Appendix d aquatic nuisance species action plan black Hills National Forest




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Rocky Mountain Region – Black Hills NF

Aquatic Nuisance Species Strategy

APPENDIX D
AQUATIC NUISANCE SPECIES

ACTION PLAN
Black Hills National Forest


Three Year Actions

For the Prevention and Management of Aquatic Nuisance Species


FY 2009 – 2011

Rocky Mountain Region

USDA Forest Service


Signed ___/s/ Craig Bobzien__________________________ Date __6/30/09_____

CRAIG BOBZIEN

Forest Supervisor

Introduction:



This Action plan is designed to serve as a strategic tool for implementation of the aquatic nuisance species (ANS) management program on the Black Hills National Forest (BKF). This plan becomes Part Three of the Forest’s Invasive Species Action Plan. This plan should be reviewed and adjusted as necessary each year to reflect emerging needs, shifting priorities, or changes in available funding.



  1. Overview of Current Forest ANS Program and Expected Changes:

The overall strategy is to work closely with the State Resource Agencies and other partners to provide a well coordinated response for the prevention, early detection and control of ANS, in the most cost-effective manner. Prevention of additional ANS introductions or the spread of existing ANS on the BKF is a primary goal. Several isolated populations of ANS currently exist on the Forest. The potential for new ANS introductions is an ongoing threat. The primary vectors and pathways to address are recreational watercraft (boats, jet skis, etc) and equipment (fishing waders, nets, etc.) as well as equipment used in Forest Service specific activities, such as fire suppression equipment or equipment used in lake dredging.


  1. Priority Species and Populations on the Black Hills NF

The species listed below are priority invasive species, based on the following criteria:

      1. Currently low in abundance or nonexistent.

      2. Control is feasible.

      3. Potential to disrupt the aquatic ecosystem, degrade aquatic habitat, impact municipal water supplies, or reduce recreational opportunities.

The South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks (SDGFP) completed a risk assessment as part of the South Dakota ANS Management Plan (SDGFP 2008). That assessment identified 13 ANS that pose the greatest threat in South Dakota and was the primary basis for ANS risks on the Black Hills. The Forest Service Rocky Mountain Region ANS strategy also identified ANS risks pertinent to the Black Hills. Species identified as aquatic invasive species by the Wyoming Game and Fish Department were also considered. The following table presents ANS of concern on the BKF. ANS identified in the table below that are not currently present are considered a threat because the vector or pathway exists for introduction into the Black Hills.


Species and Location

Priority (#)

Total Occurrences (miles, acres, #)

Past Treatment, Inventory or Monitoring

Expected Impacts

Didymo (Didymosphenia geminata); Rapid Creek

high

21 miles

Inventory has occurred and monitoring by SD DENR is ongoing

Degradation of stream habitat & fisheries; Reduced aesthetics

Zebra and Quagga Mussels (Dreissena spp)

high

none

Limited inventory (Stephen 2008); Monitoring by SDGFP and USBR is ongoing.

Disruption of native food web; Fouling of water control infrastructure.

New Zealand Mud Snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum)

high

none

Limited inventory (Stephen 2008)

Disruption of native food web and alteration of aquatic habitat.

Curlyleaf Pondweed (Potamogeton crispus); Sheridan Lake

medium

380 acres


Limited annual treatment at swim beaches at Sheridan Lake

Competes with native vegetation; dense mats impact recreation uses.

Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum)

medium

none




Competes with native vegetation; dense mats impact recreation uses.

Brittle Naiad (Najas minor)

medium

none




Competes with native vegetation; dense mats impact recreation uses.

