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Committee against Torture

Concluding observations on the second periodic report of Japan, adopted by the Committee at its fiftieth session (6-31 May 2013)

ADVANCE UNEDITED VERSION

1. The Committee against Torture considered the second periodic report of Japan (CAT/C/JPN/2) at its 1152nd and 1155th meetings, held on 21 and 22 May 2013 (CAT/C/SR.1152 and 1155), and adopted the following concluding observations at its 1164th meeting on 29 May 2013 (CAT/C/SR.1164).



A. Introduction

2. The Committee expresses its appreciation to the State party for accepting the optional reporting procedure and for having submitted its periodic report under it, as it improves the cooperation between the State party and the Committee and focuses on the examination of the report as well as the dialogue with the delegation.

3. The Committee welcomes the constructive dialogue held with the State party’s high-level delegation as well as the additional information and explanations provided by the delegation to the Committee.

B. Positive aspects

4. The Committee welcomes the State party’s ratification of the following international instruments:

(a) The International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance on 23 July 2009;

(b) The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court on 1 October 2007.

5. The Committee welcomes the following legislative measures taken by the State party:

(a) The revision of the Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition Act, which came into effect in July 2009;

(b) The revision of the Act on the Prevention of Spousal Violence and Protection of Victims, which came into effect in January 2008.

6. The Committee welcomes the following administrative and other measures taken by the State party:

(a) The establishment of the Inspection Guidance Division at the Supreme Public Prosecutors Office, in July 2011;

(b) The approval of the Third Basic Plan for Gender Equality, in December 2010;

(c) The creation of the Immigration Detention Facilities Visiting Committee, in July 2010;

(d) The adoption of the 2009 Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons, in December 2009.

(e) The compilation of the Policy on Ensuring Propriety of Examination in Police Investigations, in January 2008.

C. Principal subjects of concern and recommendations

Definition of torture

7. The Committee is concerned that the State party has not taken any measures to adopt a definition of torture that covers all the elements contained in article 1 of the Convention. (art. 1)



The Committee reiterates the recommendation made in its previous concluding observations (CAT/C/JPN/CO/1, para.10) that the State party should incorporate into domestic law the definition of torture as contained in article 1 of the Convention, encompassing all its constituent elements which characterize torture as a specific crime with appropriate penalties. The Committee considers, referring to its general comment No.2, that States parties will directly advance the Convention’s overarching aim of preventing torture by naming and defining the offence of torture in accordance with the Convention and distinct from other crimes.

Statute of limitations

8. While noting the Act No.26 of April 2010 abolishing or extending the statute of limitations for certain crimes, the Committee is concerned that the statute of limitations remains in place for acts of torture and ill-treatment, including attempts to commit torture and acts by any person which constitute complicity or participation in torture. (arts. 4 and 12)



The Committee reiterates its previous recommendation (para.12) that the State party should bring its legislations on the statute of limitations fully in line with its obligations under the Convention, so that perpetrators of acts of torture are prosecuted and convicted in accordance with the gravity of the acts, as required by article 4 of the Convention, without time limitations.

Non-refoulement and detention pending deportation

9. The Committee expresses its concern about: (arts. 3, 11 and 16)

(a) The use of lengthy, and in some case, indefinite detention for asylum seekers under a deportation order according to the Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition Act (ICRRA) as well as the lack of independent review of such detention decision;



(b) The restrictive use of alternatives to detention for asylum seekers;

(c) The lack of resources and authorities of the Immigration Detention Facilities Visiting Committee to effectively discharge its mandate, as well as the appointment of its members by the Ministry of Justice and the Immigration Bureau;

(d) Detention of unaccompanied children in Child Consultation Centres, which are often overcrowded and lack resources for hiring interpreters;

(e) The lack of effective implementation of article 53(3) of the ICRRA, which prohibits the removal of a person to any country where he or she may be subject to torture, as proscribed in article 3 of the Convention.

