A synoptical Classification of the Lamiales Version 0 (in progress) Compiled by




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Lamiales – Synoptical classification vers. 1.0 (in prog.) Updated: 8 January, 2004

A Synoptical Classification of the Lamiales



Version 1.0


(in progress)

Compiled by

Richard Olmstead




With the help of:

B. Bremer, P. Cantino, C. dePamphilis, P. Garnock-Jones, R. Harley, L. McDade, E. Norman, B. Oxelman, J. Reveal, R. Scotland, J. Smith, E. Wallander, A. Weber, A. Wolfe, N. Young, M. Zjhra, and others


[estimated # species in Lamiales = 22,000]
The goal of this project is to produce a working infraordinal classification of the Lamiales to genus with information on distribution and species richness. All recognized taxa will be clades; adherence to Linnaean ranks is optional. The present version is incomplete (e.g., missing are Acanthaceae and Gesneriaceae, two of the largest clades) and synonymy is very incomplete (comprehensive synonymy is not a goal of the project, although could be incorporated). Although I anticipate producing a publishable version of this classification at a future date, my near-term goal is to produce a web-accessible version, which will be available to the public and which will be updated regularly through input from systematists familiar with taxa within the Lamiales. For further information on the project and to provide information for future versions, please contact R. Olmstead via email at olmstead@u.washington.edu, or by regular mail at: Department of Botany, Box 355325, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195, USA.

Acanthaceae (~201/3510) Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 265. 1782, nom. cons. – Synopsis compiled by R. Scotland & K. Vollesen (Kew Bull. 55: 513-589. 2000); probably should include Avicenniaceae.

Nelsonioideae (7/ ) Lindl. ex Pfeiff., Nomencl. Bot. 1(1): 10. 8 Dec 1871

Anisosepalum E. Hossain (3) C. Africa

Elytraria Michx. (17) warm & trop. NW & OW

Gynocraterium Bremek. (1) trop. S. Amer.

Nelsonia R. Br. (1) trop. OW

Ophiorrhiziphyllon Kurz (5) SE Asia

Saintpauliopsis Staner (1) trop. Africa

Staurogyne Wall. (140) trop. OW & NW



Thunbergioideae (including Mendoncia) (5/ ) Kostel., Allg. Med.-Pharm. Fl. 3: 923. Apr-Dec 1834

Anomacanthus R.D. Good (1) Zaire, Angola

Mendoncia Vell ex Vand. (60) trop. Amer. & Africa, Madag.

Meyenia Nees (1) India, Sri Lanka

Pseudocalyx Radlk. (4) trop. Africa, Madag.

Thunbergia Retz. (90) trop. OW



Acanthoideae (189/ ) Link, Handbuch 1:500. Jan-Aug 1829

Acantheae (21/ ) Dunmort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 23 1829


Acanthopsis Harv. (7) S. Africa

Acanthus L. (30) warm & trop. OW

Achyrocalyx Benoist (4) Madag.

Aphelandra R. Br. (175) Trop. Amer.

Blepharis Juss. (8) OW trop., Medit., S. Africa

Crossandra Salisb. (50) trop. Africa & Asia, Madag., Arabian Penin.

Crossandrella C.B. Clarke (2) trop. Africa

Cynarospermum Vollesen

Cyphacanthus Leonard (1) Columbia

Encephalosphaera Lindau (2) trop. S. Amer.

Geissomeria Lindl. (15) Mex., C. Amer., trop. S. Amer.

Holographis Nees (10) Arid Mexico

Neriacanthus Benth. (4) trop. Amer.

Orophochilus Lindau (1) Peru

Rhombochlamys Lindau (2) Columbia

Salpixantha Hook. (1) Jamaica

Sclerochiton Harv. 12) trop. & S. Africa

Stenandrium Nees (25) warm S. Amer.

Streptosiphon Mildbr.(1) trop. E. Africa

Strobilacanthus Griseb. (1) Panama

Xantheranthemum Lindau (1) Peru

Ruellieae

Ruelliinae (48/ )

Acanthopale C.B. Clarke (150) OW trop.

