Academy of Science of the ussr




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Academy of Science of the USSR

Shirshov P. P. Institute of Oceanology




FISHES OF THE OPEN OCEAN




Moscow




Notes on a collection of the ichthyofauna


from the northern part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Gushchin A. V. & Kukuyev E. I

This study is based on the trawl collections, which were made in 1975-1978 in the region of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge from 45o to 60o N.

(The map should be here.)

Most tows were made with pelagic fishing trawls. Collections of fishes were made throughout 24-h period at depths from 500 to 1200 m. A few tows were made using a 15 m conical small-mesh net attached to the trawl.

The collection of fishes has been deposited in the Museum of the Atlantic Scientific Research Institute of Fishing Industry and Oceanography (Kaliningrad).

The authors thank colleagues Miloradov G. K., Gomolitsky V. D, Trunov I. A. for their help in collecting of the fishes and for assistance when working over the collection. Further acknowledgement goes to Parin N. V., Bekker, Sazonov Y. I. and Neyolov for the consultations on identification of the fishes.

The fishes recorded in the studying region are listed below. Following the species name are the regions where the species were taken:

1 – from 45o to 50o N,

2 – from 50o to 55o N,

3 – from 55o to 60o N

and index of frequency of occurence:

ab” means the species occurs in abundance,

com” means occurs commonly

r” means the rare occurrence of a species in trawl hauls.

The coordinates of collecting are given after names of the species, which are represented in the collection by single specimen. For all listed species the latitude of collecting is Northern (N) and longitude is Western (W).



List of fishes collected over the Mid-Atlantic Ridge from 45o to 60o N

Fam. Lamnidae: Lamna nasus (Bonnaterre) (1-3, r)

Fam. Cetorhinidae: Cetorhinus maximus (Gunnerus) (1-2, r)

Fam. Pseudotriakidae: Pseudotriakis microdon Capello (1: 49o 50/, 29o33/ )

Fam. Scyliorhinidae: Apristurus profundorum Goode et Bean (1-3, r), A. laurussoni (Saemundsson) (3: 57o 20/, 33o 22/)

Fam. Squalidae: Centroscsymnus coelolepis Bocage et Capello (1: 49o 50/, 29o33/ ), Etmopterus spinax (Linnaeus) (1-2, r: to the south of 51o 30/), E. princeps Colett (1ab, 2-3 r), Scymnopodon ringens Bocage et Capello (1: 49o 50/, 29o33/ ).

Fam. Dalatiidae: Somniosus microcephalus (Schneider) (3, r: to the north of 55o)

Fam. Rajidae: Raja fillae Lutken (1: 49o 50/, 29o33/ ).

Fam. Chimaeridae: Hydrolagus affinis (Capello) (1: 49o 50/, 29o33/ ).

Fam. Argentinidae: Nansenia groenlandica (Reinhardt) (1 and 2, r: from 46o to 52o 30/)

Fam. Bathylagidae: Bathylagus euryops Goode et Bean (1, r: to the north of 47o; 2 and 3, ab)

Fam. Opisthoproctidae: Opisthoproctus soleatus Vailant (1: 45o 21/, 27o 44/).

Fam. Gonostomatidae: Gonostoma elongatum Gunther (1, com; 2 and 3, r), Cyclothone spp. (1-3, ab)

Fam.Sternoptychidae: Sternoptyx diaphana Hermann (1and 2, r), Argyropelecus hemigymnus Cocco (1, r), A. olfersi (Cuvier) (1: 49o 50/, 29o33/ ), Maurolicus muelleri (Gmelin) (1, ab; 2, com)

Fam. Chauliodontidae: Chauliodus sloani Schneider (1-3, ab), Ch. danae Regan et Trevavas (1, r: to the south of 49o)

Fam. Astronesthidae: Astronesthes gemmifer Goode et Bean (1 and 2, com: to the south of 51o 35/), Borostomias antarcticus (Lonnberg) (1-3, com), Neonesthes capensis Gilchrist et von Bonde (2: 51o 30/, 30o 23/), Rhadinesthes decimus (Zugmayer) (2, r: from 52o 18/ to 54o 17/)

Fam. Stomatidae: Stomias boa ferox Reinhardt (1 and 2, ab; 3 com)

Fam. Melanostomiatidae: Melanostomias valdidae Brauer (2: 51o 34/, 30o 19/), M.spilorhynchus Reagan et Trevavas (1, com; 2 and 3, r: to the north to 58o 43/), Chirostomias pliopterus Reagan et Trevavas (1: 49o 33/, 28o 48/), Flagellostomias boueei (Zugmaeyr) (1, com; 2 and 3: to the north to 57o 49/), Photonectes braueri (Zugmaeyr) (1: 49o 41/, 29o 05/), Trigonolampa miriceps Reagan et Trevavas (1 and 2, r: to the south from 54o 53/), Pachistomias microdon Gunter (1: 49o 50/, 29o 33/).