In light of the previous recommendations made by the Committee (para.14) as well as by the Special Rapporteur on Migrants, following his mission to Japan in 2011 (A/HRC/17/33/Add.3, para.82), the State party should:

(a) Continue its efforts to bring all legislation and practices relating to the detention and deportation of immigrants or asylum-seekers in line with the absolute principle of non-refoulement under article 3 of the Convention;

(b) Ensure that the detention of asylum-seekers is only used as a last resort, and when necessary, for as short a period as possible, and introduce a maximum period of detention pending deportation;

(c) Further utilize alternatives to detention as provided for in the Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition Act;

(d) Strengthen the independence, authority and effectiveness of the Immigration Detention Facilities Visiting Committee, inter alia, by providing appropriate resources and authority to ensure effective monitoring detention centers and allowing them to receive and review complaints from immigrants or asylum-seekers in detention;

(e) Consider acceding to the 1954 Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons and the 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Stateless.

Daiyo Kangoku (substitute detention system)

10. While noting the formal separation of the police functions of investigation and detention under the Act on Penal Detention Facilities and Treatment of Inmates and Detainees, the Committee expresses its serious concern at the lack of safeguards in the Daiyo Kangoku system, which mitigates the State party’s compliance with the obligations under the Convention. In particular, the Committee deeply regrets that under this system, suspects can be detained in police cells for a period up to 23 days, with limited access to a lawyer especially during the first 72 hours of arrest and without the possibility of bail. The lack of effective judicial control over pre-trial detention in police cells and the lack of an independent and effective inspection and complaints mechanism are also a matter of serious concern. Furthermore, the Committee regrets the position of the State party that the abolition or reform of the pre-trial detention system is unnecessary (A/HRC/22/14/Add.1, para.147.116). (arts. 2 and 16)

The Committee reiterates its previous recommendations (para.15) that the State party should:

(a) Take legislative and other measures to ensure, in practice, separation between the functions of investigation and detention;

(b) Limit the maximum time detainees can be held in police custody;

(c) Guarantee all fundamental legal safeguards for all suspects in pre-trial detention, including the right of confidential access to a lawyer throughout the interrogation process, and to legal aid from the moment of arrest, and to all police records related to their case, as well as the right to receive independent medical assistance, and to contact relatives;

(d) Consider abolishing the Daiyo Kangoku system in order to bring the State party’s legislation and practices fully into line with international standards.

Interrogation and confessions

11. The Committee takes note of article 38(2) of the Constitution and article 319(1) of the Code of Criminal Procedure stipulating inadmissibility in court of confessions obtained under torture and ill-treatment as well as the State party’s statement that convictions are not based solely on confessions and that interrogation guidelines ensure that suspects cannot be compelled to confess to a crime. However, the Committee remains seriously concerned that : (art. 2 and 15)

(a) The State party’s justice system relies heavily on confessions in practice, which are often obtained while in the Daiyo Kangoku without a lawyer present. The Committee has received reports about ill-treatment while interrogated, such as beating, intimidation, sleep deprivation, and long periods of interrogations without breaks;

(b) It is not mandatory to have defence counsel present during all interrogations;

(c) The lack of means for verifying the proper conduct of interrogations of detainees while in police custody, in particular the absence of strict time limits for the duration of consecutive interrogations;

(d) None of 141 complaints concerning interrogations filed to the public prosecutors by suspects and their defence counsels resulted in a lawsuit.



The Committee reiterates its previous recommendations (para.16) that the State party should take all necessary steps to in practice ensure inadmissibility in court of confessions obtained under torture and ill-treatment in all cases in line with article 38(2) of the Constitution, article 319(1) of the Code of Criminal Procedure as well as article 15 of the Convention by, inter alia,:

(a) Establishing rules concerning the length of interrogations, with appropriate sanctions for non-compliance;

(b) Improving criminal investigation methods to end practices whereby confession is relied on as the primary and central element of proof in criminal prosecution;

(c) Implementing safeguards such as electronic recordings of the entire interrogation process and ensuring that recordings are made available for use in trials;

(d) Informing the Committee of the number of confessions made under compulsion, torture or threat, or after prolonged arrest or detention, that were not admitted into evidence based on article 319(1) of the Code of Criminal Procedure.

