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AACL BIOFLUX

Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation

International Journal of the Bioflux Society
Some aspects of branchial parasitism in Leuciscus cephalus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae): first record of Lamproglena compacta (Cyclopoida, Lernaeidae) in Romania

1Mala-Maria Stavrescu-Bedivan and 2Florin T. Aioanei
1 University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, Bucharest, Romania; 2 University of Bucharest, Faculty of Biology, Bucharest, Romania. Corresponding author: M.-M. Stavrescu-Bedivan, mala_stavrescu@agro-bucuresti.ro

Abstract. The present paper records for the first time the presence of the crustacean copepod Lamproglena compacta in the branchial microhabitat of the cyprinid species Leuciscus cephalus that belongs to a lotic Romanian ecosystem. Also, we discuss the affinity for fixing site on gill filaments, the observations being sustained by the t Student statistic test.

Key Words: branchial microhabitat, spatial distribution, Leuciscus cephalus, Lamproglena compacta, first mention.
Résumé. Dans ce travail, on signale pour la première fois la présence du crustacé copépode Lamproglena compacta dans le microhabitat branchial du cyprinide Leuciscus cephalus, provenu d’un écosystème de type lotique roumain. On parle aussi de l’affinité de fixage de ces parasites sur les filaments branchiaux des hôtes, les observations étant souténues par l’application du test statistique t Student.

Mots clés: microhabitat branchial, répartition spatiale, Leuciscus cephalus, Lamproglena compacta, première mention.
Rezumat. Lucrarea de faţă semnalează pentru prima dată prezenţa crustaceului copepod Lamproglena compacta în microhabitatul branhial al cyprinidului Leuciscus cephalus provenit dintr-un ecosistem de tip lotic românesc. De asemenea, este discutată afinitatea de fixare a acestor paraziţi de filamentele branhiale ale gazdelor, observaţiile fiind susţinute prin aplicarea testului statistic t Student.

Cuvinte cheie: microhabitat branhial, distribuţie spaţială, Leuciscus cephalus, Lamproglena compacta, prima menţionare.

Introduction. The genus Lamproglena, comprising over 40 species, parasitize freshwater cyprinids, but can also occur in Esox lucius Linnaeus. In literature, this crustacean has been identified in Asia, Africa and Europe (Gussev 1987; Pazooki et al 2007; Stavrescu-Bedivan et al 2008).

We have scant information about Lamproglena compacta Markewitsch, 1936; Gussev’s key to freshwater fish copepod parasites (1987), edited in Russian, offers poor zoogeographic information: “[..] it occurs on the gills of rudd and Aral barbell, Samarkand crap, Turkestan bream, in Aral and Caspian Sea Basins”.

For the host Leuciscus cephalus (Pisces, Osteichthyes) from Romanian ecosystems, only the monogenean species such as Dactylogyrus cornu and D. vranoviensis have been recorded until now (Aioanei 1999).

Since Angelescu (1974), who found Lamproglena pulchella in a single Chondrostoma nasus specimen from the Iron Gates reservoir, no other species belonging to this copepod genus has been reported from Romanian fauna until now.


Materials and Method. In November 2006, 43 chub specimens (Leuciscus cephalus) were sampled by electrofishing from the Someş Basin (near Ilva Mică locality). After capture, fish were placed into 5% formaldehyde and transported to the laboratory for analysis. With the aid of a binocular microscope, we collected from the branchial gills 89 adult copepods belonging to Lamproglena compacta. The parasite species was determined with a phase contrast microscope, as described in Gussev (1987). Measurements and photographs were made with a trinocular microscope Novex Holland, as shown in Figures 1-4.

Each branchial arch consists of two hemibranhes: external and internal. In order to analyse the spatial distribution of Lamproglena compacta specimens at the branchial microhabitat level the branchial arches were numbered from 1 to 4, in an antero-posterior way and divided into three zones: dorsal, median and ventral (see Table 1).

The parasite preferences for the above mentioned sites were noted on topographic worksheets. The conclusions were drawn using the t Student statistic test and a soft published online by Kirkman (1996).

Figure 1. Lamproglena compacta, general aspect of the body; maxilla, indicated by the arrow (one division=36 μ).



Figure 2. Cephalotorax in adult Lamproglena compacta: maxillae (arrow) and maxilliped (square)(one division=14.4 μ).



Figure 3. The legth of genital openings in adult L. compacta (one division=3.6 μ).




Figure 4. Abdomen with the two cerci (square) in adult L. compacta (one division=3.6 μ).



Results and Discussion. From the ecological point of view, the aim of this work was to analyse the spatial distribution for the Lamproglena compacta specimens at the branchial microhabitat level. From a total of 89 adult copepods collected, 49 were found in the right branchial cavity and 40 in the left one.

