Additional file 3




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Additional file 3

Table S1. Sample sizes used in this study for each forelimb bone (P, pelvis; F, femur; T, tibia). Locomotor category established for each species according to Samuels et al. (2013) [1] are shown. Daggers (†) represents extinct species.




Family

Species (abbreviation)

P

F

T

Locomotor category

Ailuridae

Ailurus fulgens (Afu)

2

2

2

Arboreal

Amphicyonidae

Amphicyon sp. (Amp)

1

6

11

-




Daphoenodon sp. (Dad)

0

0

1

-




Daphoenus sp. (Dan)

0

1

1

-




Ischyrocyon sp. (Isc)

0

2

2

-

Barbourofelidae

Barbourofelis sp. (Bar)

0

1

2

-

Canidae

Aelurodon ferox (Afe)

0

3

2

-




Aelurodon taxoides (Ata)

0

2

0

-




Borophagus sp. (Bor)

0

0

4

-




Canis adustus (Cad)

1

1

1

Cursorial




Canis aureus (Cau)

2

2

2

Cursorial




Canis latrans (Cla)

5

5

5

Cursorial




Canis lupus (Clu)

5

5

5

Cursorial




Canis mesomelas (Cme)

4

4

4

Cursorial




Canis simensis (Csi)

1

1

1

Cursorial




Carpocyon sp. (Car)

0

2

0

-




Cerdocyon thous (Cth)

5

5

5

Terrestrial




Chrysocyon brachyurus (Cbr)

2

2

2

Terrestrial




Cuon alpinus (Cal)

4

4

4

Cursorial




Epicyon haydeni (Eha)

0

1

4

-




Epicyon saevus (Esa)

0

2

1

-




Lycaon pictus (Lpi)

2

2

2

Cursorial




Nyctereutes procyonoides (Npr)

2

2

2

Terrestrial




Otocyon megalotis (Ome)

2

2

2

Cursorial




Paratomarctus euthos (Peu)

0

0

2

-




Paratomarctus temerarius (Pte)

0

2

0

-




Speothos venaticus (Sve)

2

2

1

Terrestrial




Tomarctus sp. (Tom)

0

6

5

-




Urocyon cinereoargenteus (Uci)

4

4

4

Scansorial




Vulpes lagopus (Vla)

2

2

2

Terrestrial




Vulpes velox (Vve)

2

2

2

Cursorial




Vulpes vulpes (Vvu)

3

3

3

Cursorial

Creodonta

Hyaenodon pervagus (Hpe)

0

0

1

-




Patriofelis sp. (Pat)

0

1

0

-

Felidae

Acinonyx jubatus (Aju)

5

5

5

Cursorial




Leptailurus serval (Lse)

1

2

2

Terrestrial




Lynx rufus (Lru)

4

4

4

Scansorial




Machairodus sp. (Mac)

1

2

3

-




Megantereon sp. (Meg)

0

1

1

-




Neofelis nebulosa (Nne)

1

1

1

Arboreal




Panthera leo (Ple)

5

5

5

Terrestrial




Panthera onca (Pon)

3

4

4

Scansorial




Panthera pardus (Ppa)

6

6

6

Scansorial




Panthera tigris (Pti)

4

4

4

Terrestrial




Promegantereon ogygia (Pro)

1

4

2

-




Pseudaelurus sp. (Pse)

1

1

2

-




Puma concolor (Pco)

4

4

4

Scansorial




Smilodon sp. (Smi)

1

4

4

-




Uncia uncia (Uun)

4

4

4

Scansorial

Hyaenidae

Crocuta crocuta (Ccr)

5

5

5

Cursorial




Hyaena brunnea (Hbr)

1

1

1

Cursorial




Hyaena hyaena (Hhy)

2

2

2

Cursorial

Mustelidae

Eira barbara (Eba)

2

2

2

Arboreal




Lontra canadensis (Lca)

2

2

2

Semiaquatic




Meles Meles (Mme)

1

1

1

Semifossorial

Nimravidae

Dinictis sp. (Din)

0

5

0

-




Hoplophoneus sp. (Hop)

1

4

1

-




Nimravus sp. (Nim)

0

1

0

-




Pogonodon sp. (Pog)

0

1

2

-

Procyonidae

Bassariscus astutus (Bas)

1

1

1

Arboreal




Nasua nasua (Nna)

1

1

1

Scansorial




Potos flavus (Pfl)

3

3

3

Arboreal




Procyon lotor (Plo)

3

3

3

Scansorial

Ursidae

Ailuropoda melanoleuca (Ame)

4

4

4

Terrestrial




Arctodus simus (Asi)

1

3

4

-




Helarctos malayanus (Hma)

1

1

1

Scansorial




Hemicyon sp. (Hem)

0

1

1

-




Melursus ursinus (Mur)

3

3

3

Terrestrial




Tremarctos ornatos (Tor)

1

1

1

Scansorial




Ursus americanus (Uam)

3

3

3

Scansorial




Ursus arctos (Uar)

4

4

4

Terrestrial




Ursus etruscus (Uet)

0

0

2

-




Ursus maritimus (Uma)

2

4

4

Semiaquatic




Ursus spelaeus (Usp)

0

2

3

-




Ursus thibetanus (Uth)

3

3

3

Scansorial

Table S2. List of specimens for the living species included in this paper. Host institution and identity number (ID) are indicated. AMNH, American Museum of Natural History (New York); NHM, Natural History Museum (London). * Indicates a specimen in which the pelvis (P) or the tibia (T) was absent; the three bones analyzed here were present for the remaining specimens.