Complaint mechanism

12. Notwithstanding the information on the appeal systems established under the Act on Penal Detention Facilities and Treatment of Inmates and Detainees (2007), the Committee remains concerned about the lack of an independent and effective complaint mechanism for receiving and conducting impartial investigations into allegations of torture and ill treatment of persons deprived of their liberty, including those in police custody, and for ensuring that officials found guilty are appropriately punished. The Committee also regrets the absence of information on claims for state compensation or on disciplinary sanctions. (art. 2, 4, 12, 13 and 16)



The Committee reiterates its previous recommendation (para.21) that the State party should:

(a) Consider establishing a specifically dedicated, independent and effective complaints body and ensure prompt, impartial and full investigations into all allegations of torture and ill-treatment committed by public officials, and to prosecute and punish those responsible with penalties taking into account the grave nature of offences;

(b) Ensure in practice that complainants are protected against any reprisals as a consequence of their complaint or any evidence given;

(c) Compile information, including disaggregated statistics, on the number of complaints filed against public officials on torture and ill-treatment, as well as information about the results of the proceedings, at both the penal and disciplinary levels.

Conditions of detention

13. Despite the State party’s efforts to improve the conditions of detention and to increase the capacities of penal institutions, the Committee remains concerned at : (arts. 11 and 16)

(a) Overcrowding in certain facilities, including women’s prisons;



(b) Inadequate access to health care and serious shortage of medical staff within detention facilities;

(c) The insufficient provision of mental health care in prisons and reports indicating that mentally ill inmates are subjected to extensive use of solitary confinement and subsequent increased risks of suicide attempts;

(d) The lack of adequate safeguards and monitoring mechanism on the use of restraining devices such as Type II handcuffs and straitjackets.

The State party should strengthen its efforts to improve conditions of detention in prisons in conformity with the standard minimum rules for treatment of prisoners, by:

(a) Reducing the high rate of overcrowding, in particular through the wider application of non-custodial measures as an alternative to imprisonment, in the light of the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for Non- custodial Measures (Tokyo Rules) and United Nations Rules for the Treatment of Women Prisoners and Non-Custodial Measures for Women Offenders (Bangkok Rules);

(b) Provide adequate somatic and mental health care for all persons deprived of their liberty;

(c) Strictly monitor the use of Type II handcuffs and the length of time they are used, so as to comply with the State party’s obligations under the Convention, and consider completely banning the use of devices to restrain persons in custody.

Solitary confinement

14. The Committee remains deeply concerned that solitary confinement continues to be used often extensively prolonged without a time limit, and that decision of isolation for detainees is left to the discretion of prison warden. The Committee regrets that prison doctor is directly involved in the periodic medical review of prisoners in solitary confinement under the Act on Penal Detention Facilities and Treatment of Inmates and Detainees and such practice might deteriorate doctor-patient relationship, which is a major factor in safeguarding the health conditions of prisoners. (arts. 2, 11 and 16)



Taking into account the provisions of the Convention and the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners, the Committee urges the State party to:

(a) Revise its legislation in order to ensure that solitary confinement remains as a measure of last resort, for as short a time as possible under strict supervision and with a possibility of judicial review. The State party should establish clear and specific criteria for the decision of isolation;

(b) Establish a system of regular monitoring and review of the detainee’s physical and mental condition by qualified medical personnel throughout the period of solitary confinement, and release such medical records to the detainees and their legal counsel;

(c) Increase the level of psychological meaningful social contact for detainees while in solitary confinement;

(d) Evaluate and assess the existing practice of the use of solitary confinement, and also provide specific and disaggregated information on the use and conditions of solitary confinement.

Death penalty

15. The Committee is deeply concerned over the conditions of detention of prisoners on death row in the State party, in particular with respect to: (arts. 2, 11 and 16)

(a) The unnecessary secrecy and uncertainty surrounding the execution of prisoners sentenced to death. As referred to by the Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, refusing to provide convicted persons and family members advance notice of the date and time of execution is a clear human rights violation (E/CN.4/2006/53/Add.3, para.32);

(b) The use of solitary confinement for persons sentenced to death, often for extended periods of time, even exceeding 30 years in some cases, and limited contact with the outside;

(c) Interference with the right to assistance by legal counsel, including the limited confidential access to lawyer;

(d) The lack of a mandatory appeal system for capital cases given that an increasing number of defendants convicted and sentenced to death without exercising their right of appeal;

(e) The non-use of the power of pardon since 2007 and the absence of transparency concerning procedures for seeking benefit for pardon, commutation or reprieve. Furthermore, the Committee deeply regrets that a retrial procedure or a request for pardon do not lead to suspension of the execution of the death sentence, as in the case of Kobayashi Kaoru;

(f) Reports about executions carried out even if the person was determined by a court to be mentally ill, as in the case of Seiha Fujima, in contradiction of article 479(1) of the Code of Criminal Procedures which prohibits the execution of a detainee in a state of insanity.