Chytrid Fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis)

medium

none




Possible agent in decline/extinction of amphibian populations

Viral Hemorraghic Septicemia (VHS)

medium

none

SDGFP monitoring at Belle Fourche Reservoir (2007-08)

Causes fish abnormalities & death

Whirling Disease (Myxobolus cerebralis)

medium

none




Causes deformities/death in trout

Rusty Crayfish (Orconectes rusticus)

medium

none




Displace native crayfish; reduce aquatic vegetation and diversity

Red-rimmed Melania (Melanoides tuberculata); Cascade Creek

medium

TBD

SDGFP occurrence monitoring (Stephen 2008)

Competition with and displacement of native species.

European Rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus ); Pactola and Sheridan Reservoirs

low

1,230 acres

SDGFP occurrence monitoring

Competes with other desirable fish species.

Opossum Shrimp (Mysis relicta); Pactola Reservoir

low

850 acres

SDGFP occurrence monitoring

Disruption of native food web.

Common Carp and Asian Carps (black, grass, silver and bighead)

low

none, common carp occur off-Forest

SDGFP occurrence monitoring

Competition with and displacement of native species.




  1. Management area maps for each priority species.

See Figures 1, 2 and 3 after the references.


  1. Priority treatment areas 2009-2011

The table below identifies priority projects that address prevention, early detection and rapid response (EDRR), control and management measures, or restoration efforts. Many of these Forest Service activities are administrative in nature, which reflects the initial development of the ANS management program on the Forest.


FY

Location

Action

Target*

Partner, Cooperator, Permittee, Stakeholder, or Functional Area

2009

Rapid Creek

Ongoing evaluation

21 miles

SD DENR, SDGFP & SD State University

Sheridan Lake

Curlyleaf pondweed control

6 acres

Mystic Ranger District

BKF

Outreach & Education

Meetings/presentations

Evaluate ANS signage at recreation sites



Interested partners

District staff






TOTAL









2010

BKF

Designate District ANS Contact

One person per District

Ranger District

BKF

ANS Awareness Training

6 hour session;

October 2009



BKF employees

Rapid Creek

Ongoing evaluation

21 miles

SD DENR, SDGFP & SD State University

Sheridan Lake

Curlyleaf pondweed control

6 acres

Mystic Ranger District

BKF

Outreach & Education

Meetings/presentations

All interested partners




TOTAL










2011

Rapid Creek

Ongoing evaluation; potential restoration

3 miles

SD DENR, SDGFP & SD State University

Sheridan Lake

Curlyleaf pondweed control

6 acres

Mystic Ranger District

BKF

Outreach & Education

Meetings/presentations

All interested partners




TOTAL










* Treatment and restoration of streams and lakes are identified under NFWF as a legitimate target accomplishment (see FY09 budget narrative).



  1. Lake and Stream Corridor Invasive Species Monitoring Schedule

The Black Hills provide a variety of water-related recreational opportunities along streams and at reservoirs. These opportunities are enjoyed by both the local population as well as the visiting public. These activities provide possible vectors and pathways for ANS introduction and spread. Forest Service activities also have the potential to introduce or spread ANS.

The SDGFP surveyed Black Hills streams for other occurrences of Didymo in June 2005. Twelve sites were surveyed where angler use is high, but no additional Didymo occurrences were found. In 2006, SD DENR reported Didymo on lower Castle Creek near Mystic (Larson pers. comm. 2006, SDGFP 2006). Snail surveys funded by SDGFP in 2001 reported red-rimmed melania in Cascade Creek. Freshwater snail surveys, funded by SDGFP, occurred at nine sites in the Black Hills in 2008, including Cascade Springs (Stephen 2009). No non-indigenous species were discovered. The absence of red-rimmed melania in the 2008 survey may be explained by a difference in sampling locations. Ongoing monitoring of Black Hills waterbodies should continue on a cyclical schedule to promote the early detection of ANS and a rapid response.




FY

Location

Target Species

2009

Rapid Creek

Castle Creek (0.25 mile east of Mystic on Pennington County C318.)

