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Table S4. Detailed description of the anatomical position of each landmark used in this study.







Pelvis:

1

Most anterior point of the ventral border of the illium.

2

Most posterior point of the antero-ventral spine of the ilium.

3

Point of maximum curvature in the anterior border of the pubis.

4

Most anterior point of the pubic symphysis.

5

Most anterior point of the obturator foramen edge.

6

Most dorsal point of the obturator foramen edge.

7

Most ventral point of the obturator foramen edge.

8

Most posterior point of the obturator foramen edge.

9

Most posterior point of the ischial tuberosity.

10

Most posterior point of the acetabular incisure.

11

Point of maximum curvature in the anterior extreme of the acetabular articular surface.

12

Point of maximum curvature of the internal border of the acetabular articular surface.

13

Point of maximum curvature in the posterior extreme of the acetabular articular surface.

14

Most anterior point of the antero-dorsal spine of the ilium.

15

Most posterior point of the postero-dorsal spine of the ilium.

16

Most dorsal point of the ischial spine.

17

Most posterior point of the pubic symphysis.










Femur:

1

Midpoint of the fovea capitis.

2

Most posterior point of the lesser trochanter.

3

Most proximal point of the greater trochanter.

4

Point of maximum curvature in the proximal edge between the femoral head and the greater trochanter.

5

Most medial point at the middle of the shaft.

6

Most posterior point at the middle of the shaft.

7

Most lateral point at the middle of the shaft.

8

Proximo-medial corner of the medial condyle.

9

Proximo-lateral corner of the medial condyle.

10

Proximo-medial corner of the lateral condyle.

11

Proximo-lateral corner of the lateral condyle.

12

Most distal point of the intercondylar fossa.

13

Most anterior point at the middle of the shaft.

14

Point of maximum curvature of the lateral edge between the condyle and the trochlea.

15

Point of maximum curvature of the medial edge between the condyle and the trochlea.

16

Most proximal point of the lateral edge of the trochlea.

17

Most proximal point of the medial edge of the trochlea.










Tibia:

1

Point of maximum curvature of the posterior edge of the medial condyle.

2

Point of maximum curvature of the posterior intercondylar edge.

3

Point of maximum curvature of the posterior edge of the lateral condyle.

4

Most proximal point of the medial condyle.

5

Point of maximum curvature in the intercondylar eminence.

6

Most proximal point of the lateral condyle.

7

Most medial point of the proximal epiphysis.

8

Most lateral point of the proximal epiphysis.

9

Most medial point at the middle of the shaft.

10

Most posterior point at the middle of the shaft.

11

Most lateral point at the middle of the shaft.

12

Postero-distal corner of the medial malleolus.

13

Most distal point of the posterior edge of the distal articular surface.

14

Most posterior point of the internal edge of the distal articular surface.

15

Most proximal point of the lateral edge of the distal articular surface.

16

Midpoint of the medial half of the distal articular surface.

17

Point of maximum curvature of the lateral edge of the tibial tuberosity.

18

Point of maximum curvature of the medial edge of the tibial tuberosity.

19

Most anterior point at the middle of the shaft.

20

Most distal point of the anterior edge of the distal articular surface.

21

Point of maximum curvature in the notch of the anterior edge of the distal articular surface.

22

Antero-distal corner of the medial malleolus.

Table S5. Stratigraphic ranges and time of divergence for the extinct taxa included in the composite tree used in this paper. The source references for phylogenetic position and stratigraphic range are indicated. The time of divergence of two extinct species (Arctodus simus and Ursus spelaeus) have been obtained from molecular data (MD). Where the molecular data and the stratigraphic range of the extinct taxa differed, the one with the oldest date have been chosen. Besides, where several nodes overlap at the same date, an arbitrary difference of 0.1 My was introduced between consecutive internal nodes.



Taxa

Stratigraphic range

Ref. for phylogenetic position

Ref. for stratigraphic range

Aelurodon ferox

15 - 12 my

2

2

Aelurodon taxoides

12 - 9 my

2

2

Amphicyon

23 - 7.2 my

3

4

Arctodus simus

MD 5.66 my

5

5

Barbourofelis

11 - 6 my

6

3, 7

Borophagus

12 - 2 my

2

2

Carpocyon

16 - 5 my

2

2

Daphoenodon

23 - 17.5 my

3

3, 7

Daphoenus

39.5 - 27 my

3

3, 7

Dinictis

37 - 26 my

8

7, 8, 9

Epicyon haydeni

10 - 5 my

2

2

Epicyon saevus

7 - 12 my

2

2

Hemicyon

16 - 13.6 my

10

4

Hoplophoneus

37 - 28 my

8

7, 8, 9

Hyaenodon pervagus

34 - 24.6 my

11

12, 13

Ischyrocyon

14 - 8 my

3

3, 7

Machairodus

15 - 2 my

14

15

Megantereon

5.3 - 0.78 my

14

4

Nimravus

34 - 24 my

8

7, 8, 9

Paratomarctus euthos

13 - 9 my

2

2

Paratomarctus temerarius

16 - 13 my

2

2

Patriofelis

50.3 - 40.4 my

11

4

Pogonodon

34 - 23 my

8

7, 8, 9

Promegantereon ogygia

11 - 8.2 my

16

13

Pseudaelurus

20.4 - 4.9 my

17

4

Smilodon

4.9 - 0.01 my

14

4

Tomarctus

16 - 14 my

2

2

Ursus etruscus

2.6 - 1.3 my

10

13

Ursus spelaeus

MD 2.75 my

5

5
















Time of divergence




Ref. for time of divergence

Order Creodonta

65.1 my

11

18

Family Amphicyonidae

61.5 my

19

18

Family Barbourofelidae

20 my

6

4

Family Nimravidae

37 my

8

7, 8, 9

Subfamily Borophaginae

34 my

2

2

Subfamily Machairondontinae

15 my

14

15

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