Aechmanthera Nees(3) Himal.

Apassalus Kobuski (3) SE US, W.I.

Beniocanthus Heine & A. Raynal (2) Madag.

Blechum P. Brown (6) trop. Amer.

Bravaisia DC. (3) trop. Amer.

Brillantaisia P. Beauv. (9) trop. Africa, Madag.

Brunoniella Bremek.(6) New Guinea, Australia

Calacanthus T. Anderson ex Benth. (1) Indomal.

Clarkeasia J.R.I. Wood

Dischistocalyx T.Anderson ex Benth. (20) Africa

Duosperma Dayton(12) trop. & S. Africa

Dyschoriste Nees (65) warm & trop. NW & OW

Echinacanthus Nees(4) Himal., China

Epiclastopelma Lindau (2) trop. Africa

Eranthemum L. (30 trop. Asia

Eremomastax Lindau

Eusiphon Benoist (3) Madag.

Hemigraphis Nees (90) Asia to New Caledonia

Heteradelphia Lindau (1) W. Africa

Hygrophila R. Br. (25) trop. OW & NW

Ionacanthus Beniost (1) Madag.

Kosmosiphon Lindau (1) trop. W. Africa

Leptosiphonium F. Muell. (10) Papauasia

Louteridium S. Watson (6) Mex. & C. Amer.

Lychniothyrsus Lindau (5) Brazil

Mellera S. Moore (5) warm Africa

Mimulopsis Schweinf. (3) trop. Africa, Madag.

Pararuellia Bremek. (5) Malaysia

Petalidium Nees (35) trop. & S. Africa, Himal., India

Phaulopsis Willd. (20) Afra. Mascarenes, India

Physacanthus Benth. (5) trop. Africa

Polylychnis Bremek. (2) NE S. Amer.

Pseudoruellia Benoist (1) Madag.

Ruellia L. (150) temp. & warm to trop. Amer.

Ruelliospis C.B. Clarke (3) trop. & S. Africa

Sanchezia Ruiz & Pav.(20) trop. Amer.

Satanocrater Schweinf. (4) trop. Africa

Sautiera Decne. (1) Timor

Spirostigma Nees (1) Brazil

Stenosiphonium Nees (3) India, Sri Lanka

Stenothyrsus C.B. Clarke (1) Malaya

Strobilanthes Blume (250) trop. Asia

Strobilanthopsis S. Moore (5) trop. Africa

Suessenguthia Merm. (1) Bolivia

Trichanthera Kunth (2) N. S. Amer.

Trichosanchezia Mildbr. (1) trop. Peru

Zygoruellia Baill. (1) Madag.

Andrographinae (8/ )


Andrographis Wall. ex Nees (20) trop. Asia

Cystacanthus T. Anderson (10) SE Asia

Diotacanthus Benth. (2) Indomal.

Graphandra J.B. Imlay (1) Thailand

Gymnostachyum Nees (30) India to C Malaysia.

Haplanthodes Kuntze (4) India

Indoneesiella Sreem. (2) India

Phlogacanthus Nees (15) Indomal.



Justiciinae (103/ )

Afrofittonia Lindau (1) trop. W. Africa

Ambongia Beniost (1) Madag.

Ancistranthus Lindau (1) Cuba

Angkalanthus Balf.f. (2) Socotra, Transvaal

Anisacanthus Nees (8) SW US, Mex.

Anisotes Nees (19) trop. Africa, Madag.

Anthacanthus Nees (?) Unknown

Aphanosperma T.F. Daniel (1) NW Mex.

Ascotheca Heine (1) trop. W. Africa

Asystasia Blume (70) OW trop.

Ballochia Balf.f. (3) Socotra

Brachystephanus Nees (10) trop. Africa, Madag.

Calycacanthus K. Schum. (1) New Guinea

Carlowrightia A.Gray (23) SW US, Mex, C. Amer.

