998; GB: that Papilio machaon is the largest butterfly in Great Britain was determined from Higgins & Riley 1970, however, the reported size (wing length of 32-38mm corresponding to wingspan of about 7 cm) is apparently too low for this species (Gorshkov & Makarieva, pers. obs.), so the body size data were taken from the species description by Layberry et al. 1998; A: Kurentzov 1970

9. Lepidoptera: Heterocera (moths)

W: Kuns 1998; GB: South 1961; A: Lukhtanov & Khruliova 1989

10. Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea (scarab beetles)

W: Williams 2001; GB: Britton 1956

11. Coleoptera: Carabidae (ground beetles)

W: Rousseau 1906; GB: Freude et al. 1976; A: Dr. O. Berlov (1989 and pers. com.), Ler 1989

12. Hymenoptera: Formicidae (ants)

W: Peeters et al. 1999 claim that the queenless ants Dinoponera quadriceps from Brazil are the world's largest, with body lengths ranging from 15 to 30 mm (Monnin & Ratnieks 1999). However, Pfeiffer 1996 reported that the largest individuals (queens) of a Malaysian ant species Camponotus gigas attain 31 mm in body length. So we took the latter species for our analysis; GB: Collingwood 1958

13. Hymenoptera: Apidae (bees)

W: Messer 1984, GB: that Bombus terrestris is one of the largest bees in Great Britain was pointed out by Dr. S. Corbet (pers. com.) (Prэs-Jones & Corbet 1991), body length taken from Saunders 1896; A: Ler 1995

14. Hymenoptera: Pompilidae (spider wasps)

W: Wasbauer 1995 noted that Pepsis species are among the largest wasps known, Fabricius 1798 mentioned that Pepsis heros F. is the largest in the genus, body length taken from Lucas 1895; GB: Day 1988

15. Diptera: Nematocera (thread-horns)

W: Westwood 1876 (describes Holorusia brobdingnagia as one of the “most gigantic Dipterous insects”); GB: Coyler & Hammond 1951 identify T. maxima as the largest species of Nematocera in Great Britain, while Savchenko 1964 reports its wing length; A: Savchenko 1961

16. Diptera: Brachycera (short-horns)

W: Wilcox et al. 1989; GB: Coyler & Hammond 1951

17. Arachnida: Araneae (spiders)

W: Cloudsley-Thompson 1958; GB: Hillyard 1999; A: Kulczyński 1908

18. Arachnida: Acari (mites and ticks)

W: Walter & Proctor 1999; GB: that Trombidium holosericeum is the largest free-living Acari in Great Britain was determined by Dr. A. Baker (Natural History Museum of London, pers. com.), body length reported by Makol & Wohltmann 2000

19. Chilopoda (centipedes)

W: Shelley & Kiser 2000; GB: Eason 1964

20. Diplopoda (millipedes)

W: personal measurements of animals reared in the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (St.-Petersburg); GB: Blower 1985

21. Gastropoda: Styllomatophora (land snails)

W: Barnes 1980; GB: Cameron & Redfern 1976

22. Amphibia: Anura (frogs)

W: AmphibiaWeb 2003; GB: Smith 1954

23. Reptilia: Serpentes (snakes)

W: Shine et al. 1999; GB: Smith 1954

24. Reptilia: Sauria (lizards)

W: Ciofi 1999, GB: Smith 1954

25. Oligochaeta: Lumbricina (earthworms)

W: Michaelsen 1918 identifies Rhinodrilus fafner as world’s largest worm exceeding in length (up to 210 cm) the well-known Megascolides australis from Australia; GB: Sims & Gerard 1985; A: Eisen 1879. Note: Body diameter of E. nordenskioldi was estimated from the known body length assuming geometric similarity between E. nordenskioldi and L. terrestris (maximum body length 15 and 30 cm, respectively).

II. Sources for geographic ranges of the world’s largest species from the above 25 taxa
In most cases the data on geographic ranges come from the W sources listed above. Additional sources:
7. Megaloprepus caerulatus, Costa Rica: Hedstrцm & Sahlйn 2003
14. Pepsis heros F., Brazil, Ecuador, Peru: Hurd 1952
18. Dinothrombium tinctorium, Guinea coast of Africa (location of original description by Linneaus): Z.-Q. Zhang pers. com.
19. Archispirostreptus gigas, Kenya: UNEP 1998
21. Achatina achatina, Nigeria: Umezurike & Iheanacho 1983