Cascade Creek


Didymo

Didymo
Red-rimmed Melania



2010

Black Hills Reservoirs

ANS snails (zebra, quagga, New Zealand mudsnails) & ANS plants

2011

Black Hills Reservoirs

ANS snails (zebra, quagga, New Zealand mudsnails) & ANS plants



  1. Coordinated Management Activity

The following table identifies external partners or other stakeholders that are important in the management of ANS on the BKF. Entities may be added and contacts may change over time.


Partner/Stakeholder

Contact Name

Location

Phone Number

SD Game, Fish & Parks

Andy Burgess

Pierre, SD

(605) 773-2743

SD DENR

Aaron Larson

Pierre, SD

(605) 394-6869

WY Game & Fish Department

Mike Stone

Cheyenne, WY

(307) 777-4600

Nat’l Forest Advisory Board

Chairman Blair







U.S. Bureau of Reclamation

Cindy Larom

Rapid City, SD

(605) 394-9757

U.S. Geological Survey

TBD

Rapid City, SD

(605) 355-4560

Pennington County Weed and Pest

Scott Guffey

Rapid City, SD

(605) 394-5320

Black Hills Flyfishers

Mike Lees

Rapid City

(605) 342-7885

Other Stakeholders

TBD






The Black Hills National Forest has been aware of and involved with ANS issues; however, ANS management response has been undertaken primarily by State resource agencies, such as the South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks (SDGFP) and the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources (SD DENR). Periodic updates are provided to the National Forest Advisory Board (NFAB) to maintain and increase awareness of ANS issues. NFAB has an Invasive Species subcommittee that has dealt primarily with noxious weed issues, but ANS issues could logically be within the scope of this subcommittee. Increased coordination with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) should occur related to ANS and the operation of Deerfield and Pactola Reservoirs.





FY

Coordination Activity

Responsibility

2009

ANS Inventory (Streams & Reservoirs)

SDGFP, SD DENR, BKF, USBR(?)

ANS Identification/Detection Training

SDGFP

ANS Awareness Outreach

BKF and other partners

2010

ANS Inventory (Streams & Reservoirs)

SDGFP, SD DENR, BKF, USBR(?)

ANS Awareness Outreach

BKF and other partners

2011

ANS Inventory (Streams & Reservoirs)

SDGFP, SD DENR, BKF, USBR(?)

ANS Awareness Outreach

BKF and other partners



  1. Organizational Capacity

The Forest has identified a unit ANS Coordinator (see table below) in reply to a July 3, 2008 Regional Office request. These duties are primarily funded under the Wildlife and Fish Program in the Supervisor’s Office. Other program funding, such as Vegetation and Watershed Management (NFVW), may also be available and appropriate. Representation at the District level would be beneficial for on-the-ground implementation of an ANS strategy. These individuals are yet to be identified and may or may not differ from the currently designated District Invasive Species Coordinators.


Staff

Responsibilities

Skills/Training Needed (By Year)

Craig Bobzien (Forest Supervisor)

Forestwide leadership, implementation & prioritization

Ongoing situational awareness

District Rangers

District leadership, implementation & prioritization

Ongoing situational awareness

Dave Thom (Natural Resources Staff Officer)

Forestwide leadership, implementation & prioritization

Ongoing situational awareness

Kerry Burns (Forest Biologist)

Initial prioritization of NFWF funds

Ongoing situational awareness

Steve Hirtzel (fisheries biologist)

Forest ANS Coordinator

Ongoing ANS inventory, prevention and control knowledge/skills

District Rangers

District implementation

Ongoing situational awareness

District ANS Coordinators

District implementation

Ongoing ANS inventory, prevention and control knowledge/skills




  1. Funding

Implementation of the Forest ANS strategy will largely be funded through the Wildlife, Fish and Rare Plants (NFWF), the Vegetation and Watershed Management (NFVW) or the Inventory and Monitoring (NFIM) programs. Funding through other programs, such as Cooperative Work (CWFS01) may also be available on an opportunistic basis.
Implementation of the South Dakota ANS Plan is likely to result in additional partnership funding that has not been specifically identified on this date.