In light of the previous recommendations made by the Committee (para.17), the Human Rights Committee (CCPR/C/GC/32, para.38) as well as the communication sent by the Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions (A/HRC/14/24/Add.1, paras.515 et seq.), the Committee urges the State party to ensure that death row inmates are afforded all the legal safeguards and protections provided by the Convention, inter alia, by:

(a) Giving death row inmates and their families reasonable advance notice of the scheduled date and time of the execution;

(b) Revising the rule of solitary confinement for death row inmates;

(c) Guaranteeing effective assistance by legal counsel for death row inmates at all stages of the proceedings, and the strict confidentiality of all meetings with their lawyers;

(d) Making available the power of pardon, commutation and reprieve in practice for death row inmates;

(e) Introducing a mandatory system of review in capital cases, with suspensive effect following a death penalty conviction in first instance;

(f) Ensuring an independent review of all cases when there is credible evidence that death row inmate is mentally ill. Furthermore, the State party should ensure that detainee with mental illness is not executed in accordance with article 479(1) of the Code of Criminal Procedures;

(g) Providing the data on death row inmates, disaggregated by sex, age, ethnicity and offence;

(h) Consider the possibility of abolishing the death penalty.

National human rights institution

16. The Committee notes with concern that the State party has not yet established a national human rights institution, in accordance with the Paris principles. (art. 2)



Noting the commitment made by the State party in the context of the universal periodic review (A/HRC/22/14/Add.1, para.147.47 et seq.), the Committee urges the State party to expedite the establishment of an independent national human rights institution in conformity with the principles relating to the status of national institutions for the promotion and protection of human rights (the Paris principles, General Assembly resolution 48/134).

Training

17. While taking note of various human rights training programmes initiated by the State party, the Committee notes with concern that the State party does not provide training on the Convention for all immigration officials and that the Istanbul Protocol is not incorporated in the training programme. The lack of information on the effectiveness and impact of those training programmes in reducing the number of cases of torture, including gender-based violence, and ill-treatment is also a matter of concern. (art. 11)



The State party should:

(a) Further develop and strengthen training programmes to ensure that all officials, in particular judges and law enforcement, prison and immigration officers, are aware of the provisions of the Convention;

(b) Provide training on the manual on effective investigation and documentation of torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment (Istanbul protocol) for medical personnel and other officials involved in the investigation and documentation of cases of torture, on a regular basis;

(c) Encourage involvement of non governmental organizations in training of law enforcement officials;

(d) Assess the effectiveness and impact of training programmes on the prevention and absolute prohibition of torture, including gender-based violence, and ill-treatment.

Redress, including compensation and rehabilitation

18. Notwithstanding article 1 of State Redress Act under which victim may seek damages against the State or the public entity, the Committee remains concerned over (a) reports of difficulties faced by victims of acts of torture or ill-treatment in obtaining redress and adequate compensation, (b) restrictions on the right to compensation, such as statutory limitations and reciprocity rules for immigrants, and (c) the lack of information on compensation requested and awarded to victims of torture or ill-treatment. (art. 14)



Referring to its general comment No. 3 on article 14 of the Convention which clarifies the content and scope of the obligations of States parties to provide full redress to victims of torture, the Committee recommends the State party to strengthen its efforts to ensure that all victims of acts of torture or ill-treatment can fully exercise their right to redress, including fair and adequate compensation, and as full rehabilitation as possible, as well as their right to truth. The State party should also provide the Committee with information on (a) redress and compensation measures ordered by the courts and provided to victims of torture or ill-treatment, or their families. This information should include the number of requests made and of those granted and the amounts ordered and actually provided in each case; and (b) any ongoing rehabilitation programmes for victims of torture and ill-treatment, and allocate adequate resources to effectively implement such programmes.

