Amy Alexander, dvm: 11/4/13




Дата канвертавання25.04.2016
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Amy Alexander, DVM: 11/4/13

-Fields within veterinary medicine, similar to fields in medicine



  • Theriogenology- reproduction

  • Zoo

  • Surgery

  • Sports medicine

  • Radiology

  • Preventative medicine

  • Pathology

  • Opthamalogy

  • Etc…

-Zoo Medicine: jack of all trades, master of none- preventative medicine, nutritional diseases, dentistry, foot care, emergency medicine, surgery, palliative care, captive breeding, invertebrates…

-Case 1: Ajali- 16 year-old female girl in Colorado: “Learning to Walk with Glue-On Shoes”



  • Accidental breeding- many health issues

  • Both claws on hooves of giraffe should be symmetrical

  • Overgrown hooves and dermatitis

  • After month of training, able to take hoof x-rays

    • Showed that bones not at same angle and fracture present in hoof

    • “Moth eaten”- bone infection

    • Conclusion: pain meds and antibiotics enough

  • Initial management: pain meds, antibiotics, hoof trims, laser therapy

  • New treatment plan: training, consult, logistics, stall preparations

    • Created a padded stall using mattresses that were filled with sand

    • Immobilization day- required 5 vets, farriers, EMTS…

    • Anesthesia: Med, Ket, But: pain medication, relaxation drug

    • Needed farrier to be able to work on all 4 feet- used brute strength to move all 4 feet

    • Issue with giraffe anesthesia: neck and back spasms- one person must massage during the entire time

    • Intubation using a garden hose (stylet) to place endotracheal tube

    • Feel auricular pulse (ear pulse)

    • Farrier trims hooves and places cement shoes: goal- lift hooves off ground for 6-8 weeks to decrease pressure and let the feet heel

    • Also perform, dental floats (grind teeth down) and x-rays

      • Also had large dental cavity (human disease: not usually observed in animals)

    • Re-position for recovery

      • When giraffes get up, them must rock up and lunge forward

  • Glue-on shoes has been done with other species

-Case 2: Chobe, the Sulcatta Tortoise: “Fracture Management”

  • Pounced on by giraffe: fracture just missed spine

  • Shell= bone: living tissue broken

  • Isoflourane- anesthetic gas used to anesthetize

  • 1st step: wound cleaning and stabilization- need to be careful that not placing fluid in lung; placed wires to prevent shells from falling

  • However, wires eventually broke and shells shattered- mended with zip ties, superglue, and baking soda as wound dressing

  • Contaminated wound management: wounds cleaned out daily and used vacuum-assisted wound closure- lifts soft tissue to help it flush

  • Had to add an esophagostomy tube (tube to stomach) to try ensure receiving food

  • Elevate fractures using a roll bar

  • After 8 months, scar tissue had formed and covered fractures with closed bone cement; keeper painted cement to make shell match

-Field Work in Madagascar

  • Recently worked on lemurs in partnership with St. Louis Zoo

  • Propithecus Diadema- not found in captivity

  • Working in capital of Madagascar, extreme poverty

  • One of the biggest threats of lemurs is deforestation to make room for rice patties

  • Goal- trying to find out overall health of different species of lemurs (Black and White Ruff Lemurs, Indri- biggest lemurs today, Brown Lemurs)

  • Use teolozol used to dart animals- immediate drug, very safe, wears off quickly on own

  • Collecting blood, monitoring genetics, placing collar, collecting feces

    • Some lemurs released by St. Louis Zoo in this region in 1980s: want to know if they reproduced

    • Are primates getting parasites from dogs? Use feces to monitor

-Veterinary schools

  • Some International schools (accredited)

Ross University, St. George’s University: Caribbean

St. Mathew’s University: Cayman Islands



  • New vet schools coming:

    • Arizona- Midwestern University, University of Arizona

    • Tennessee: Lincoln Memorial University

    • May be one in Buffalo, NY (pharmaceutical company trying to open)

  • 28 vet schools on continental US

-Admissions (according to AVMA)

  • Grades- do not need to be perfect!

  • Prerequisites

  • Majors- major in anything you want; you do not need to be a biology major; study what you want as long as you do the prerequisites

  • Experience- seek them out in whatever part of veterinary medicine you are interested in

    • Volunteer

    • Technician

    • Research Lab

  • Leadership skills

  • Communication skills

  • Letters of Recommendation

  • Standardized Test: GRE

  • Have FUN!

  • If you do not get in: ask admissions committees what your weakness were and why you did not get accept

-During veterinary school- how to get into specialty you are interested in:

  • Clubs

  • Specialized coursework

  • Research projects

  • Externships- during 3rd or 4th year: spend a set number of weeks at different institutions

    • Dr. Alexander went to Australia

    • Use to work at clinic you want to eventually work at

  • Conferences- never too early to attend (this includes undergraduates)

  • Memberships

-After vet school, become a zoo vet by internship:

  • 1 year of intensive medicine and surgery

  • Small or large animal

  • Academic or private institution

    • Ex: Private- VSS in Manchester

  • Rotate through numerous specialties and long hours of emergency work

  • Find internship using “The Match”: Veterinary Internship and Residency Matching Program

    • Rank programs in terms of preferences and institutions determine their top preferences of students

-Specialty internship (difficult to get a residency right away)

  • Private zoo or aquaria; academia; private practice; 1-2 years

  • Find on Match, AAZV.org, AZA.org

-Residency:

  • 3-4 years

  • Private practice

  • Academia

  • Private zoo or aquaria

  • Expected to write 5 publications during residency

  • Take a 2 day test

  • When done, board certified in zoological medicine

-Overview: what was presented is a classic approach, remember there are always other ways to get there

-Best parts of veterinary medicine:

Get to do all parts of medicine

Easy to switch track



Lots of improvisation- extrapolate from what you know: cat--> lion


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