FY

NFWF/NFVW/NFIM

CWFS01

Grants

Partnership

TOTAL

2009

$5,000

$1,500

-

TBD

$6,500

2010

$5,000

$1,500

-

TBD

$6,500

2011

$6,000

$1,500

-

TBD

$7,500



FY

Prevention

EDRR

Control

Restoration

TOTAL

2009

$2,500

$2,500

$1,500

-

$6,500

2010

$2,500

$2,500

$1,500

-

$6,500

2011

$3,000

$3,000

$1,500

-

$7,500

References

Larson, Aaron. 2006. June 21, 2006 e-mail RE: Didy found in Castle Creek near Mystic.

SDGFP. 2006. Troublesome diatom spreads in Black Hills streams. Game, Fish and Parks news releases for July 14, 2006.

SDGFP. 2008. State of South Dakota. Aquatic Nuisance Species Management Plan. Online: http://www.sdgfp.info/Wildlife/AquaticNuisance/SDANSManagementPlan.aspx

Shearer, Jeff. 2005. E-mail dated May 8, 2006, RE: Didymo inventory results from last year.

Stephen, Bruce. J. 2009. Freshwater snails of South Dakota within the Middle Rockies, Western Corn Belt Plains, Northern Glaciated Plains and Lake Agassiz Plains Ecoregions.

MAPS


Figure 1. Waterbodies with aquatic nuisance species on the Black Hills National Forest.



Figure 2. Waterbodies with aquatic nuisance species on the Mystic Ranger District.



Figure 3. Red-rimmed Melania (Melanoides tuberculata) – a common aquarium snail species released into Cascade Springs and reproducing along Cascade Creek.

APPENDIX B

Aquatic Disinfectant Guidelines
These Forest Service guidelines are not meant to be implemented by just biologists, but by all resource managers coming in contact with infected or potentially infected waters. SDGFP is currently developing an ANS disinfection procedure for boats and gear that may be an alternative in the future.


  1. Before leaving the waters edge wash and remove all organic material.

Choose one of the following options for complete disinfection of water related equipment:




  1. Completely dry all equipment for 4 to 5 days before re-use.




  1. Submerge all equipment in boiling water for a minimum of 10 minutes.




  1. Store all equipment at temperatures below freezing for at least 24 hours.




  1. Submerge equipment in a 7% bleach solution for 10 minutes AND then spray down equipment with Commercial Solutions Formula 409® cleaner degreaser disinfectant. Let 409 sit for 10 minutes. Rinse all equipment with tap water. Discard bleach solution in accordance with local and state laws. Most bleach solutions may be disposed of in municipal waste water drains. DO NOT discard into water bodies or storm drains. 7% bleach solution = 9 liquid oz. bleach per 1 gallon of water.




  1. Submerge equipment in a 3% Sparquat 256® solution for a minimum of 15 minutes. After soaking rinse all equipment with tap water and discard solution in accordance with local and state laws. This solution is safe for municipal waste water drains. DO NOT discard into water bodies or storm drains. 3% Sparquat solution = 4 oz sparquat per 1 gallon of water.




  1. Expose equipment for 10 – 15 minutes to 100% Formula 409 or 3.5% Sparquat 256 (Schisler et al. 2008)

APPENDIX C


Aquatic Disinfectant Guidelines (Watercraft)


        1. Before leaving the waters edge wash and remove all organic material.

  1. Before leaving the waters edge empty all standing water from watercraft.

Choose one of the following options for complete disinfection of watercraft:


A. Completely dry all equipment for 4 to 5 days before re-use.


  1. Clean watercraft with a 7% Clorox® bleach solution. Use sponge or towel to completely clean all surfaces of the watercraft with the bleach solution.** After cleaning rinse watercraft and towel or air dry. Most bleach solutions may be disposed of in municipal waste water drains. DO NOT discard into water bodies or storm drains. 7% bleach solution = 9 liquid oz. bleach per 1 gallon of water.