Victims of military sexual slavery

19. Notwithstanding the information provided by the State party concerning some steps taken to acknowledge the abuses against victims of Japan’s military sexual slavery practices during the Second World War, the so-called “comfort women”, the Committee remains deeply concerned at the State party’s failure to meet its obligations under the Convention while addressing this matter, in particular in relation to: (arts. 1, 2, 4, 10, 14 and 16)

(a) Failure to provide adequate redress and rehabilitation to the victims. The Committee regrets that the compensation, financed by private donations rather than public funds, was insufficient and inadequate;

(b) Failure to prosecute perpetrators of such acts of torture and bring them to justice. The Committee recalls that on account of the continuous nature of the effects of torture, statutes of limitations should not be applicable as these deprive victims of the redress, compensation, and rehabilitation due to them;

(c) Concealment or failure to disclose related facts and materials;

(d) Continuing official denial of the facts and re-traumatization of the victims by high-level national and local officials and politicians, including several diet members;

(e) The failure to carry out effective educational measures to prevent gender-based breaches of the Convention, as illustrated, inter alia, by a decrease in references to this issue in school history textbooks;

(f) The State party’s rejection of several recommendations relevant to this issue, made in the context of the universal periodic review (A/HRC/22/14/Add.1, paras.147.145 et seq.), which are akin to recommendations made by the Committee (para.24) and many other UN human rights mechanisms, inter alia, the Human Rights Committee (CCPR/C/JPN/CO/5, para.22), the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW/C/JPN/CO/6, para.38), the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (E/C.12/JPN/CO/3, para.26) and several special procedures’ mandate-holders of the Human Rights Council.



Recalling its general comment No. 3, the Committee urges the State party to take immediate and effective legislative and administrative measures to find victim-centered resolution for the issues of “comfort women”, in particular, by:

(a) Publicly acknowledge legal responsibility for the crimes of sexual slavery, and prosecute and punish perpetrators with appropriate penalties;

(b) Refute attempts to deny the facts by the government authorities and public figures and to re-traumatize the victims through such repeated denials;

(c) Disclose related materials, and investigate the facts thoroughly;

(d) Recognise the victim’s right to redress, and accordingly provide them full and effective redress and reparation, including compensation, satisfaction and the means for as full rehabilitation as possible;

(e) Educate the general public about the issue and include the events in all history textbooks, as a means of preventing further violations of the State party’s obligations under the Convention.

Violence against women and gender-based violence

20. While taking note of the State party’s efforts to combat gender-based violence, the Committee is concerned at reports on the continuing incidents of gender-based violence, in particular domestic violence, incest and rape, including marital rape, the low number of complaints, investigations, prosecutions and convictions for such cases, and insufficient legal protections for victims. Furthermore, the Committee expresses its concern at the requirement of the victim’s complaint in the Penal Code in order to prosecute crimes of sexual violence. (arts. 2, 12, 13, 14 and 16)



In light of previous recommendations made by the Committee (para.25) and the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW/C/JPN/CO/6, paras.31-34), the State party should strengthen its efforts to prevent and prosecute all forms of gender-based abuse, including domestic violence, incest and rape, including marital rape, in particular, by:

(a) Adopting and implementing a coherent and comprehensive national strategy for the elimination of violence against women that includes legal, educational, financial and social components;

(b) Guaranteeing victims of such violence access to complaint mechanism, and facilitating victims’ physical and psychological rehabilitation. Such supports should be extended to victims of all military personnel, including those in foreign forces in the State party;

(c) Promptly, effectively and impartially investigating all incidents of violence against women and prosecuting those responsible. The Committee urges the State party to revise its legislation to ensure that the crime of sexual violence is prosecuted without complaint by the victim;

(d) Broadening public awareness-raising campaigns on all forms of violence against women and gender-based violence.

Trafficking

21. While noting the State party’s efforts to combat human trafficking, including the 2009 Action Plan on Measures to Combat Trafficking in Persons, the Committee is concerned at the lack of information on the resources provided for this action plan, a wide discrepancy between the numbers of persons arrested for trafficking and of persons prosecuted and convicted. The Committee regrets the lack of information about the coordinating and monitoring body and the impact of measures to address trafficking, especially in children. (arts. 2, 12, 13, 14 and 16)



The Committee calls on the State party to fully implement the recommendations made by the Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons (A/HRC/14/32/Add.4), following her visit to Japan in 2009. In particular, the State party should ensure that:

(a) Victims of trafficking are provided with adequate assistance for their physical and psychological recovery;

(b) Clear identification procedures is set out, so that victims of trafficking are not incorrectly identified and treated as undocumented migrants and deported without redress or remedy;

(c) Perpetrators are prosecuted and punished with appropriate penalties;

(d) Specialized training is provided to relevant public officials in this regard;

(e) Consider ratifying the protocol to prevent, suppress and punish trafficking in persons, especially women and children (Palermo Protocol).

