Appendix 2 – Pest categorisation and risk assessment for weed pests




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Appendix 2 – Pest categorisation and risk assessment for weed pests



Part 1: Pest categorisation of all weeds associated with pineapple worldwide


Pest

Common name

Distribution

Present in Australia

Weeds










Acanthospermum hispidum DC.

[Asteraceae]



Bristly star-bur

Antigua and Barbuda (Antigua), Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominica, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Martinique, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru, Saint Kitts and Nevis (Saint Kitts), Suriname, Venezuela (GRIN, 2001)

Yes – APNI, 2001; Hnatiuk, 1990; Parson & Cuthbertson, 20011

Ageratina spp. (except A. adenophora and A. riparia)

[Asteraceae]






Pineapple growing regions e.g. Thailand (NZ MAF, 2001). See appendix for AQIS ICON (2000) species status within this genus.

? – DELTA, 2001; Holm et al., 1979

Ageratum spp. (except A. conyzoides and A. houstonianum)

[Asteraceae]



Floss flower

Pineapple growing regions e.g. Thailand (NZ MAF, 2001). See appendix for AQIS ICON (2000) species status within this genus.

? – AQIS ICON, 2000

Ageratum conyzoides L.

Syn. = Ageratum hirtum; A. humile; A. hirsutum

[Asteraceae]


Blue top; billy goat weed; goat weed; white-weed

Widespread in tropics and subtropics, probable Neotropical origin.

Belize, Bolivia, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, China, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Honduras, India, Madagascar, Malawi, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Rwanda, Tanzania, Venezuela, Vietnam (W3TROPICOS, 2001); Philippines (BPI, 2000; NZ MAF, 2001)



Yes – APNI, 2001; Hnatiuk, 1990

Ageratum houstonianum Mill.

Syn. = Ageratum mexicanum Sims

[Asteraceae]


Ageratum; blue billygoat weed

Philippines, Thailand (NZ MAF, 2001)

Yes – APNI, 2001, Hnatiuk, 1990

Amaranthus caturus

[Amaranthaceae]






India (Leela, 1974)

No – AQIS ICON, 2000

Amaranthus retroflexus L.

[Amaranthaceae]



Careless weed; common amaranth; redroot pigweed; red root

Bolivia, Canada, Mexico, United States (W3TROPICOS, 2001); Thailand (NZ MAF, 2001)

Yes – AQIS ICON, 2000; CAB International, 2000

Amaranthus spinosus L.

[Amaranthaceae]



Spiny amaranth; spiny pigweed; thorny pigweed

Bolivia, China, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Honduras, India, Japan, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Madagascar, Mexico, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, United States, Venezuela, Vietnam (W3TROPICOS, 2001); Philippines (BPI, 2000); Thailand (NZ MAF, 2001; W3TROPICOS, 2001)

Yes – APNI, 2001; AQIS ICON, 2000

Amaranthus viridis (L.) Britton et al.

[Amaranthaceae]



Green amaranth

Belize, Bolivia, Central African Republic, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Paraguay, Peru, Tanzania, Venezuela (W3TROPICOS, 2001); Philippines (BPI, 2000)

Yes – APNI, 2001; AQIS ICON, 2000

Andropogon sp.

[Poaceae]



Forage grass

Philippines

No – DELTA, 2001; Holm et al., 1979

Apera spica-venti (L.) P. Beauv.

[Poaceae]



Common wind grass, silky bent grass

Albania, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy (Sardinia), Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation (Ciscaucasia, Siberia), Spain, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Yugoslavia (GRIN, 2001); Ecuador (Anon., 2001b)

Yes – APNI, 2001; AQIS ICON, 2000; DELTA, 2001; Hnatiuk, 1990; Holm et al., 1979

Asystasia gangetica (L.) T. Anderson

[Acanthaceae]






Angola, Australia, Botswana, Equatorial Guinea, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, India, Kenya, Liberia, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Togo, Zambia, Zimbabwe (GRIN, 2001); Belize, Burundi, Central African Republic, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Gabon, Honduras, Madagascar, Nicaragua, Panama, Réunion, Venezuela (W3TROPICOS, 2001); Cameroon, Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, Zaire (GRIN, 2001; W3TROPICOS, 2001); Côte d’Ivoire (Goly & Téhé, 1997; GRIN, 2001); Malaysia (Lee et al., 1996)

Yes – APNI, 2001; AQIS ICON, 2000; DELTA, 2001; Hnatiuk, 1990; Holm et al., 1979

Axonopus compressus (Swartz) P. Beauvois

[Poaceae]



Tropical carpet grass

Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Cameroon, Central African Republic, China, Columbia, Ecuador, France, French Guiana, Gabon, Guinea, Indonesia (Java, Maluku), Liberia, Malaysia (Sarawak), Nigeria, Paraguay, Peru, South Africa, Suriname, Venezuela, Zimbabwe (W3TROPICOS, 2001)

Yes – APNI, 2001; AQIS ICON, 2000; Hnatiuk, 1990

Bartlettina spp. (except B. sordida)

[Asteraceae]






Pineapple growing regions e.g. Thailand (NZ MAF, 2001). See appendix for AQIS ICON (2000) species status within this genus.