By a simple comparison of the mean number of parasites from both cavities, the t Student statistic test for unpaired data showed no significant difference between the left and right copepods fixing preferences (as we expected). Thus, we can discuss about an equal global parasite charge in the two host branchial cavities (p=0.56, at significance level α=0.05).

In order to indicate a possible simmetry of infection with Lamproglena compacta, we used the same statistic test, although for paired data in this case. Thus, we compared the parasite number from the two types of hemibranchs (external and internal) from the right branchial cavity and from the left one, on each fish host specimen level. Because the comparison between variables series for each type of hemibranchs showed a non-significant “p” in both cases (0.256 and 0.710), the null hypothesis (the means for the two data sets are not significantly different) was accepted (α=0.05).

On the other hand, the data analysis by paired Student’s t test indicated a significant difference between the two type of hemibranchs (p=0.000<0.05). Therefore, we can say that the parasite charge for the internal hemibranch is obviously higher that the external hemibranch charge (see Table 1).

The most numerous adult parasites were found on the: first branchial arch, ventral zone, internal hemibranch (see also Table 1).
Table 1

Spatial distribution of Lamproglena compacta on Leuciscus cephalus microhabitat level







A1

A2

A3

A4

Total

Z1

Z2

Z3

Z1

Z2

Z3

Z1

Z2

Z3

Z1

Z2

Z3



H.I.

1

2

31

8

3

13

4

2

6

0

5

5

80

H.E

0

0

2

0

1

4

0

1

1

0

0

0

9

Total

1

2

33

8

4

17

4

3

7

0

5

5

89










































H.I.- internal hemibranch; H.E.- external hemibranch; Z1, Z2, Z3 - dorsal, median and ventral zones of branchial arch; A1-A4 –branchial arches.
Conclusions. Most morphological characters described in Gussev’s key (1987) are found again in our images, these representing the first photographs made until now on Lamproglena compacta Marckewitsch, 1936, a cyprind copepod parasite from the Romanian fauna.

Future research and new correllations with other scientific data from literature could establish detailed conclusions regarding the fixing preferences of this species on a certain host site and about the factors involved.


References
Aioanei F., 1999 Studiul sistematic, ecologic şi zoogeografic al unor grupe de paraziţi ai peştilor de apă dulce din România. Teză de doctorat. [Systematic, ecological and zoogeographical study of some groups of parasites in the freshwater fish from Romania. PhD thesis]. Institutul de Biologie al Academiei Române [Institute of Biology, Romanian Academy], 208 pp. Bucharest [in Romanian].

Angelescu N., 1974 Contribution to the knowledge of the parasitofauna of the Danube fishes from the reservoir of Iron Gates. Travaux du Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle "Grigore Antipa", XV:13-22.

Gussev A., 1987 [Key to parasites of freshwater fish fauna of the U.R.S.S. Part 2]. In: Bauer O. N. (Ed.) Publ. House Nauka, 424 pp, Leningrad [in Russian].

Kirkman T. W., 1996 Statistists to use. Available online and accessed at 30 September 2008 from: http://www.physics.csbsju.edu/stats/

Pazooki J., Masoumian M., Yahyazadeh M., Abbasi J., 2007 Metazoan parasites from freshwater fishes of Northwest Iran. J Agric Sci Technol 9:25-33.

Stavrescu-Bedivan M.-M., Aioanei F., Tesio C. D., 2008 A review of Lamproglena pulchella (Copepoda, Cyclopoida: Lernaeidae) distribution across Europe, Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca. Veterinary Medicine 65(2):370.

Received: 13 November 2008. Accepted: 15 December 2008. Published: 30 December 2008.

Authors:

Mala-Maria Stavrescu-Bedivan, U.S.A.M.V., Facultatea de Agricultură (University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Bucharest, Faculty of Agriculture), Romania, Bucharest, 59 Mărăşti Blvd, 011464, e-mail: mala_stavrescu@yahoo.com, mala_stavrescu@agro-bucuresti.ro

Florin Teodor Aioanei, U.B., Facultatea de Biologie (University of Bucharest, Faculty of Biology), Romania, Bucharest, Splaiul Independenţei no 91-95, 76201, e-mail: aioanei2006@yahoo.com

How to cite this article:

Stavrescu-Bedivan M.-M., Aioanei F. T., 2008 Some aspects of branchial parasitism in Leuciscus cephalus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae): first record of Lamproglena compacta (Cyclopoida, Lernaeidae) in Romania. AACL Bioflux 1(2):111-115.

Printed version: ISSN 1844-8143

Online version: ISSN 1844-9166 available at: http://www.bioflux.com.ro/docs/vol1/2008.2.111-115.pdf



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