Anthropology 0680 Introduction to Physical Anthropology

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Anthropology 0680 Introduction to Physical Anthropology
Summary 7
Australopithecus afarensis: ("Lucy" et al); type site, jaw and footprints (bipedal), Laetoli, 3.7-3.5 x 106; Lucy and other specimens, Hadar, c. 3-4 x 106; argued by Johanson et al that A. afarensis was primitive in cranial features, dentition (especially large upper canine, lack of metaconid on lower posterior premolar, apelike dental arcade shape), mandible (has depression in region below premolars); has typical Australopithecus/Paranthropus proximal femur morphology; cranial capacity c. 413 cc.
Possible uniquenesses of an Australopithecus/Paranthropus clade: facial pillars (more derived in robust species in being enveloped in anteriorly oriented facial skeleton); long femoral neck and small femoral head.
Within this clade, A. africanus + all Paranthropus have metaconid on P1.
New discoveries:
A. anamensis: Kanapoi (4.07-4.17 106) and Allia Bay (c. 4 x 106) (West Turkana); thick enameled as all other Australopithecus and Paranthropus; more Homo-like in proximal tibia (more trumpet shaped, rather than T-shaped).
Ardipithecus ramidus: Aramis (Ethiopia); c. 4.2-4.4 x 106; primitive dentally (esp., only hominoid identified as a hominid with thin enamel, deciduous molars and molars apelike in morphology); probably more hominid-like in morphology of humerus and radius. A new subspecies has been discovered more recently (5.4-5.8 x 106).
Australopithecus garhi: Middle Awash Valley (Ethiopia); c. 2.5 x 106; “primitive” frontal, facial, palatal, and subnsasal morphology; “apelike” upper/lower arm proportions (subequal)’ “Homo-like” femoral morphology (not as angled as other Australopithecus).
Orrorin tugenensis: Baringo (Kenya); c. 6 x 106; human-like (i.e. primitive) upper femur and various dental and jaw fragments (generally like thick-enameled hominoids).
Kenyanthropus platyops: Lomekwi, West Turkana; c. 3.5 x 106; named for its flat upper face; suggested as being similar to KNM-ER 1470 (from East Turkana) and both representing a different group of hominids.

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