III. Sources for species numbers in the considered taxa in the world (W), Great Britain (GB) and on Wrangel Island
All data on species numbers for Wrangel Island are from Khruliova 1987 except for Collembola where they come from Martynova et al. 1973.
1 — W,GB: Hopkin 1997; 2 — W,GB: Hincks 1956; 3 — W: Hincks 1956, GB: Marshall 1999a; 4 — W,GB: Marshall 1999b; 5 — W,GB: Dolling 1991; 6,7 — W: Davies & Tobin 1985, GB: Longfield 1949; 8,9 — W: calculated from the data of Orme et al. 2002 assuming that moths account for about 85% and butterflies for about 15% of the total number of Lepidoptera species; 8 — GB: Emmet & Heath 1990; 9 — GB: South 1961; 10 — W,GB: Britton 1956; 11 — W: Bousquet & LaRochelle 1993, GB: Linssen 1959; 12,13,14 — W,GB: Noyes et al. 1999; 15 — GB: Coyler & Hammond 1951; 17 — W: Orme et al. 2002, GB: Hillyard 1999; 18 — W: Walter & Proctor 1999, GB: Baker 1999; 19: W: Dogel 1975, GB: Eason 1964; 20 — W,GB: Blower 1985; 21 — W: Beiler 1992, Wade et al. 2001, GB: Cameron & Redfern 1976; 22 — W: AmphibiaWeb 2003, GB: Smith 1954; 23,24 — W: Orme et al. 2002, GB: Smith 1954; 25 — W,GB: Sims & Gerard 1985.

AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. 2003. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. Available: (Accessed: Oct 13, 2003)

Baker, A. S. 1999 Acari: the mites and ticks. In Identifying British Insects and Arachnids: An annotated bibliography of key works (ed. P. C. Barnard), pp. 330-344. Cambridge: Cambridge University.

Barnes, R. D. 1980 Invertebrate Zoology. Philadelphia: Saunders College.

Bass, S., Dalal-Clayton, B. 1995 Small Island States and Sustainable Development: Strategic Issues and Experience. Environmental Planning Issues No. 8. London: International Institute for Environment and Development.

Beiler, R. 1992 Gastropod phylogeny and systematics. Annu. Rev. Ecol.Syst. 23, 311-338

Berlov, O. 1989 A new species of the genus Carabus (Coleoptera, Carabidae) from North-Eastern Siberia. Zool. Zhurn. 68, 151-153. In Russian.

Blower, J. G. 1985 Millipedes. Keys and notes for the identification of the species. Synopses of the British Fauna, No. 35. London: E.J. Brill/Dr. Backhuys.

Bousquet,Y., LaRochelle, A. 1993. Catalogue of the Geadephaga (Coleoptera: Trachypachidae, Rhysodidae, Carabidae including Cicindelini) of America north of Mexico. Mem. Entomol. Soc. Can. 167, 1-397.

Britton, E. B. 1956 Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea. Handbooks for the identification of British Insects, 5(2), 29 pp.

Cameron, R. A. D., Redfern, M. 1976 British Land Snails. Synopses of the British Fauna (New Series), No. 6. London: Academic Press.

Chung, A. Y. C. 2002 Introducing the Giant Bush Cricket. Malaysian Nat. 56, 48-51.

Ciofi, C. 1999 The Komodo dragon. Sci. Amer. 280, 84-91.

Cloudsley-Thompson, J. L. 1958 Spiders, scorpions, centipedes and mites. New York: Pergamon.

Collingwood, C. A. 1958 A Key to the Species of Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) Found in Britain. Trans. Soc. Brit. Ent. 13, 69-96.

Colyer, C. N., Hammond, C. O. 1951 Flies of the British Isles. London: Frederick Warne & Co.

Davies, D. A. L., Tobin, P. 1985 The dragonflies of the world: a systematic list of the extant species of Odonata. Vol. 2. Anisoptera. Soc. Iint. Odonatol. Rapid Comm. (Suppl.) 5, 1-151.

Day, M. C. 1988 Spider Wasps. Hymenoptera: Pompilidae. Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects 6(4), 60 pp.

Day, M. F. 1950 The histology of a very large insect, Macropanesthia rhinocerus Sauss. (Blattidae). Aust. J. Sci. Res. B. 3, 61-75.

Dogel, V. A. 1975 Invertebrate Zoology. Moscow: Vysshaya Shkola. In Russian.

Dolling, W. R. 1991 The Hemiptera. Oxford: Oxford University.

Eason, H. H. 1964 Centipedes of the British Isles. London: Frederick Warne & Co.

Eisen, G. 1879 On the Oligochaeta collected during the Swedish expeditions to the Arctic regions in the years 1870, 1875 and 1876. Kongl. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Handl. 15(7), 1-49.