  1. Clean watercraft with a 3% Sparquat 256® solution. Use sponge or towel to completely clean all surfaces of the watercraft with the sparquat solution.** After cleaning rinse watercraft and towel or air dry. This solution is safe for municipal waste water drains. DO NOT discard into water bodies or storm drains. 3% Sparquat solution = 4 oz sparquat per 1 gallon of water.


** It generally takes 10 to 15 minutes of submersion in these solutions to be completely effective. It is not practical or possible to submerge watercraft in chemical solutions. The act of scrubbing boats with these chemicals will kill chytrid fungus and greatly reduce the chance of spreading any other aquatic nuisance and invasive species.
APPENDIX D

On-line Resources for ANS
General Information

Topic (source)

Link

Region 4 ANS program

http://www.fs.fed.us/r4/resources/aquatic/index.shtml

Lake Tahoe Basin Mgmt Unit program

http://www.fs.fed.us/r5/ltbmu/invasive-species/quagga.shtml

Region 9 ANS framework

http://www.fs.fed.us/r9/wildlife/nnis/documents/r9_nnis_framework.pdf

ANS (CO State Parks)

http://parks.state.co.us/NaturalResources/ParksResourceStewardship/AquaticNuisanceSpecies/

Invasive species program (USFS)

http://www.fs.fed.us/invasivespecies/

Aquatic nuisance species (NOAA)

http://www.research.noaa.gov/oceans/t_invasivespecies.html

Aquatic nuisance species (F&WS)

http://www.fws.gov/contaminants/ANS/ANSSpecies.cfm

Aquatic invasive species (USDA)

http://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/aquatics/main.shtml

Aquatic nuisance species (USGS)

http://nas.er.usgs.gov/

ANS, a Canadian perspective

http://www.invadingspecies.com/indexen.cfm

ANS Task Force

http://www.anstaskforce.gov/default.php

National Invasive Species Node

http://invasivespecies.nbii.gov/index.html

ANS experts database

http://www.anstaskforce.gov/experts/search.php


Education, Awareness, and Outreach

Topic (source)

Link

ANS prevention (Forest Service)

http://www.fs.fed.us/invasivespecies/documents/Aquatic_is_prevention.pdf

“Zap The Zebra” brochure

http://www.100thmeridian.org/ZTZ2007.asp

“Don’t Move A Mussel” online video

http://wildlife.state.co.us/NewsMedia/Videos/Mussel.htm

Education, prevention, and BMPs

http://www.protectyourwaters.net/

Education and prevention

http://www.habitattitude.net/

Whirling disease education

http://fwp.mt.gov/fishing/etiquette/whrlpt01.html

Education

http://www.anstaskforce.gov/education.php

Educational materials

http://parks.state.co.us/NaturalResources/ParksResourceStewardship/AquaticNuisanceSpecies/EducationalMaterials

Communicating Effectively About Aquatic Nuisance Species, workshop

http://www.fishwildlife.org/science_ANSworkshop.html

Aquatic Invasive Species Education Handbook

http://www.uwex.edu/erc/pdf/AI/AquaticInvasivesHandbook.pdf

Education and outreach materials

http://www.clr.pdx.edu/projects/edoutreach/content/browse.php?table=title

Eurasian watermilfoil control

http://fwcb.cfans.umn.edu/research/milfoil/milfoilbc.html

Wildlife Forever threat campaign 2007

http://www.wildlifeforever.org/documents/WEB-THREATCAMPAIGN2007.pdf


Inventory and Monitoring

Topic (source)

Link

Monitoring recommendations for zebra mussels (100th Meridian)

http://www.100thmeridian.org/component4.htm

Monitoring protocols for ANS (USGS)

http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/protocols/protocollister.asp

