Appendix legend The row data on the Margaritifera historical geography and recent population status in Northwestern Russian Rivers. The river location with an appropriate number




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APPENDIX

Appendix legend

The row data on the Margaritifera margaritifera historical geography and recent population status in Northwestern Russian Rivers. The river location with an appropriate number (see in brackets) is in the map (Figure 1).


Table 1. North of the Murmansk Oblast (basin of the Barents Sea) (acc. Makhrov, 2010, with addition)

Water system

Data on pearl harvesting

Confirmation of species availability by specialists (19th–21st cent.)

Modern population status (21st cent.)

1

2

3

4

Paz (Pasvik) River drainage [1]

19, 20th cent.

Yes (Golubev, Golubeva, 2010; Polikarpova et al., 2010; Oulasvirta, 2011)

Viable populations in 4 tributaries (Polikarpova et al., 2010; Oulasvirta, 2011)

Pechenga [2]

18th cent.

No data

Not encountered in seventy years of 20th century (Golubev, Golubeva, 2010), no present data

Western Litsa [3]

16, 17th cent.

Yes (Oulasvirta, 2011; our data)

A population exists (Oulasvirta, 2011; our data)

Ura [4]

16, 17th cent.

No data

No data

Tuloma drainage

(6 streams) [5]



17–19th cent.

Yes (Golubev, Golubeva, 2010)

No data

Kola drainage (3 streams) [6]

18–20th cent.

Yes (Golubev, Golubeva, 2010)

No data

Tyuva [7]

19th cent.

No data

No data

Total

Seven rivers

(14, including tributaries)



A population of the species was found in four river systems

Populations exist in two rivers at least (in five ones including tributaries)

Table 2. South of the Murmansk Oblast (basin of the White Sea) (acc. Makhrov, 2010, with addition)



Water system

Data on pearl harvesting

Confirmation of species availability by specialists

(19th–21st cent.)

Modern population status (21st cent.)

1

2

3

4

Varzuga drainage

(9 streams) [8]



18–20th cent.


Yes

Excellent; about 140.76 million mussels (Ziuganov et al., 2001; Kashulin et al., 2010)

Kuzreka [9]

20th cent.

No data

No data

Vypcha with Thurma tributary [10]

20th cent. (Arsenyev, 1983; Shilov, 2011)

Yes

Exists (our data)

Umba drainage

(4 streams) [11]



17–20th cent. (Shilov, 2011)

Yes

No data

Porija [12]

18–20th cent. (Shilov, 2011)

Yes

No data

Kolvitsa [13]

No data

Yes

No data

Niva and Imandra Lake drainage

(15 streams) [14]



18–20th cent.

Yes

The main stream of Niva River was changed significantly in the course of hydroconstruction

Luptche-Savino (Lupija) [15]

20th cent.

No data

No data

Kanda [16]

19, 20th cent. (Shilov, 2011)

No data

No data

Virma (Vuruma) [17]

No data

Yes

No data

Ostrechija [18]

20th cent.

Yes

No data

Zhechuzhnyi brook [19]

No data

Yes

Stream of the brook if occupied by a fish hatchery

Total

9 rivers

(36, including tributaries)



Populations were encountered in 9 rivers

Populations exist in two rivers at least, quantity exceeds 141,000,000 ind.

Table 3. Northern Karelia (basin of the White Sea) (acc. Makhrov et al., 2011, with addition).



Water system

Data on pearl harvesting

Confirmation of species availability by specialists

(19th–20st cent.)

Modern population status (21st cent.)

1

2

3

4

Kovda’s basin (main stream [20] and the tributary of Paanajarvi lake - Mutkajoki [21])*

19, 20th cent. (Shilov, 2011)

Yes (Kärki, 1915)

Main stream of Kovda was changed significantly in the course of hydroconstruction, nevertheless a population exists in Mutkajoki (our data)

Nil'ma [22]

20th cent. (Shilov, 2011)

No data

Not found (timber floating)

Zhemchuzhnyi stream [23]

No data

Yes

Dead mollusks (deforestation)

Pulonga [24]

No data

Yes (Makhrov et al., 2011)

Good status (Makhrov et al., 2011)

Chupa [25]

19th cent.

No data

No data

Keret and its tributary

Louksa [26]



16–20th cent. (Shilov, 2011)

Yes (Kärki, 1915; Zyuganov, 2008)

Decreasing of portion of young specimens; quantity exceeds 2,000,000 ind. (Zyuganov, 2008)

Kivikanda [27]

19, 20th cent. (Arsenyev, 1983)

No data

No data

Gridina [28]

19, 20th cent. (Shilov, 2011)

Yes (Makhrov et al., 2011)

Good status (Makhrov et al., 2011)

Kalga [29]

20th cent. (Shilov, 2011)

No data

No data

Vonga [30]

20th cent.

Yes (Makhrov et al., 2011)

Favourable status (Makhrov et al., 2011)

Kuzema [31]

19th cent.