No – APNI, 2001; AQIS ICON, 2000; Hnatiuk, 1990

Bidens pilosa L.

[Asteraceae]



Bur-marigold

Bolivia, Burundi, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Kenya, Madagascar, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Tanzania, Venezuela, Zambia (W3TROPICOS, 2001); Philippines (BPI, 2000)

Yes – APNI, 2001; AQIS ICON, 2000; DELTA, 2001; Hnatiuk, 1990; Holm et al., 1979

Boerhavia diffusa L.

[Nyctaginaceae]



Spreading hogweed

Belize, Burundi, Bolivia, Brazil, Cambodia, Cameroon, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Gabon, Ghana, Honduras, India, Japan, Madagascar, Mexico, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Uganda, Vietnam, Venezuela, Zambia (W3TROPICOS, 2001); Côte d’Ivoire (Goly & Téhé, 1997)

Yes – APNI, 2001; AQIS ICON, 2000; Hnatiuk, 1990

Boerhavia erecta L.

[Nyctaginaceae}



Erect spiderling

Belize, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominica, Ecuador, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru, Puerto Rico, Saint Lucia (GRIN, 2001); China, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guatemala, Panama, Tanzania, Togo (W3TROPICOS, 2001); Philippines (BPI, 2000)

No – APNI, 2001; AQIS ICON, 2000; DELTA, 2001; Hnatiuk, 1990; Holm et al., 1979

Borreria alata (Aubl.) DC.

[Rubiaceae]






French Guiana (W3TROPICOS, 2001)

No – APNI, 2001; AQIS ICON, 2000; DELTA, 2001; Hnatiuk, 1990; Holm et al., 1979

Borreria erecta

[Rubiaceae]






Philippines (BPI, 2000)

No – APNI, 2001; AQIS ICON, 2000; DELTA, 2001; Hnatiuk, 1990; Holm et al., 1979

Borreria laevis (Lam.) Griseb.

[Rubiaceae]



Woodland false buttonweed

Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Peru, United States, Venezuela (W3TROPICOS, 2001); Philippines (BPI, 2000)

No – APNI, 2001; AQIS ICON, 2000; DELTA, 2001; Hnatiuk, 1990; Holm et al., 1979

Borreria latifolia

[Rubiaceae]






Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela (W3TROPICOS, 2001); Malaysia (Lee et al., 1996)

No – APNI, 2001; AQIS ICON, 2000; DELTA, 2001; Hnatiuk, 1990; Holm et al., 1979

Borreria ocymoides (Burm. f.) DC.

[Rubiaceae]






Belize, Bolivia, Cameroon, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Venezuela (W3TROPICOS, 2001); Philippines (BPI, 2000)

No – APNI, 2001; AQIS ICON, 2000; Hnatiuk, 1990

Brachiaria reptans (L.) C.A. Gardner & C.E. Hubb.

[Poaceae]



Running grass; sprawling panicum

Colombia, Tanzania, United States (W3TROPICOS, 2001); Thailand (NZ MAF, 2001)

No – AQIS ICON, 2000

Calopogonium mucunoidesi Desv.

[Fabaceae]



Calopo

Argentina (N), Brazil (N), Côte d’Ivoire (I), Fiji (I), Ghana (I), Guadeloupe (N), Guinea (I), Guinea-Bissau (I), Haiti (N), India (I), Indonesia (Irian Jaya) (I), Jamaica (N), Kenya (I), Lao People’s Democratic Republic (I), Liberia (I), Malawi (I), Martinique (N), Mauritius (I), Montserrat (N), Nauru (I), Nigeria (I), Niue (I), Northern Marianas Islands (I), Papua New Guinea (Bismarck Archipelago) (I), Paraguay (N), São Tomé and Principe (I), Seychelles (I), Sierra Leone (I), Solomon Islands (I), Sri Lanka (I), Tanzania (I), Togo (I), Vietnam (I), Zaire (I) (ILDIS, 2001)

Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guyana, Hispaniola, Honduras, Jamaica, Martinique, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Venezuela (GRIN, 2001); Bolivia, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, China, Nigeria, Uganda (W3TROPICOS, 2001); Malaysia (Lee, 1976)



Yes – APNI, 2001; AQIS ICON, 2000; Hnatiuk, 1990

Canna indica (L.) Ruiz et Pav.