Celerina Benoist (1) Madag.

Centrilla Lindau (?) Unknown

Cephalacanthus Lindau (1) Peru

Chalarothyrsus Lindau (1) Mex.

Chamaeranthemum Nees(4) trop. Amer.

Chileranthemum Oerst. (2) Mex.

Chlamydocardia Lindau (4) trop. W. Africa

Chlamydostachya Mildbr. (1) trop. E. Africa

Chorisochroa Vollese

Clinacanthus Nees (2) S. China to Malaysia

Clistax Mart. (2) Brazil

Codonacanthus Nees (2) NE India, S. China, Japan

Conocalyx Benoist (1) Madag.

Cosmianthemum Bremek. (8) W. Borneo

Cyclacanthus S. Moore (2) SE. Asia

Cylindrosolenium Lindau (1) Peru

Danguya Beniost (1) Madag.

Dasytropis Urb. (1) E. Cuba

Dichazothece Lindau (1) E. Brasil

Dicladanthera F. Muell. (2) W. Australia

Dicliptera Juss. (150) warm & trop. NW & OW

Ecbolium Kurz (19) trop. & S. Africa, Madag., Socotra, India

Filetia Miq. (8) Sumatra, Indomal.

Fittonia Coem. (2) Peru

Forcipella Baill. (5) Madag.

Glossochilus Nees (2) S. Africa

Graptophyllum Nees (10) Australia, SW Parcific Isl.

Gypsacanthus Lott, Jarmillo & Rzed. (1) Mex.

Harpochilus Nees (3) Brasil

Henrya Nees (2) C. Amer.

Herpetacanthus Nees (10) Panama to Brasil

Hoverdenia Nees (1) Mex.

Hypoestes Sol. Ex R.Br. (40) OW trop.

Ichtyostoma Hedren and Vollesen

Isoglossa Oerst. (50) OW trop. & Arabian Penin.

Isotheca Turrill (1) Trinidad

Jadunia Lindau (1) New Guinea

Juruasia Lindau (2) Brazil

Justicia L. (600) trop. & warm temp. NW

Kalbreyeriella Lindau (3) Panama, Columbia

Linariantha B.L. Burtt & Ros.M.Sm. (1) Borneo

Mackaya Harv. (15) Africa

Marcania J.B. Imlay (1) Thailand

Megalochlamys Lindau (3) SW Africa

Megalostoma Leonard (1) C. Amer.

Megaskepasma Lindau (1) Venezula

Mellitacanthus S. Moore (1) Madag.

Metarungia Baden (3) trop. & S. Africa

Mexacanthus T.F. Daniel (1) Mex.

Mirandea Rzed. (2) Mex.

Monechma Hochst. (60) Africa, India

Monothecium Hochst. (3) trop. Africa, S. India

Odontonema Nees 936) Mex., C. & S. Amer., W. I.

Oplonia Raf. (19) trop. Amer., Africa (extinct?), Madag.

Oreacanthus Benth. (4) C. Africa

Pachystachys Nees (12) trop. Amer.

Pelecostemon Leonard (1) Columbia

Peristrophe Nees (15) trop. OW

Phialacanthus Benth. (5) Himal. to Malay Penin.

Podorungia Baill. (1) Madag.

Poikilacanthus Lindau (6) trop. Amer.

Populina Baill. (2) Madag.

Pranceacanthus Wassh. (1) Brazil

Pseuderanthemum Radlk. (60) trop. OW & NW

Pseudodicliptera Benoist (2) Madag.

Psilanthele Lindau (1) Ecuador

Ptyssiglottis T. Anderson (60) Indomal.

Pulchranthus V.M. Baum, Reveal and Nowicke (4) trop. S. Amer.

Razisea Oerst. (3) C. Amer.

Rhinacanthus Nees (15) trop. OW

Ritonia Benoist (3) Madag.

Rungia Nees (50) trop. OW

Ruspolia Lindau (4) trop. Africa

Ruttya Harv. (3) trop. & S. Africa, Arabian Penin.