Species

ID

Host Institution

Acinonyx jubatus

119654

AMNH

Acinonyx jubatus

119655

AMNH

Acinonyx jubatus

119656

AMNH

Acinonyx jubatus

1940.1.20.17

NHM

Acinonyx jubatus

1962.7.6.15

NHM

Ailuropoda melanoleuca

147746

AMNH

Ailuropoda melanoleuca

110454

AMNH

Ailuropoda melanoleuca

89028

AMNH

Ailuropoda melanoleuca

89030

AMNH

Ailurus fulgens

185346

AMNH

Ailurus fulgens

80164

AMNH

Bassariscus astutus

182560

AMNH

Canis adustus

114174

AMNH

Canis aureus

187714

AMNH

Canis aureus

54516

AMNH

Canis latrans

123183

AMNH

Canis latrans

1317

AMNH

Canis latrans

1316

AMNH

Canis latrans

141170

AMNH

Canis latrans

141153

AMNH

Canis lupus

98226

AMNH

Canis lupus

98227

AMNH

Canis lupus

98225

AMNH

Canis lupus

134941

AMNH

Canis lupus

134942

AMNH

Canis mesomelas

34734

AMNH

Canis mesomelas

187712

AMNH

Canis mesomelas

187713

AMNH

Canis mesomelas

114228

AMNH

Canis simensis

81001

AMNH

Cerdocyon thous

134049

AMNH

Cerdocyon thous

214709

AMNH

Cerdocyon thous

214703

AMNH

Cerdocyon thous

209123

AMNH

Cerdocyon thous

209128

AMNH

Chrysocyon brachyurus

133941

AMNH

Chrysocyon brachyurus

133940

AMNH

Crocuta crocuta

35358

AMNH

Crocuta crocuta

83593

AMNH

Crocuta crocuta

52097

AMNH

Crocuta crocuta

187769

AMNH

Crocuta crocuta

187776

AMNH

Cuon alpinus

102083

AMNH

Cuon alpinus

54976

AMNH

Cuon alpinus

54984

AMNH

Cuon alpinus

54842

AMNH

Eira barbara

214736

AMNH

Eira barbara

23487

AMNH

Helarctos malayanus

35364

AMNH

Hyaena brunnea

1962-7.23.1

NHM

Hyaena hyaena

244436

AMNH

Hyaena hyaena

54512

AMNH

Leptailurus serval (P)*

119207

AMNH

Leptailurus serval

27837

AMNH

Lutra canadensis

165762

AMNH

Lutra canadensis

182561

AMNH

Lycaon pictus

82085

AMNH

Lycaon pictus

85154

AMNH

Lynx rufus

119206

AMNH

Lynx rufus

208417

AMNH

Lynx rufus

128527

AMNH

Lynx rufus

171361

AMNH

Meles meles

70604

AMNH

Melursus ursinus

150205

AMNH

Melursus ursinus

54465

AMNH

Melursus ursinus

54464

AMNH

Nasua nasua

214722

AMNH

Neofelis nebulosa

238650

AMNH

Nyctereutes procyonoides

249766

AMNH

Nyctereutes procyonoides

249767

AMNH

Otocyon megalotis

233011

AMNH

Otocyon megalotis

63993

AMNH

Panthera leo

1952.10.20.13

NHM

Panthera leo

112.a

NHM

Panthera leo

1857.2.24.1

NHM

Panthera leo

75.1998

NHM

Panthera leo

75.945

NHM

Panthera onca

35571

AMNH

Panthera onca

139959

AMNH

Panthera onca (P)*

135928

AMNH

Panthera onca

1858.5.26.9

NHM

Panthera pardus

209087

AMNH

Panthera pardus

1940.1.20.18

NHM

Panthera pardus

115p

NHM

Panthera pardus

1851.2.17.3

NHM

Panthera pardus

1940.1.20.20

NHM

Panthera pardus

1849.6.20.2

NHM

Panthera tigris

113743

AMNH

Panthera tigris

113748

AMNH

Panthera tigris

135846

AMNH

Panthera tigris

85404

AMNH

Potos flavus

266597

AMNH

Potos flavus

265959

AMNH

Potos flavus

266599

AMNH

Procyon lotor

173897

AMNH

Procyon lotor

147436

AMNH

Procyon lotor

237438

AMNH

Puma concolor

1335

AMNH

Puma concolor

90213

AMNH

Puma concolor

14026

AMNH

Puma concolor

135341

AMNH

Speothos venaticus

52.1086

NHM

Speothos venaticus (T)*

1966.1.24.1

NHM

Tremarctos ornatus

81.784

NHM

Uncia uncia

207704

AMNH

Uncia uncia

266952

AMNH

Uncia uncia

119662

AMNH

Uncia uncia

100110

AMNH

Urocyon cinereoargenteus

35695

AMNH

Urocyon cinereoargenteus

90134

AMNH

Urocyon cinereoargenteus

148799

AMNH

Urocyon cinereoargenteus

137028

AMNH

Ursus americanus

128521

AMNH

Ursus americanus

98950

AMNH

Ursus americanus

45149

AMNH

Ursus arctos

14054

AMNH

Ursus arctos

135502

AMNH

Ursus arctos

45150

AMNH

Ursus arctos

70254

AMNH

Ursus maritimus

35065

AMNH

Ursus maritimus

31573

AMNH

Ursus maritimus (P)*

215283

AMNH

Ursus maritimus (P)*

75244

AMNH

Ursus thibetanus

70320

AMNH

Ursus thibetanus

80248

AMNH

Ursus thibetanus

23086

AMNH

Vulpes lagopus

28117

AMNH

Vulpes lagopus

28116

AMNH

Vulpes velox

35392

AMNH

Vulpes velox

100215

AMNH

Vulpes vulpes

69550

AMNH

Vulpes vulpes

128487

AMNH

Vulpes vulpes

128486

AMNH
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