Appendix kin sociality across lizards Table S2




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Appendix S2. Kin sociality across lizards

Table S2. Lizard species suggested to exhibit nuclear family-based sociality (N = 19).



Family

Total # Species*

Social Species

Mode of Reproduction

General Location

Source

Agamidae

414

Phrynocephalus theobaldi

V

Tibetan plateau

Papenfuss 1997

Cordylidae

55

Cordylus cataphractus

V

South Africa

Mouton et al. 1999







Cordylus macropholis

V

South Africa

Nieuwoudt et al. 2003

Gekkonidae

1220

Hoplodactylus duvauceli

V

New Zealand

Robb 1980

Iguanidae

900

Leiocephalus schreibersi

O

Chile

Jensson et al. 1989







Liolaemus huacahuasicus

V

Argentina

Halloy and Halloy 1997







Tropidurus flaviceps

O

Ecuador

Vitt and Zani 1996







Sceloporus jarrovi

V

Mexico

Congdon et al. 1979; Ruby 1977







Sceloporus mucronatus

V

Mexico

Lemos-Espinal et al. 1997a

Scincidae

1382

Egernia cunninghami

V

Australia

Stow et al. 2001; Stow and Sunnucks, 2004







Egernia kingii

V

Australia

Masters and Shine 2003







Egernia major

V

Australia

Osterwalder et al. 2004







Egernia saxatilis

V

Australia

O’Connor and Shine 2003







Egernia stokesii

V

Australia

Gardner et al. 2001







Egernia whitii

V

Australia

Chapple and Keogh 2005, 2006







Gnypetoscincus queenslandiae

V

Australia

Sumner 2006

Xantusiidae

27

Xantusia vigilis

V

Southwestern USA

This study







Xantusia riversiana

V

San Nicolas Is., USA

Regal 1968; G. Fellers, pers. comm.

Xenosauridae

7

Xenosaurus newmanorum

V

Mexico

Lemos-Espinal et al. 1997b

Note: Many of these species were also listed by Chapple (2003) and O’Connor and Shine (2003), though we have excluded their mention of Stellio [Laudakia] sp. because our translation from Russian of the original study suggests a random distribution of juveniles in relation to breeding pairs, not prolonged kin interaction. Under mode of reproduction, a V represents viviparity and an O represents oviparity. Sources listed are for locality, sociality, and reproductive mode information.
*From Pough et al. 200

Appendix S2 Bibliography


Chapple, D. G. 2003 Ecology, life-history, and behaviour in the Australian Scincid genus Egernia, with comments on the evolution of complex sociality in lizards. Herpetological Monographs, 145-180.

Chapple, D. G. & Keogh, J. S. 2005 Complex mating system and dispersal patterns in a social lizard, Egernia whitii. Molecular Ecology 14, 1215-1227.

Chapple, D. G. & Keogh, J. S. 2006 Group structure and stability in social aggregations of white's skink, Egernia whitii. Ethology 112, 247-257.

Congdon, J. D., Ballinger, R. E. & Nagy, K. A. 1979 Energetics, temperature and water relations in winter aggregated Sceloporus jarrovi (Sauria, Iguanidae). Ecology 60, 30-35.

Gardner, M. G., Bull, C. M., Cooper, S. J. B. & Duffield, G. A. 2001 Genetic evidence for a family structure in stable social aggregations of the Australian lizard Egernia stokesii. Molecular Ecology 10, 175-183.

Halloy, M. & Halloy, S. 1997 An indirect form of parental care in a high altitude viviparous lizard, Liolaemus huacahuasicus (Tropiduridae). Bulletin of the Maryland Herpetological Society 33, 139-155.

Jensson, T. A., Marcellini, D. L., Buhlmann, K. A. & Goforth, P. H. 1989 Differential infanticide by adult curly-tailed lizards, Leiocephalus schreibersi. Animal Behaviour 38, 1054-1061.

Lemos-Espinal, J. A., Ballinger, R. E., Sarabia, S. S. & Smith, G. R. 1997a Thermal ecology of the lizard Sceloporus mucronatus mucronatus in Sierra del Ajusco, Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist 42, 344-347.

Lemos-Espinal, J. A., Smith, G. R. & Ballinger, R. E. 1997b Neonate-female associations in Xenosaurus newmanorum: a case of parental care in a lizard? . Herpetological Review 28, 22-23.

Masters, C. & Shine, R. 2003 Sociality in lizards: family structure in free-living King’s Skinks (Egernia kingii) from southwestern Australia. Australian Zoologist 32, 377-380.

Mouton, P. L. N., Flemming, A. F. & Kanga, E. M. 1999 Grouping behaviour, tail-biting behaviour and sexual dimorphism in the armadillo lizard (Cordylus cataphractus) from South Africa. Journal of Zoology 249, 1-10.

Nieuwoudt, C. J., Mouton, P. L. N. & Flemming, A. F. 2003 Aggregation behaviour and movement patterns in the large-scaled girdled lizard, Cordylus macropholis. Amphibia-Reptilia 24, 345-357.

O'Connor, D. & Shine, R. 2003 Lizards in 'nuclear families': a novel reptilian social system in Egernia saxatilis (Scincidae). Molecular Ecology 12, 743-752.

Osterwalder, K., Klingenbock, A. & Shine, R. 2004 Field studies on a social lizard: Home range and social organization in an Australian skink, Egernia major. Austral Ecology 29, 241-249.

Papenfuss, T. 1997 From the roof of the world: amid the misty peaks and sandplains of Tibet, a group of naïve herpers seeks rare reptile treasures. Reptiles 5, 24-30.

Pough, F. H., Andrews, R. M., Cadle, J. E., Crump, M. L., Savitsky, A. H. & Wells, K. D. 2004 Herpetology, Third Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Publishing.

Regal, P. J. 1968 An analysis of heat seeking in a lizard, vol. Ph.D. Los Angeles, California: University of California, Los Angeles.

Robb, J. 1980 New Zealand Amphibians and Reptiles in Colour. Aukland: Collins.

Ruby, D. E. 1977 Winter activity in Yarrows Spiny Lizard, Sceloporus jarrovi. Herpetologica 33, 322-333.

Stow, A. J. & Sunnucks, P. 2004 High mate and site fidelity in Cunningham's skinks (Egernia cunninghami) in natural and fragmented habitat. Molecular Ecology 13, 419-430.

Stow, A. J., Sunnucks, P., Briscoe, D. A. & Gardner, M. G. 2001 The impact of habitat fragmentation on dispersal of Cunningham's skink (Egernia cunninghami): evidence from allelic and genotypic analyses of microsatellites. Molecular Ecology 10, 867-78.

Sumner, J. 2006 Higher relatedness within groups due to variable subadult dispersal in a rainforest skink, Gnypetoscincus queenslandiae. Austral Ecology 31, 441-448.



Vitt, L. J. & Zani, P. A. 1996 Ecology of the elusive tropical lizard Tropidurus [=Uracentron] flaviceps (Tropiduridae) in lowland rainforests of Ecuador. Herpetologica 52, 121-132.


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