[Cannaceae]



African arrowroot; edible canna; purple arrowroot;

Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Cameroon, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Ghana, Guatemala, Honduras, Madagascar, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru, Tanzania, United States (W3TROPICOS, 2001); Côte d’Ivoire (Goly & Téhé, 1997)

Yes – APNI, 2001; AQIS ICON, 2000; Hnatiuk, 1990

Cassia tora L.

[Caesalpiniaceae]



Java bean

Bhutan (N), Cambodia (I), China (Taiwan) (N), Fiji (U), India (N) (Lakshadweep Island (I)), Indonesia (I), Japan (Ryukyu Islands) (I), Lao People’s Democratic Republic (I), Malaysia (I), Maldives (I), Mauritius (Rodrigues) (I), Oman (I), Pakistan (N), Papua New Guinea (Bismarck Archipelago) (I), Réunion (I), Saudi Arabia (I), Seychelles (I), Solomon Islands (I) Sri Lanka (I), Vietnam (I) (ILDIS, 2001)

Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ghana, Nigeria, Paraguay, Peru, Tanzania, United States, Vietnam (W3TROPICOS, 2001); Philippines (BPI, 2000)



Yes – APNI, 2001; AQIS ICON, 2000; DELTA, 2001; Hnatiuk, 1990; Holm et al., 1979

Cenchrus echinatus L.

Syn. = Cenchrus brevisetus; C. pungens; C. viridis; C. quinquevalvis

[Poaceae]


Hedgehog grass; mossman rivergrass; southern sandbur

Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, United States, Venezuela (W3TROPICOS, 2001); Philippines (BPI, 2000)

Yes – APNI, 2001; AQIS ICON, 2000; DELTA, 2001; Hnatiuk, 1990; Holm et al., 1979

Cenchrus spp. (except C. ciliaris, C. setiger and C. echinatus)

[Poaceae]



Grass

Pineapple growing regions e.g. Thailand (NZ MAF, 2001). See appendix for AQIS ICON (2000) species status within this genus.

? – AQIS ICON, 2000; DELTA, 2001; Holm et al., 1979

Centrosema pubescens Benth.

[Fabaceae]



Butterfly pea

Angola (I), China (Taiwan) (I), Côte d’Ivoire (I), Dominican Republic (N), Equatorial Guinea (I), Fiji (I), French Guiana (N), French Polynesia (Society Islands) (I), Gabon (I), Guinea (I), Guinea-Bissau (I), Guyana (N), Haiti (N), India (I), Indonesia (Irian Jaya) (I), Kenya (I), Liberia (I), Mauritius (I), Mozambique (I), Nauru (I), Nigeria (I), Niue (I), Northern Marianas Islands (I), Papua New Guinea (Bismarck Archipelago) (I), Peru (N), Réunion (I), São Tomé and Principe (I), Seychelles (I), Sierra Leone (I), Solomon Islands (I), Sri Lanka (I), Suriname (N), Tanzania (I), Togo (I), United States (N), Zaire (I), Zambia (I), Zimbabwe (I) (ILDIS, 2001)

Antigua and Barbuda, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Hispaniola, Honduras, Jamaica, Martinique, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Venezuela (GRIN, 2001); Belize, Cameroon, China, Ghana, Papua New Guinea, Tanzania, Uganda (W3TROPICOS, 2001); Philippines (BPI, 2000)



Yes – APNI, 2001; AQIS ICON, 2000; Hnatiuk, 1990

Chenopodium album L.

[Chenopodiaceae]



Fat-hen

Bolivia, Burundi, China, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Tanzania, United States, Vietnam (W3TROPICOS, 2001)

Yes – APNI, 2001; AQIS ICON, 2000; DELTA, 2001; Hnatiuk, 1990; Holm et al., 1979

Chloris barbata Sw.

Syn. = Chloris inflata; C. longifolia

[Poaceae]


Peacock plumegrass; purpletop chloris; swollen finger grass

Belize, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Thailand, United States (Anon., 2001c); Philippines (BPI, 2000); Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Venezuela (W3TROPICOS, 2001)

Yes – APNI, 2001; AQIS ICON, 2000; Hnatiuk, 1990

Chloris spp. (except C. chloridea, C. halophila, C. gayana and C. truncata)

[Poaceae]



Finger grass

Ecuador (Anon., 2001b)

Pineapple growing regions e.g. Thailand (NZ MAF, 2001). See appendix for AQIS ICON (2000) species status within this genus.