Early detection and rapid response links (USDA)

http://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/aquatics/detection.shtml

Collecting water samples for veligers (100th Meridian)

http://www.100thmeridian.org/Documents/Dreissena%20Collection%20Protocol%20for%20PCR-USBR.pdf


Laws, Regulation, and Authorities

Topic (source)

Link

State of Colorado

http://www.100thmeridian.org/Laws/StateInfo.asp?state=Colorado

State of Kansas

http://www.100thmeridian.org/Laws/StateInfo.asp?state=Kansas

State of Nebraska

http://www.100thmeridian.org/Laws/StateInfo.asp?state=Nebraska

State of South Dakota

http://www.100thmeridian.org/Laws/StateInfo.asp?state=South%20Dakota

State of Wyoming

http://www.100thmeridian.org/Laws/StateInfo.asp?state=Wyoming

Federal laws and regulations

http://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/laws/federal.shtml

Executive Order 13112

http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=1999_register&docid=fr08fe99-168.pdf

Nonindigenous Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control Act of 1990

http://www.anstaskforce.gov/Documents/nanpca90.pdf

CFR 261.58, Occupancy and Use of Areas Designated by Order

http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/get-cfr.cgi


Species Specific Information

Topic (source)

Link

Chytrid fungus (Amphibian Ark)

http://www.amphibianark.org/chytrid.htm

Didymo (EPA)

http://www.epa.gov/Region8/water/didymosphenia/

Didymo prevention (Quebec)

http://www.mddep.gouv.qc.ca/eau/eco_aqua/didymo/didymo-en.pdf

Eurasian watermilfoil (Washington)

http://www.ecy.wa.gov/Programs/wq/plants/weeds/milfoil.html

Eurasian watermilfoil (UMN)

http://fwcb.cfans.umn.edu/research/milfoil/milfoilbc/milfoil.html

New Zealand Mud Snail (PYW)

http://www.protectyourwaters.net/hitchhikers/mollusks_new_zealand_mudsnail.php

New Zealand Mud Snail (MSU)

http://www.esg.montana.edu/aim/mollusca/nzms/

Whirling Disease Initiative

http://whirlingdisease.montana.edu/

Whirling disease (Trout Unlimited)

http://www.tu.org/site/c.kkLRJ7MSKtH/b.3596607/

Whirling disease (PYW)

http://www.protectyourwaters.net/hitchhikers/others_whirling_disease.php

Whirling disease (CDOW)

http://wildlife.state.co.us/Research/Aquatic/WhirlingDisease/

Zebra mussels (CO State Parks)

http://parks.state.co.us/Zebra+Mussels.htm

Zebra and quagga (100th Meridian)

http://www.100thmeridian.org

Zebra and quagga control measures (Cornell EIS)

http://www.utilities.cornell.edu/utl_lsceis_mussels.html

Zebra and quagga FAQs (USGS)

http://fl.biology.usgs.gov/Nonindigenous_Species/Zebra_mussel_FAQs/Dreissena_FAQs/dreissena_faqs.html

Zebra and quagga infestation prevention and response planning guide

http://www.nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=3875


State Resources

Topic

Link

Colorado

Colorado Division of Wildlife



http://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/unitedstates/co.shtml

http://wildlife.state.co.us/WildlifeSpecies/Profiles/InvasiveSpecies/WatercraftCleaning.htm

Kansas

Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks



http://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/unitedstates/ks.shtml

http://kdwp.state.ks.us/Fishing/Aquatic-Nuisance-Species


Nebraska

http://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/unitedstates/ne.shtml

South Dakota

SD Department of Game, Fish and Parks ANS website



http://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/unitedstates/sd.shtml

http://www.sdgfp.info/Wildlife/AquaticNuisance/AquaticNuisanceSpecies.aspx

Wyoming

Wyoming Game and Fish Department



http://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/unitedstates/wy.shtml

http://gf.state.wy.us/fish/AIS/index.asp


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