Fam. Malacosteidae: Malacosteus niger Ayres (1-3, com), Photostomias guernei Colett (1, r: to the south of 49o 53/).

Fam. Idiacanthidae: Idiacanthus fasciola Peters (2: 52o18/, 30o 50/).

Fam. Alepocephalidae: Alepocephalus agassizi Goode et Bean (1-3, r), Bajacalifornia megalops (Lutken) (2 and 3: from 52o to 55o 45/), Xenodermichthys copei Roule (2: 54o 55/, 35o 20/).

Fam. Searsiidae: Searsia koefoedi Parr (1: 49o 41/, 29o 05/), Barbantus curvifrons Roule et Angel (3: 57o 23/, 33o 00/), Holtbyrnia problematica Parr (1: 49o 41/, 29o 05/), H. melanocephala (Vaillant) (1 and 2, r: to the south of 53o), Maulisia mauli Parr (1: 49o 50/, 29o 33/), Sagamichthys schnakenbecki (Krefft) (1: 49o50/, 29o 33/; 2: 52o 18/, 30o 58/), Normichthys operosus Parr (1-3, com).

Fam. Scopelosauridae: Scopelosaurus smithi Bean (1: 48o 45/, 28o 11/), Iepidus (Krefft et Maul ) (1 and 2, r; 3: 57o 58/, 18o 45/).

Fam. Myctophidae: Protomyctophum arcticum (Lutken) (1-3, r: to the north of 48o 45/), Electrona rissoi (Cocco) (1, com: to the south of 49o 50/; 3: 56o 40/), Benthosema glaciale (Reinhardt) (1, com: to the north of 46o; 2 and 3, ab), Hygophum benoiti (Cocco) (1, r: to the south of 48o 50/), Myctophum punctatum Rafinesque (1 and 2, r: to the north to 56o 48/), Symbolophorus veranyi (Moreau) (1: 48o 45/, 28o 11/), Diaphus holti Taning (1, r: to the south of 50o), D. rafinesque (Cocco) (1, r: to the south of 49o 40/), Lobianchia gemellari (Cocco) (1, r: to the south of 53o 15/), L. dofleini (Zugmayer) (1, r: to the south of 49o 31/), Lampadena speculigera Goode et Bean (1, com: to the south of 48o 50/), Lampanyctus crocodilus (Risso) (1-3 ab: to the north to 57o), L. ater Taning (1 and 2 r: to the south of 53o), L. intricarius Taning (1 and 2, r; 3, com: to the north to 57o 20/), L. macdonaldi (Goode et Bean) (1 and 2, ab: from 45o 35/ to 52o 18/), Ceratoscopelus maderensis (Lowe) (1 and 2 r: to the south of 53o), Notoscopelus bolini Nafpaktitis (1: 48o 45/, 28o 11/), N. kroeyeri (Malm) ( 1, r; 2, com: occurs from 49o to 57o).



Fam. Evermannellidae: Evermannella balboi Risso (1, com; 2 r: to the south of 51o)

Fam. Alepisauridae: Alepisaurus ferox Lowe (1 and 2 r: to the south of 54o 35/), A. brevirostris Gibbs (1: 48o 45/,28o 11/).

Fam. Paralepididae: Paralepis coregonoides Risso (1 and 2 ab, 3 r), Notolepis rissoi (Bonaparte) (1 ab, 1 and 3, com: to the south of 57o), Macroparalepis affinis Ege (1, r: to the north to 49o)

Fam. Anotopteridae: Anotopterus pharao Zugmayer (2 and 3, r: from 54o 19/ to 55o 05/)

Fam. Nessorhamphidae: Nessorhamphus ingolfianus (Schmidt) (1: 49o 47/, 28o 31/; 2: 52o 20/, 37o 47/)

Fam. Synaphobranchidae: Syanphobranchus Johnson (1: 49o 50/, 29o 33/)

Fam. Derichthyidae: Derichthys serpentinus Gill (1 and 2: from 45o 36/ to 51o 33/).