Psychiatric health care

22. Notwithstanding the Act on Mental Health and Welfare for the Mentally Disabled, which established operating parmeters for mental health institutions and the additional information provided by the State party’s delegation, the Committee remains concerned at the high numbers of persons with mental disabilities, both psychosocial and intellectual who are held in mental health care institutions on involuntary basis and frequently for a lengthy period of time. The Committee is further concerned at the frequent use of solitary confinement, restraints and forced medication, actions which may amount to inhumane and degrading treatment. Taking into account the information received during the dialogue on plans regarding mental health care, the Committee remains concerned at the lack of focus on alternatives to hospitalization of persons with mental disabilities. Finally, the Committee is concerned about the frequent lack of effective and impartial investigation of the excessive use of restrictive measures as well as at the lack of relevant statistical data. (arts. 2, 11, 13 and 16)



The Committee urges the State party to ensure:

(a) Establish effective judicial control over involuntary treatment and placement, as well effective appeals mechanisms;

(b) Develop outpatient and community services and bring down the number of institutionalized patients;

(c) that effective legal safeguards are respected in all places of deprivation of liberty, including psychiatric and social care institutions;

(d) Strengthen the access to effective complaint mechanisms;

(e) That use of restraints and solitary confinement should be avoided or applied as a measure of last resort when all other alternatives for control have failed, for the shortest possible time, under strict medical supervision and any such act be duly recorded;

(f) That effective and impartial investigations are undertaken in incidents where excessive use of such restrictive measures result in injuries of the patient;

(g) That remedies and redress are provided to the victims;

(h) Ensure that independent monitoring bodies conduct regular visits to all psychiatric institutions.

Corporal punishment

23. Noting that child abuse is prohibited under article 3 of the Act on Child Abuse Prevention, the Committee shares concern raised by the Committee on the Rights of Child (CRC/C/JPN/CO/3, para.47) that corporal punishment in the home and in alternative care settings is not expressly prohibited by law and that the Civil Code and the Act on Child Abuse Prevention allow the use of appropriate discipline and are unclear as to the admissibility of corporal punishment in some cases. (art.16)



The State party should explicitly prohibit corporal punishment and all forms of degrading treatment of children in all settings by law.

Other issues

24. The State party should establish an effective system to gather all statistical data disaggregated by sex, age and authenticity, relevant to the monitoring of the implementation of the Convention at the national level, including complaints, investigations, prosecutions, convictions of cases of torture and ill-treatment by public officials, trafficking and domestic and sexual violence as well as means of redress, including compensation and rehabilitation, provided to the victims.

25. The Committee recommends that the State party strengthen its cooperation with United Nations human rights mechanism, including by permitting a visit of, inter alia, the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention, and its efforts in implementing their recommendations. The State party should take further steps to ensure a well-coordinated, transparent and publicly accessible approach to overseeing implementation of its obligations under the United Nations human rights mechanism, including the Convention.

26. Noting the commitment made by the State party in the context of the universal periodic review (A/HRC/22/14/Add.1, para.147.9), the Committee urges the State party to accelerate the current domestic discussions and to ratify the Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment as soon as possible. The Committee also recommends the State party to consider making the declaration envisaged under article 22 of the Convention.

27. The Committee invites the State party to ratify the core United Nations human rights treaties to which it is not yet a party, namely the Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

28. The State party is requested to disseminate widely the report submitted to the Committee and the Committee’s concluding observations, in appropriate languages, through official websites, the media and non-governmental organizations.

29. The Committee requests the State party to provide, by 31 May 2014, follow-up information in response to the Committee’s recommendations related to (1) ensuring or strengthening legal safeguards for persons detained, (2) conducting, prompt, impartial and effective investigations, and (3) prosecuting suspects and sanctioning perpetrators of torture or ill-treatment, as contained in paragraphs 10, 11 and 15 of the present document. In addition, the Committee requests follow-up information on remedies and redress to the victims, as contained in paragraph 19 of the present document.

30. The State party is invited to submit its next report, which will be the third periodic report, by 31 May 2017. To that purpose, the Committee will, in due course, submit to the State party a list of issues prior to reporting, considering that the State party has accepted to report to the Committee under the optional reporting procedure.





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