Samuelessonia Urb. & Ekman (1) Hispaniola

Sapphoa Urb. (2) Cuba

Schaueria Nees (8) Brazil

Sebastiano-Schaueria Nees (1) Brazil

Spathacanthus Baill. (5) C. Amer.

Sphinctacanthus Benth. (1) NE India to Burma

Stenostephanus Nees (6) S. Amer.

Streblacanthus Kuntze (6) C. Amer.

Tessmanniacanthus Mildbr. (1) trop. Peru

Tetramerium Nees (28) C. Amer.

Thysanostigma J.B. Imlay (2) Thailand, Malayan Penin.

Trichaulax Vollesen

Trichocalyx Balf.f. (2) Socotra

Xerothamnella C.T. White (2) E. Australia

Yeatesia Small (3) SE US, NE Mex.



Barleriinae (9/ )

Barleria L. (250) OW & NW trop.

Barleriola Oerst. (6) W. I.

Borneacanthus Bremek. (6) Borneo

Boutonia DC. (1) Madag.

Chroesthes Beniost (3) China, SE Asia

Crabbea Harv. (12) trop. & S. Africa

Hulemacanthus S. Moore (1) New Guinea

Lepidagathis Willd. (100) warm & trop. NW & OW

Lophostachys Pohl. (15) trop. Amer.


Unplaced within Acanthoideae (20/ )


Acanthostelma Bidgood and Brummitt (1) Somalia

Acanthura Lindau (1) Brazil

Aphelandrella Mildbr. (1) Peru

Camarotea Scott Elliot (1) Madag.

Chlamydacanthus Lindau (4) trop. E. Africa, Madag.

Dolichostachys Benoist (1) Madag.

Golaea Chiov. (1) Somalia

Idiacanthus Leonard

Kudoacanthus Hosok. (1) taiwan

Lankesteria Lindl. (7) trop. Africa, Madag.

Lasiocladus Bojer ex Nees (5) Madag.

Leandriella Benoist (1) Madag.

Morsacanthus Rizzini (1) Brazil

Neuracanthus Nees (20) trop. Africa, Arabian Penin. to India

Perenideboles Ram. Goyena (1) Nicaragua

Pericalypta Beniost (1) Madag.

Sphacanthus Benoist (2) Madag.

Vavara Benoist (1) Madag.

Vindasia Benoist (1) Madag.

Whitfieldia Hook. (10) trop Africa





Avicenniaceae 1/4-7 Endl., Ench. Bot.: 314. 15-21 Aug 1841 - clearly belongs within Acanthaceae (Olmstead unpubl., McDade, unpubl.) Avicennia (4-7) warm cosmop

Bignoniaceae (114/725) Durande, Notions Elém. Bot.: 265. 1782, nom. cons. - Synoptical classification by tribe following Gentry 1980, 1992; Spangler & Olmstead 1999, Olmstead unpubl.


Bignonieae (46/290) Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 23. 1829

Adenocalymna Mart. ex Meisn. (50) trop Am

Amphilophium Kunth (5) Central & S Am

Anemopaegma Mart. ex Meisn. (3) tropical Am

Arrabidaea DC. (50) tropical Am

Bignonia L. (1) SE US

Callichlamys Miq. (1) tropical Am

Ceratophytum Pittier (1) Venezuela

Clytostoma Miers ex Bureau (9) tropical S Am

Cuspideria DC. (8) tropical Am

Cydista Miers (4) tropical Am

Distictella Kuntze (10) trop S Am and Tobago

Distictis Mart. ex. Meisn. (9) Mex & W Indies

Dolichandra Cham. (1) S. Brazil, Parag., Arg.