Fam. Serrivomeridae: Serrivomer beani Gill (1-3, ab), ? S. brevidentatus Roule et Bertin (1: 48o 49/, 28o 11/ ; 2: 51o 45/, 30o 15/).

Fam. Nemichthydae: Nemichthys scolopaceus Richardson (1 and 2, com; 3 r)

Fam. Saccopharyngidae: Saccopharynx flagellum Cuiver (2: 54o 36/, 30o 13/)

Fam. Eurypharyngidae: Eurypharynx pelecanoides Vaillant (1 and 2, r: to the south of 54o 52/)

Fam. Notacanthidae: Notacanthus bonapartei Risso (1: 49o 50/, 29o 33/), N. chemnitzi Bloch (1 and 2, r: from 49o 50/ to 53o 04/)

Fam. Scomberesocidae: Scomberesox saurus Walbaum (1-3, com)

Fam. Merlucciidae: Lyconus brachycolus Holt et Byrne (1: 48 45, 29 33)

Fam. Gadidae: Micromesistius poutassou Risso (1, r: to the north of 57o), Brosme brosme Ascanius (1: 49o 50/, 29o 33/)

Fam. Moridae: Antimora rostrata Gunther (1 and 2, r: to the south of 52o 48/), Lepidion eques Gunther (1 and 2, r: from 48o to 53o), Physiculus dalwigki Kaup (1: 44o 57/, 23o 35/)

Fam. Melanonidae: Melanonus zugmayeri Norman (1: 48o 51/, 28o 11/)

Fam. Macrouridae: Coelorinchus occa Goode et Bean (1: 49o 50/, 29o 33/), Coryphaenoides rupestris Gunnerus (1-3, ab), Macrorus berglax Lacepede (1: 49o 50/, 29o 33/ ; 54o 33/, 35o 20/)

Fam. Melamphaidae: Melamphaes microps (Gunther) (1 and 2, r: to the south of 53o), Scopelogadus beani Gunther (1 and 2, r: to the south of 53o), Poromitra capito Goode et Bean (1: 49o 45/, 28o 11/), P. megalops Lutken (1: 49o 50/, 29o 33/)

Fam. Diretmidae: Diretmus argenteus Johnson (1-3, ab)

Fam. Caristiidae: Caristius macropus (Bellotti) ( 2 and 3, r: from 52o 22/ to 57o 28/)

Fam. Trachichthyidae: Hoplostethus atlanticus Collett (1, com: 2, r: to the south of 51o 33/)

Fam. Anoplogasteridae: Anoplogaster cornuta Valenciennes (1-3, r: to the south of 55o 43/)

Fam. Berycidae: Beryx decadactylus Cuvier (1, r: to the south of 49o), B. splendens Lowe (1, com; 2, r: to the north to 52o 18/)

Fam. Oreosomatidae: Neocyttus helgae Holt et Byrne (1, r: to the south of 49o)

Fam. Trachipteridae: Trachipterus arcticus Brinnich (1-3, r)

Fam. Stylephoridae: Stylephorus chordatus Shaw (3:55o 43/, 34o 43/)

Fam. Bramidae: Brama brama Bonnaterre (1-3, r), Taractes asper Lowe ( 1 and 2, r : to the south of 52o), Pterycombus brama Fries (1: 49o 50/, 29o 34/)

Fam. Apogonidae: Epigonus telescopus Risso (1, com; 2,r: to the south of 53o)

Fam. Cheilodipteridae: Howella brodiei Ogilby (1 and 2, r : to the north to 52o 48/)

Fam. Serranidae: Epinephelus sp. (2: 51o 10/, 29o 40/)

Fam. Chiasmodontidae: Chiasmodon niger Johnson (1, com; 2 and 3, r: to the south of 55o 40/), Pseudoscopelus altipinis Parr ( 1 and 2, r: to the south of 53o)

Fam. Anarhichadidae: Anarhichas denticulatus Kroyer (1-3, r)

Fam. Melanostigmatidae: Melanostigma atlanticum Koefoed (3: 57o 23o, 33o 31o)

Fam. Brotulidae: Talassobathia pelagica Cohen (1: 48o 47/, 28o 11/ ; 2: 54o 44/, 33o 46/), Brotulotaenia crassa Parr (1: 49o 39/, 28o 50/)