No data

Not found (Makhrov et al., 2011)

Pongoma [32]

19, 20th cent. (Vlastov, 1934; Shilov, 2011)

Yes

Favourable status (Makhrov et al., 2011)

Kem' (main stream [33] and five tributaries of Luvozero [34] and Kuyto [35] Lakes)

19, 20th cent. (Inha, 1911). Population of Pista River extinct as the result of pearl harvesting (Potakhin and Kapitonova, 2008)

Yes (Kärki, 1915; Kashevarov, 2010; Oulasvirta, 2010; personal message of

I. L. Shchurov and V. A. Shirokov)



In the main stream of Kem it seems that freshwater pearl mussel is extinct as the result of hydroconstruction, nevertheless three populations exist in tributaries of Kuyto and Luvozero Lakes (Kashevarov, 2010; Oulasvirta, 2010; personal message of

I. L. Shchurov and

V. A. Shirokov)


Vyg and River Nava in Vygs basin [36]

19, 20th cent.

No data

Probably, disappeared (hydropower engineering)

Suma [37]

19, 20th cent.

No data

No data

Total

13 rivers

(19, including tributaries)



Populations are encountered in eight river systems

Populations exist in seven rivers at least

(nine, including tributaries), quantity exceeds 2,000,000 ind.



* lower reaches of Kovda River are located in the Murmansk Region
Table 4. The Arkhangelsk Oblast (basin of the White Sea) (acc. Bespalaya et al., 2012, with addition).

Water system

Data on pearl harvesting

Confirmation of species availability by specialists

(19th–21st cent.)

Modern population status (21st cent.)

1

2

3

4

Nimen’ga [38]

19, 20th cent.

Yes (our data)

Good status, population approximately amounts to 50,000 ind. (our data)

Maloshuika [39]

19, 20th cent.

Yes (our data)

Good status, population approximately amounts to 5,000 ind. (our data)

Four rivers in Onega River Basin: Kozha [40], Syvtuga [41], Somba [42], Ponga [43]

19, 20th cent.

Yes (Bolotov et al., 2012)



Exists in one of tributaries, Kozha, population approximately amounts to 100,000 ind. but absent of young specimens (Bolotov et al., 2012)

Khaino stream [44]

19, 20th cent.


No data

Is not found in the lower reaches, the stream is strongly swamped

Vaiga [45]

19, 20th cent.

No data

No data

Gololedikha, Gremyachii, Zhemchuzhnyi [46]

20th cent.

No data

No data

Yaren’ga [47]

19, 20th cent.

No data

No data

Syuz’ma [48]

19, 20th cent.

No data

Is not found in the middle reaches

Solza [49] with the Kazanka tributary [50]

19, 20th cent.

Yes (Golubev, Golubeva, 2010)

Good status, population approximately amounts to 300,000 ind. (Bespalaya et al., 2007; Bolotov, Bespalaya, 2010; our data)

Total

11 coastal rivers and streams (15 incl. tributaries)

Populations are found in four water systems

Alive populations are found in four rivers at least (5 including tributaries), total populations exceed 455,000 ind.

Table 5. South-East Karelia (basin of Onega Lake) (acc. Makhrov et al., 2011, with addition).



Water system

Data on pearl harvesting

Confirmation of species availability by specialists

(19th–21st cent.)

Modern population status (21st cent.)

1

2

3

4

Shuja [51]

19, 20th cent.

No data

No data, a hydroelectric station was constructed in upper reaches of the river

Suna [52]

19th cent.

No data

No data, active hydroconstruction engineering

Putka [53]

20th cent.

No data

No data

Kumsa [54] and its tributary Oster [55]

19, 20th cent.

No data

Not found (Makhrov et al., 2011)

Vitchka [56]

20th cent.

No data

No data

Lumbusha [57]

19, 20th cent.

Yes

No data

Poventchanka [58]

18–20th cent.

No data

Probably disappeared (White Sea - Baltic Sea Channel engineering)

Nemena (Chelmuzha) [59] and its tributary Pazha [60]

18–20th cent.

Yes (personal message of Ieshko E. P.)

Population exists (personal message of Ieshko E. P.)

Pyalma [61]

19–20th cent.

Yes (Makhrov et al., 2011; our data)

Good status (Makhrov et al., 2011; our data)

Tuba [62]

19–20th cent.

No data

Not found (Makhrov et al., 2011)

Vodla [63]

20th cent.

No data

Probably disappeared in the main stream of Vodla (timber floating)

Viksenda – tributary of River Chernaya, or Viksenga – basin of Vodla) [64]

19–20th cent.

No data

No data

Total

11 rivers discharging into Onega Lake (14 incl. tributaries)

Populations are found in three water systems

Alive populations are encountered in two rivers at least

Table 6. South-West Karelia (basin of Ladoga Lake) (acc. Makhrov et al., 2011, with addition).



Water system

Data on pearl harvesting

Confirmation of species availability by specialists

(19th–21st cent.)

Modern population status (21st cent.)

1

2

3

4

Kokkolanjoki [65]

No data

(Kärki, 1915)

No data

Ihalanjoki [66]

18th cent. (Hermann, 1790)

(Kärki, 1915)

No data

Kitenjoki [67]

18th cent. (Hermann, 1790)

No data

No data

Suomerianjoki [68]

No data

Yes (Kärki, 1915)

No data

Syskyjoki [69]

No data

Yes (Kärki, 1915; Makhrov et al., 2011)

Young salmons infected with glochidia are found (Makhrov et al., 2011)

Uuksujoki [70]

No data

Yes (Kärki, 1915)

No data

Tuloksa [71]

20th cent.

No data

No data

Tulemajoki [72]

20th cent.

No data

No data

Olonka[73]

No data

Yes (Golubev, Golubeva, 2010)

No data

Total

Four rivers discharging into Ladoga Lake

Populations are found in six water systems

Alive populations are encountered in one river at least


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