Fredericia

Gardnerodoxa Sandwith (1) Brazil

Glaziova Bureau (1) Brazil

Haplolophium Cham. (1) Brazil

Leucocalantha Barb. Rodr. (1) Amazon Brazil

Lundia DC. (12) tropical Am

Macfadyena A. DC.(3-4) tropical Am

Macranthisiphon Bureau ex K. Schum. (1) coast Ecuador, Peru

Manaosella J.C. Gomes (1) Brazil

Mansoa DC. (15) tropical S Am

Martinella Baill. (2) tropical Am

Melloa Bureau (1) tropical Am

Memora Miers (27) tropical Am

Mussatia Bureau ex Baill. (2) tropical Am

Neojobertia Baill. (1) NE Brazil

Parabignonia Bureau ex K. Schum. (1) NE Brazil

Paragonia Bureau (2) tropical Am

Periarrabidaea A. Samp. (2) Amazonia

Phryganocydia Mart. ex Bureau (3) trop Am

Piriadacus Pichon (1) E Brazil

Pithecoctenium Mart. ex Meisn. (3) tropical Am

Pleonotoma Miers (14) tropical Am

Potamoganos Sandwith (1) NE S Am

Pseudocatalpa A. H. Gentry (1) N Central Am

Pyrostegia C. Presl (3-4) tropical S Am

Roentgenia Urb. (2) N S Am

Saritaea Dugand (1) Colombia, Ecuador

Spathicalyx J. C. Gomes (2) Brazil

Sphingiphila A. H. Gentry (1) Paraguay

Stizophyllum Miers (3) tropical Am

Tanaecium Sw (6) tropical Am

Tynanthus Miers (14) tropical Am

Urbanolophium Melch. (2) Brazil

Xylophragma Sprague (5) tropical Am



Coleeae (6/65)

Colea Bojer ex Meisn. (23) Madagascar, Mascarenes

Ophiocolea H, Perrier (8) Madagascar, Comores

Phyllarthron DC. (18) Madagascar, Comores

Phylloctenium Baill. (3) Madagascar

Rhodocolea Baill. (12) Madagascar



Crescentieae (4/35) G. Don, Gen. Hist. 4: 216, 232. 1837-8 Apr 1838

Amphitecna Miers (18) tropical Am

Crescentia L. (6) tropical Am

Enallagma (Miers) Baill. (2-3) W Indies

Parmentiera DC. (9) C Am, NW Columbia

Eccremocarpeae (1/5) Hogg, Veg. Kingd.: 526. 1858

Eccremocarpus Ruiz & Pav. (5) Peru, Chile



Oroxyleae (4/6)

Hieris Steenis (1) Penang

Millingtonia L.f. (1) SE Asia, Malaysia

Nyctocalos Teijsm. & Binn. (3) Indomalaysia

Oroxylum Vent. (1) Indomalaysia

Tecomeae” (49/303) Endl., Gen. Pl.: 711. Jan 1839 - tribe is paraphyletic

Argylia D. Don (10) Peru, Chile, Argentina

Astianthus D. Don (1) C Am

Barnettia (2) Thailand

Campsidium Seem. (1) Chile, Argentina

Campsis Lour. (2) E Asia, E US

Catalpa Scop. (11) E Asia, N Am

Catophractes D. Don (1) tropical & S Africa

Chilopsis D. Don (1) SW US

Chitalpa (= Catalpa X Chilopsis)

Cybistax Mart. ex Meisn. (3) (= Tabebuia)

Delostoma D. Don (4) Andes

Deplanchea Vieill. (5) Malaysia, Aust, New Cal

Digomphia Benth. (3) Guayana highland

Dinklageodoxa Heine & Sandwith (1) Liberia

Dolichandrone (Fenzl) Seem. (9) E Afr to New Caledon

Ekmanianthe Urb. (2) Cuba, Hispaniola

Fernandoa Welw. ex Seem. (3) Old World trop

Godmania Hemsl. (2) tropical Am

Haplophragma Dop. (5) (~Fernandoa)