Fam. Gempylidae: Nesiarchus nasutus Johnson (1: 49o 36/, 28o 37/), Promethichthys prometheus (Cuvier) (1: 48o 45/, 28o 11/)

Fam. Trichiuridae: Aphanopus carbo Lowe (1 and 2, ab: to the north to 52o 18/), Benthodesmus elongatus simonyi (Steindacher) (1: 48o 45/, 28o 11/)

Fam. Centrolophidae: Centrolophus niger (Gmelin) (1 and 2, r: to the south of 52o18/), Schedophilus medusophagus Cocco (1 and 2, r : 51o 30/)

Fam. Tetrogonuridae: Tetrogonurus cuvieri Risso (1, com: to the north to 49o 50/)

Fam. Scorpaenidae: Sebastes mentella Travin (2-3, ab: to the north of 52o 20/)

Fam. Cyclopteridae: Cyclopterus lumpus Linneus (2: 54o 16/, 34o 50/)

Fam. Saulophrynidae: Caulophryne jordani polynema Regan (2: 55o 40/, 33o 42/)

Fam. Melanocetidae: Melanocetus sp. (2: 52o 18/, 30o 48/)

Fam. Himantolophidae: Himantolophus groenlandicus Reinhardt (1: 44o 36/, 25o 13/), H. albinares Maul (2: 52o 17/, 31o 01/)

Fam. Oneirodidae: Oneirodes eschrichtii Lutken (1: 49o 50/, 29o 31/), Chaenophryne parviconus Regan et Trevavas (1: 44o 30/, 25o 10/)

Fam. Gigantactinidae: Gigantactis sp. (2: 52o18/, 30o 58/)

Fam. Ceratiidae: Ceratias holboelli Kroyer (1-3, r), Cryptopsaras couesi Gill (1: 49o 50/, 29o 31/)

Fam. Linophrynidae: Linophryne lucifera Collett (1: near 45o 23/), L. algibarbata Waterman (1: near 45o 23/).

Summery

Meso- and bathypelagic macroplankton species were predominant in trawl hauls. Fishes of families Myctophidae (18 species), Melanostomiatidae and Searsiidae were present in more collections then any other species. These are typical fauna for deep-water pelageal of the open ocean (Parin, 1979). Species of fam. Gonostomatidae genus Cyclothone used occur with a high degree of consistency as well. Gomolitsky V. D. preliminarily identified 5 species: C. alba, C. braueri. C. microdon, C. pallida and C. pseudopallida. Each one of the families Asronesthidae, Melamphaeidae, Sternoptychidae, Paralepididae etc. is represented by several species. The catch rates of these species have been reduced when changing direction of collecting towards the north. Thus, 18 species of Myctophidae were found at the southern part of the examining region, and number of this species captured in northern waters was reduced to 7. Some species present in southern collections were absent in northern ones. Such ones apparently are limited by the southern waters.

We consider the proper talassobathyal fishes to be effected by the same tendency, though in less extent. This group of the fishes is represented with less diversity by the bottom and bottom-pelagic species of the families Squalidae, Alepocephalidae, Macrouridae, Merlucciidae, Trachichthyidae, Berycidae, Trichiuridae, Gempylidae, Apogonidae. These species are common for the talassobathyal complex (Andriyashev, 1979). There is a resemblance noticed between talassobathyal fauna of the examining region and fauna of the bathyal-pelagic complex off the western coast of Africa (Parin & Golovan, 1976; Golovan, 1978).

The meso- and bathypeladic species comprise 63% of the total number of the listed fishes. The proper talassobathyal species comprise 32%. The rest (5%) belong to the epipelagic fishes of the families Lamnidae, Cetorhinidae, Scomberesocidae and Bramidae.

We undertook an attempt to compute the quantitative ratio of meso- and bathypelagic species at 6 stations. Collections were made using the small-meshed net attached to the fishing trawl. Biomass of the catches was computed roughly proceeding from the distance of the cruise when trawling. No net closing or catch-separating device was used with the net. The sampling procedures were arbitrary and insufficiently repeated. Due to this facts the data derived from the computations is very approximate. Nevertheless results of our computations (5.8 – 81. 5 mg / m3) appeared to be very close to the data obtained by other means in other regions. For instance, biomass of macroplankton fish in the tropical waters of the Pacific Ocean is 2.1 – 33.7 mg / m3. This result is based on the trawl collections made with Isaak-Kidd multi-depth trawl (Parin & Nesis, 1977).

