Added in 2000 – Deleted in 2007
Reasons for deletion:
The pest Chrysodeixis eriosoma has been included in EPPO Alert List for more than 3 years and during this period no particular international action was requested by the EPPO member countries. In 2007, it was therefore considered that sufficient alert has been given and the pest was deleted from the Alert List.
Chrysodeixis eriosoma (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) - Green semi-looper
Why The NPPO of UK suggested that Chrysodeixis eriosoma (synonyms: Plusia eriosoma, Phytometra eriosoma) could be added to the EPPO Alert List. This pest has been intercepted by UK on Tibouchina cuttings imported from Australia.
Where The species occurs throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of eastern Asia and the Pacific islands as well as in Australia and New Zealand.
EPPO region: Germany (in 2002, larvae were found in a park on imported plants, in Sachsen Anhalt). Intercepted by UK on Tibouchina cuttings imported from Australia. Also intercepted in 2001 by Israel on cut flowers of orchids imported from the Netherlands.
Asia: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, China (Fujian, Guangdong), India (Assam, Delhi, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh), Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam. Bin-Chen Zhang mentions its presence in Russia and Turkmenistan.
North America: USA (Hawaii).
Oceania: Australia (New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, Tasmania), Fiji, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Tonga.
On which plants Larvae are highly polyphagous and feed on foliage and fruit of many field and vegetable crops, ornamentals and weeds. Its wide host range includes: chickpeas (Cicer arietinum), lucerne (Medicago sativa), maize (Zea mays), potato (Solanum tuberosum), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), soybean (Glycine max), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) - beans (Phaseolus vulgaris,) cabbages (Brassica oleracea), cucurbits (Curcurbita pepo, Cucumis sativus), peas (Pisum sativum), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) - many ornamentals, e.g Coleus, chrysanthemums, dahlia, freesia, pelargonium, Tibouchina.
Damage Eggs are laid on the underside of leaves. Damage is done by the larvae. They feed on the underside of the leaf, making windows between the veins (young larvae leave the upper leaf cuticle and later instars make ragged holes). On tomato, larvae can chew into green fruits and can excavate legume pods. Adults feed on flower nectar. In heavy infestations, plants can be completely defoliated. Caterpillars spin a silken cocoon attached to the underside of a leaf, and the brown pupa forms within this structure. In Australia, C. eriosoma is considered as a sporadic pest of horticultural crops. In New Zealand, its occurrence is sporadic south of Christchurch, but is common from Blenheim (latitude 42°S) northwards in all horticultural areas. Data is lacking on actual crop losses, as it seems that defoliation does not always induce yield losses (although situation may be different when fruits or ornamentals are attacked).
Dissemination Adults are good flyers. Eggs, larvae and pupae of C. eriosoma can all be carried on leaves of host plants.
Note C. eriosoma is closely related to the Palaearctic species C. chalcites which occurs in several European countries. The relationships and status of these two species still need to be clarified. C. chalcites is a pest of moderate importance in Europe.
Pathway Plants for planting, fruits and vegetables, cut flowers and branches of host plants from countries where C. eriosoma occurs.
Possible risks Many C. eriosoma host plants are widely grown in the EPPO region and are major crops. Climate matching studies done in UK showed that it could probably establish outdoors in many parts of the EPPO region. C. eriosoma could also be a threat to glasshouse crops (e.g. cucumbers, tomatoes and many ornamentals). Control methods (chemical and biological) are available.
Source(s) Bin-Cheng Zhang (1994) Index of economically important Lepidoptera. CABI, Wallingford, UK, 599 pp.
CABI Crop Protection Compendium, Global Module, 1999 edition. CABI, Wallingford, UK.
Heinicke, W. An exotic Chrysodeixis species (Lep. Noctuidae, Plusiinae) introduced to Sachsen-Anhalt. Entomologische Nachrichten und Berichte, 46(3), 141-150. In: Review of Agricultural Entomology 91(9), September 2003, abst. 9740, p 1528.
Hely, P.C.; Pasfield, G.; Gellatley, J.G. (eds) (1982) Insect pests of fruit and vegetables in NSW, Department of Agriculture New South Wales, Inkata Press, Melbourne, Sidney and London, 312 pp.
NPPO of UK, 2000-01, Summary PRA by Dr A. MacLeod
NPPO of IL, 2001-12.
HortFACT, Silver Y moth life cycle: http:/:www.hortnet.co.nz/publications/hortfacts/hf401020.htm
Crop knowledge Master. Chrysodeixis eriosoma: http://www.extento.hawaii.edu/Kbase/crop/Type/chrysode.htm
Chrysodeixis eriosoma: http://www-staff.mcs.uts.edu.au/~don/larvae/noct/eriosom.html
EPPO RS 2000/061, 2001/182, 2004/100
Panel review date 2007-03 Entry date 2000-04