Emmet, A. M., Heath J. (eds.) 1989 The moths and butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland Vol. 7, Pt. 1. Hesperiidae to Nymphalidae (The Butterflies). Colchester: Harley Books.

Fabricius, J. C. 1798 Entomologiae systematicae supplementum. Copenhagen: Christ. Gottl. Proft.

Freude, H., Harde, K. W., Lohse, A. 1976 Die Käfer Mitteleuropas. Bd. 2, Adephaga 1. Krefeld: Goecke & Evers.

Hedström, I., Sahlén, G. 2003 An extended description of the larva of Megaloprepus caerulatus from Costa Rica (Odonata: Pseudostigmatidae). Int. J. Odonat. 6, 23-31.

Higgins, L. G., Riley, N. D. 1970 A field guide to the butterflies of Britain and Europe. London: Collins.

Hillyard, P. D. 1999 Order Araneae: the spiders. In Identifying British Insects and Arachnids: An annotated bibliography of key works (ed. P. C. Barnard), pp. 326-329. Cambridge: Cambridge University.

Hincks, W. D. 1956 Dermaptera and Orthoptera. Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects, 1(5), 24 pp.

Hopkin, S. P. 1997 Biology of the Springtails (Insecta: Collembola). Oxford: Oxford University.

Hurd, P. D., Jr. 1952 Revision of the Nearctic species of the Pompilid genus Pepsis (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae). Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 98, 257-334.

Kulczyński, W. 1908 Araneae et Oribatidae expeditionum Rossicarum in insulas Novo-Sibiricas annis 1885-1886 et 1900-1903 susceptarum. Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Petersbourg Sér. VIII. Cl. phys.-math. Vol. 18. No. 7, pp. 1-97.

Kuns, H. L., Jr. 1998 Largest Lepidopteran Wing Span. Chapter 32 in University of Florida Book of Insect Records, 2001,

Kurentzov, A. I. 1970 The butterflies of the Far East USSR, Keys to species. Leningrad: Nauka.

Layberry, R. A., Hall, P. W., Lafontaine, J. D. 1998 The Butterflies of Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto.

Ler, P. A. (ed.) 1988 Keys to insect species of the Far East of the USSR. Vol. 2. Homoptera and Heteroptera. Leningrad: Nauka. In Russian.

Ler, P. A. (ed.) 1989 Keys to insect species of the Far East of the USSR. Vol. 3. Coleoptera, or beetles. Pt. 1. Leningrad: Nauka. In Russian.

Ler, P. A. (ed.) 1995 Keys to insect species of the Far East of Russia. Vol. 4. Megaloptera, Raphidoptera, Neuroptera, Mecoptera, Hymenoptera. Pt. 1. St.-Petersburg: Nauka. In Russian.

Linssen, E. F. 1959 Beetles of the British Isles. Vol. 1. London: Frederick Warne & Co.

Longfield, C. 1949 The dragonflies of the British Isles. London: Frederick Warne and Co.

Lucas, R. 1895 Die Pompiliden — Gattung Pepsis. Berlin.

Lukhtanov, V. A., Khruliova, O. A. 1989 Morphological and karyological evidence of the species independence of Dicallomera kusnezovi sp. n. (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae) from Wrangel Island. Zool. Zhurn. 68, 41-48. In Russian.

Makol, J, Wohltmann, A. 2000 A redescription of Trombidium holosericeum (Linnaeus, 1758) (Acari: Actinotrichida: Trombidioidea) with characteristics of all active instars and notes on taxonomy and biology. Ann. Zool. 50, 67-91.

Marshall, J. A. 1999a Orthoptera: the grasshoppers, crickets and bush-crickets. In Identifying British Insects and Arachnids: An annotated bibliography of key works (ed. P. C. Barnard), pp. 38-39. Cambridge: Cambridge University.

Marshall, J. A. 1999b Blattodea: the cockroaches. In Identifying British Insects and Arachnids: An annotated bibliography of key works (ed. P. C. Barnard), pp. 42-43. Cambridge: Cambridge University.

Martynova, E. F. 1970 New and little-known species Isotomidae and Entomobryidae (Collembola, Insecta). In New and little-known species of Siberian fauna (ed. A. I. Cherepanov), pp. 6-16. Novosibirsk: Nauka.

Messer, A. C. 1984 Chalicodoma pluto: The World’s largest Bee Rediscovered Living Communally in Termite Nests (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). J. Kans. Ent. Soc. 57, 165-168.

Meure, A. S., Lauck, D. R. 1962 The Machris Brazilian Expedition. Entomology: Belostomatidae (Hemiptera). Los Angeles County Museum Contributions in Science, No. 55: 3.