? – AQIS ICON, 2000

Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M. King & H. Robbins

Syn. = Eupatorium conyzoides; E. odoratum (L.) R. M. King & H. Rob.)

[Asteraceae]


Archangel; bitter-bush; Christmas bush; Siam weed

Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Central America, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, United States, Venezuela, West Indies (GRIN, 2001); Belize, Cameroon, Central African Republic, China, Congo, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Venezuela, Vietnam (W3TROPICOS, 2001); Côte d’Ivoire (Delabarre & Lhoste, 1978); Philippines (BPI, 2000); Thailand (Anon., 2001c); Malaysia (Lee et al., 1996)

No – Incursion eradicated.

APNI, 2001; AQIS ICON, 2000; DELTA, 2001; Hnatiuk, 1990; Holm et al., 1979



Cinnamomum burmannii (Nees & T. Nees) Blume

[Lauraceae]



Batavia cinnamon

India, Myanmar, Vietnam (W3TROPICOS, 2001); Indonesia (Java), Philippines (GRIN, 2001); United Status (Hawaii) (Meidell et al., 1997)

No – APNI, 2001; AQIS ICON, 2000; Hnatiuk, 1990

Cleome rutidosperma DC.

Syn. = Cleome ciliata Schumach. & Thonn.

[Capparidaceae]





Angola, Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zaire; Zambia (GRIN, 2001); Brazil, Burundi, Central African Republic, Gabon, Honduras, Nicaragua, Vietnam (W3TROPICOS, 2001); Cameroon, Nigeria (GRIN, 2001; W3TROPICOS, 2001); Côte d’Ivoire (Goly & Téhé, 1997); Philippines (BPI, 2000); Malaysia (Lee et al., 1996)

No – APNI, 2001; AQIS ICON, 2000; DELTA, 2001; Hnatiuk, 1990; Holm et al., 1979

Clerodendrum capitatum (Wild) So & Th.

[Verbenaceae]






Côte d’Ivoire (Goly & Téhé, 1997); Gabon, Ghana, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia (W3TROPICOS, 2001)

No – APNI, 2001; AQIS ICON, 2000; Hnatiuk, 1990

Clerodendrum volubile P. Beauv.

[Verbenaceae]






Côte d’Ivoire (Goly & Téhé, 1997)

No – APNI, 2001; AQIS ICON, 2000; Hnatiuk, 1990

Clidemia hirta (L.) D. Don

[Melastomataceae]



Curse; Koster's-curse; soapbush

Belize, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Mexico (GRIN, 2001); El Salvador, Guatemala, Guyana, Madagascar, Mauritius, Suriname, Tanzania, United States, Venezuela (W3TROPICOS, 2001); Malaysia (Lee et al., 1996)

No – APNI, 2001; AQIS ICON, 2000; DELTA, 2001; Hnatiuk, 1990; Holm et al., 1979

Combretum racemosum P. Beauv.

[Combretaceae]






Côte d’Ivoire (Goly & Téhé, 1997)

No – APNI, 2001; AQIS ICON, 2000; Hnatiuk, 1990

Commelina benghalensis L.

[Commelinaceae]



Benghal dayflower; tropical spider wort

Benin, Bhutan, Botswana, Cameroon, China, Côte d’Ivoire, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Lesotho, Namibia, Nepal, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia (GRIN, 2001); Bolivia, China (Taiwan), Paraguay, Madagascar, United States (W3TROPICOS, 2001); Congo, Malawi (GRIN, 2001; W3TROPICOS, 2001)

Yes – APNI, 2001; AQIS ICON, 2000; DELTA, 2001; Hnatiuk, 1990; Holm et al., 1979

Commelina diffusa Burm. f.

[Commelinaceae]



Creeping dayflower

Belize, Bolivia, Cameroon, China, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Gabon, Guatemala, Honduras, India, Madagascar, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia (W3TROPICOS, 2001)

No – APNI, 2001; AQIS ICON, 2000; DELTA, 2001; Hnatiuk, 1990; Holm et al., 1979

Convolvulus arvensis L. Field B. Per.

[Convolvulaceae]



Bindweed

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, China, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Libya, Lithuania, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Nepal, Netherlands, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal (Azores), Romania, Russian Federation, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Uzbekistan, Yugoslavia (GRIN, 2001); Bolivia, Mexico, United States (W3TROPICOS, 2001)

Yes – APNI, 2001; AQIS ICON, 2000; Hnatiuk, 1990
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