Table
Ratio on biomass (%) of the species of pelagic fish in collections made at 6 stations



(Below the coordinates of the stations where the fishes were taken there are number and the depth of trawl hauls.)


Species

57o 25/, 33o 25/ 1 750

56o 49/, 33o 47/ 4 520-760

52o 18/, 30o 58/ 4 820-1000

49o 50/, 29o 38/ 3 660-820

49o 41/, 29o 05/ 1 950

48o 45/, 28o 11/ 1 800

Nansenia groenlandica

-

-

-

0.7

-

-

Bathylagus euryops

-

13.8

12.3

2.5

1.1

3.3

Normichthys operosus

-

1.8

1.6

2.5

1.8

5.5

Gonostoma elongatum

-

-

-

5.7

-

-

Cyclothone spp.

22.4

0.6

1.3

0.5

o.4

-

Maurolicus muelleri

-

-

2.2

0.3

-

-

Sternoptyx diaphana

-

-

-

0.2

-

0.5

Argyropelecus sp.

-

-

-

-

0.4

-

Stomias boa ferox

-

2.0

0.9

1.1

13.2

-

Chauliodus sloani

-

2.5

6.3

3.3

-

-

Astronesthes sp.

-

-

-

2.6

-

-

Malacosteus niger

-

-

0.6

0.2

6.2

-

Idiacanthus fasciola

-

-

0.3

-

-

-

Evermannella balbo

-

-

0.9

-

-

-

Paralepis coregonoides

-

3.2

1.6

-

-

-

Notolepis rissoi

-

-

-

1.7

-

-

Electrona rissoi

-

0.6

-

-

3.3

10.4

Benthosema glaciale

53.5

58.5

24.5

33.0

-

-

Myctophum punctatum

-

0.6

0.3

0.7

14.3

2.2

Diaphus rafinesquei

-

-

-

-

7.4

-

Lampadena speculigera

-

-

-

1,3

-

-

Lampanyctus crocodilus

-

11.0

40.0

33.3

46.8

20.8

L. intricarius

24.1

2.5

-

-

-

-

L. macdonaldi

-

-

1.6

4.7

5.2

3.3

Notoscopelus kroeyeri

-

2.0

1.0

2.2

-

-

Nemichthys scolopaceus

-

-

-

-

-

54.0

Serrivomer beani

-

-

2.2

0.3

-

-

Scopelogadus beani

-

-

-

3.2

-

-

Fish biomass mg / m3

5.8

7.4-34.2

21.7-38.3

45.0-81.5

26.5

19.3

The table shows that the leading part in ichthyocen belongs to mictophiids Lampanyctus crocodilus and Benthosema glaciale. They were founded almost at all stations. Lampanyctus crocodilus is predominant in the southern sector of the studying region and Benthosema glaciale prevails in the northern one. Bathylagus euryops also forms the substantial part in fish biomass, especially in the north. So does Cyclothone, though number of its specimens in collections apparently does not adequately corresponds to the real distribution of this species because of the mesh size of the net. On the other hand, increased biomass of such fish as Nemichthys scolopaceus, Lampanyctus intricarius, Stomias boa ferox, Electrona rissoi at some station may be explained by predominance of big specimens in the catches, theretofore can not be accepted as factual.

Literature cited

Andriyashev A. P. Some problems of vertical distribution of bottom-dwelling deep-sea fish. – In: Biological resources of the oceans. Sc., Mosk., 1979, p. 117-138.

Golovan G. A.Composition and distribution of ichthyofauna over the continental slope off northwestern Africa. – Works of the Oceanology Institute of the Ac. of Sc. of the USSR, v. 111, 1978, p. 195-258.

Parin N. V. The ichthyofauna of the oceanic epipelageal. Mosk., Sc.,, 1968, 186 p.

Parin N. V. Some characteristics of spatial distribution of fish in the oceanic epipelageal. – In: Biological resources of the oceans. Sc., Mosk., 1979, p. 102-112.

Parin N. V. & Golovan G. A. Pelagic deep-sea fishes from the families common for the open ocean collected over the continental slope off Western Africa. Works of the Oceanology Institute of the Ac. of Sc. of the USSR, v. 104, 1976, p. 250-276.

Parin N. V. & Nesis K. N. Quantitative distribution of life in oceanic water area. 4. Macroplankton and nekton. – In: Oceanology. Biology of the ocean. Mosk., Sc., 1977, v.1, p. 69-77.


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