Michaelsen, W. 1918 Die Lumbriciden. Zool. Jahrb. Syst. 41, 1-398.

Monnin, T., Ratnieks, F. L. W. 1999 Reproduction versus work in queenless ants: When to join a hierarchy of hopeful reproductives? Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 46, 413-422.

Noyes, J. S., Fitton, M. G., Quicke, D. L. J., Notton, D. G., Else, G. R., Fergusson, N. D. M., Bolton, B., Lewis, S., Tarel, L. C. 1999 Hymenoptera: the bees, wasps and ants. In Identifying British Insects and Arachnids: An annotated bibliography of key works (ed. P. C. Barnard), pp. 196-319. Cambridge: Cambridge University.

Orme, C. D. L., Quicke, D. L. J., Cook, J. M., Purvis, A. 2002 Body size does not predict species richness among the metazoan phyla. J. Evol. Biol. 15, 235-247.

Peeters, C., Monnin, T., Malosse, C. 1999 Cuticular hydrocarbons correlated with reproductive status in a queenless ant. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 266, 1323-1327.

Pfeiffer, M. 1996 Sozialstruktur und Verhaltensökologie von Riesenameisen Camponotus gigas Latreille 1802 im Regenwald Malaysias auf Borneo. Dissertation am Lehrstuhl für Tierökologie und Tropenbiologie, 191 pp. Würzburg: Bayerische Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg.

Prŷs-Jones, O., Corbet, S. A. 1991 Bumblebees. Naturalists’ handbooks No. 6. Slough: Richmond Publishing Company.

Rousseau, E. 1906 Coleoptera Adephaga. Fam. Carabidae. Subfam. Mormolycinae. Genera Insectorum 40, 1-5. Bruxelles.

Saunders, E. 1896 The Hymenoptera Aculeata of the British Isles. London: Reeve.

Savchenko, E. N. 1961 Crane flies (Tipulidae), subfamily Tipulinae, genus Tipula L. Pt. 1. Fauna of the USSR. Insecta Diptera. Vol. 2, pt. 3. Moscow: Academy of Sciences. In Russian.

Savchenko, E. N. 1964 Crane flies (Tipulidae), subfamily Tipulinae, genus Tipula L. Pt. 2. Fauna of the USSR. Insecta Diptera. Vol. 2, pt. 4. Moscow: Nauka. In Russian.

Shelley, R. M., Kiser, S. G. 2000 Neotype designation and a diagnostic account for the centipede, Scolopendra gigantea L. 1758, with an account of S. galapagoensis Bollman 1889 (Chilopoda Scolopendromorpha Scolopendridae). Trop. Zool. 13, 159-170.

Shine, R., Ambariyanto, Harlow, P. S., Mumpuni 1999 Reticulated pythons in Sumatra: biology, harvesting and sustainability. Biol. Cons. 87, 349-357.

Silsby, J. 2001 Dragonflies of the world. Collingwood: CSIRO.

Sims, R. W., Gerard, B. M. (1985) Earthworms. Synopses of the British Fauna (New Series), No. 31. London: E.J. Brill/Dr. W. Backhuys.

Smith, M. 1954 The British Amphibians and Reptiles. London: Collins.

South, R. 1961 The moths of the British Isles. Vol. 1. London: Frederick Warne and Co.

Umezurike, G. M., Iheanacho, E. N. 1983 Metabolic adaptations in aestivating giant African snail (Achatina achatina). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B 74, 493-498.

UNEP 1998 Eastern Africa. Atlas of coastal resources. 1. Kenya. Nairobi: United Nations Environmental Program.

Wade, C.M., Mordan, P. B., Clarke, B. C. 2001 A phylogeny of the land snails (Gastropoda: Pulmonata). Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 268, 413-422.

Walter, D. E., Proctor, H. C. 1999 Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. Sydney: University of NSW.

Wasbauer M.S. (1995) Pompilidae. In The Hymenoptera of Costa Rica (eds. P. E. Hanson, I. D. Gauld), pp. 522-539. Oxford: Oxford University.

Westwood, J. O. 1876 Notae Dipterologicae. No. 2. Descriptions of some new exotic species of Tipulidae. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 501-506.

Wilcox, J., Papavero, N., Pimentel, T. 1989 Studies of Mydidae (Diptera). IVb. Mydas and allies in the Americas (Mydinae: Mydini). Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi (Coleção Emilie Snethlage), pp. 1-139.

Williams, D. M. 2001 Largest. Chapter 30 in University of Florida Book of Insect Records, 2001.

База данных защищена авторским правом © 2016
звярнуцца да адміністрацыі

    Галоўная старонка