Heterophragma DC. (2) India, SW Asia

Incarvillea Juss. (11-14) Himalaya, C to E Asia

Jacaranda Juss. (49) tropical Am

Kigelia DC. (1-3) tropical Africa

Lamiodendron Steenis (1) New Guinea

Macrocatalpa (Griseb.) Britton (1) Cuba

Markhamia Seem. ex Baill. (13) tropical Africa & Asia

Mayodendron Kurz (1) (~Radermachera)

Neosepicaea Diels (4) New Guinea, Queensland

Newbouldia Seem. ex Bureau (1) tropical W Africa

Pajanelia DC. (1) Indomalaysia

Pandorea (Endl.) Spach (6) E Malay, Austr, New Cal

Paratecoma Kuhlm. (1) Brazil

Pauldopia Steenis (1) NE India to SE Asia

Perianthomega Bureau ex Baill. (1) central Brazil

Perichlaena Baill. (1) Madagascar

Podranea Sprague (1-2) tropical to S Africa

Radermachera Zoll. & Moritzi. (16) SE Asia, Malaysia

Rhigozum Burch. (7) trop & S Afr, Madagascar

Romeroa Dugand (1) Colombia

Spathodea P. Beauv. (1) tropical Africa

Spirotecoma Baill. ex Dalla Torre & Harms (5) Cuba, Hispaniola

Stereospermum Cham. (10) Old World tropics

Tabebuia Gomes ex DC. (100) tropical Am

Tecoma Juss. (12) tropical Am (Andes) to Ariz

Tecomanthe Baill. (5) Malaysia, Austr, NZ

Tecomaria (Endl.) Spach (2) E & S Africa

Tecomella Seem. (1) Arabia to W India

Zeyheria Mart. (2) Brazil



Tourrettieae G. Don, Gen. Hist. 4: 215, 231. 1837-8 Apr 1838 (1/1)

Tourrettia Foug. (1) Andes to Mexico





Calceolariaceae (3/275) (G. Don) R. Olmstead 1999 (Olmstead et al. 1999) (see Molau 1988)

Calceolaria L. (240-270 sensu Molau) C to S Am Porodittia G. Don (1) Peru

Jovellana Ruiz & Pav. (6) NZ, Chile
Carlemanniaceae Airy Shaw (1964) (APG II, 2002)

Carlemannia Benth (3) Indomal


Gesneriaceae (~135-140/>3000) – synopsis compiled by A. Weber, provisional state 1999 (classification after Wiehler & Burtt 1995; modified following J. Smith)

Gesnerioideae Link, Handbuch 1: 505. Jan-Aug 1829

Gloxinieae (G. Don) G. Don in Sweet, Hort. Brit., ed. 3: 526. late 1839

Achimenes Pers. (24), mainly Mexico and Central America

Anodiscus Benth. (1), Peru

Bellonia L. (2), Cuba and Hispaniola

Capanea Planch. (11), Peru to Guatemala

Diastema Benth. (>20), Bolivia to Mexico, Venezuala, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru

Eucodonia Hanst. (2), C and S Mexico

Gloxinia L'Hér.(15), central America and trop. S America

Goyazia Taub. (2), C Brazil

Heppiella Regel (4), Peru, W Venezuela

Koellikeria Regel (1), C and trop. S America

Kohleria Regel (>20) , Peru to Mexico, Venezuela, Trinidad, Guianas

Lembocarpus Leeuwenb. (1), Surinam and French Guiana

Monopyle Benth. (>27), Bolivia to Guatemala

Moussonia Regel (11), Mexico to Panama

Niphaea Lindl. (5), Mexico, Guatemala, Venezuela, Peru

Pearcea Regel (incl. Parakohleria Wiehler) (17), eastern slopes of the Andes (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia), 1 sp. also on the western slopes (Ecuador)

Phinaea Benth. (>16), Mexico to Peru, Venezuela, Cuba, Haiti

Smithiantha Kuntze (5), C & N Mexico, Guatemala

Solenophora Benth. (> 20), central America

Sinningieae

Paliavana Vand. (8), SE Brazil

Sinningia Nees (>60), throughout the Neotropics

Vanhouttea Lem. (6), SE Brazil

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