A comparative study on antiinflammatory effect of the tinctures from melampyrum bihariense kern and melampyrum cristatum L.




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FARMACIA, 2008, Vol.LVI, 4



A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON ANTIINFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF THE TINCTURES FROM MELAMPYRUM BIHARIENSE KERN AND MELAMPYRUM CRISTATUM L. (SCROPHULARIACEAE)
CRISTINA MOGOŞAN1*, MELANIA FLORINA MUNTEANU2

1University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Iuliu Haţieganu”, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Physiopathology, 41 Victor Babeş Street, Cluj-Napoca, România

2University “Vasile Goldiş” Arad, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of

Pharmacognosy Arad, România

*corresponding author: cmogosan@umfcluj.ro
Abstract

The Melampyrum bihariense Kern and Melampyrum cristatum L species are plants from Romanian spontaneous Flora, Scrophulariaceae family.

The anti-inflammatory action of the two tinctures obtained from the mentioned species was studied, in a model of acute inflammation, the rat paw edema induced by kaolin 10%. The two tinctures had significant anti-inflammatory action, Melampyrum cristatum being superior to the other species Melampyrum bihariense in edema inhibition.
Rezumat

Speciile Melampyrum bihariense Kern şi Melampyrum cristatum L familia Scrophulariaceae sunt plante din flora spontană a României.

A fost studiată activitatea antiinflamatoare a două tincturi obţinute din cele două specii, într-un model de inflamaţie acută, edemul labei de şobolan indus cu caolin 10%. Cele două tincturi au prezentat activitate antiinflamatoare semnificativă, Melampyrum cristatum fiind superioară speciei Melampyrum bihariense în inhibarea edemului inflamator.


  • Melampyrum bihariense Kern

  • Melampyrum cristatum L.

  • diclofenac

  • anti-inflammatory action


INTRODUCTION

The name Melampyrum comes from two Greek words: “melas” (meaning “black”) and “pyros” (meaning “corn”) because these plants’ seeds are like corn seeds, but black. The Melampyrum species have been rarely used in Romanian traditional medicine. Some authors mentioned that the plants were used for rheumatic disorders together with other plants and for skin infections [1, 2].

In this article we studied the anti-inflammatory action of two tinctures obtained from Melampyrum bihariense and Melampyrum cristatum in a model of acute inflammation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS

Two 1:10 tinctures with ethylic alcohol of 700 were prepared from the aerial parts of Melampyrum bihariense Kern. and Melampyrum cristatum L., according to the regulations of Romanian Pharmacopoea, Xth edition.[5]

Four groups of 8 male Wistar rats were used, which were maintained in standard conditions. The groups were:


  • Group I – control treated with distilled water

  • Group II – control treated with diclofenac 40 mg/kg bw

  • Group III – treated with Melampyrum cristatum tincture 1.4 mg/kg bw

  • Group IV – treated with Melampyrum bihariense tincture 1.4 mg/kg bw

The substances and tinctures were administered intraperitoneally 30 minutes prior to the induction of acute inflammation with kaolin 10%. For each animal, the initial volume of left hind paw was determined using a plethismometric method, followed by intraplantar administration of 0.1 mL kaolin suspension 10%, in order to induce the inflammation. At 2h, 4 h and 24 h after the induction of inflammation, the left hind paw volume was determined again using the same method [3, 4].

The experimental results obtained through this method (plethismometric method) are expressed in mL (marker of the left hind paw volume).

For each group, the mean volume of inflammatory edema was calculated (X), and also the Standard Deviation (SD) and the percentages of inflammatory edema inhibition using the equation:

% of edema inhibition = (1 - X substance / X control) x 100

The statistical analysis was performed by “t” Student test (*p<0.05).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The obtained results are presented in tables I and II.



Table I

The inflammatory edema values for the studied substances



No.


Substance

Dose

mg/kg bw


Edema after 2 h (mL)

xSD


Edema after 4 h (mL)

xSD


Edema after 24 h (mL)

xSD


1

Distilled water

-

0.70±0.06

0.78±0.07

1.54±0.08

2

Diclofenac

40

0.50±0.06*

0.4±0.04*

1.01±0.08*

3

Melampyrum cristatum tincture

1.4

0.48±0.07*

0.56±0.07

1.26± 0.07*

4

Melampyrum bihariense tincture

1.4

0.53±0.04*

0.59±0.06

1.21±0.05*


Table II

The percentages of inflammatory edema inhibition for the studied substances



No.

Substance

Dose

mg/kg bw


% of edema inhibition after 2 h


% of edema inhibition after 4 h


% of edema inhibition after 24 h


1

Distilled water

-

-

-

-

2

Diclofenac

40

28.57

48.71

34.41

3

Melampyrum cristatum tincture

1.4

31.42

28.20

18.18

4

Melampyrum bihariense tincture

1.4

24.28

24.35

21.42

The values of inflammatory edema for control group are 0.70± 0.06 mL after 2h, 0.78±0.07mL after 4 h and 1.54±0.08 mL after 24 hours from the inflammation induction with kaolin 10%.

Diclofenac 40 mg/kg bw used as anti-inflammatory control substance, reduced the inflammatory edema to 0.50±0.06 mL after 2 h, 0.4±0.04 mL after 4 h and 1.01±0.08 mL after 24 h from the induction.

The groups treated with the tinctures presented inferior edema values compared to control: at 2 h the group treated with Melampyrum cristatum presented an edema of 0.48±0.07 mL, at 4 h 0.56±0.07 mL and at 24 h 1.26± 0.07 mL, compared to the group treated with Melampyrum bihariense which presented at 2 h an edema of 0,53±0,04 mL, at 4h an edema of 0.59±0.06 mL and at 24 h an edema of 1.21±0.05 mL.

The values of inflammatory edema and the percentages of edema inhibition proved a significant anti-inflammatory action for diclofenac 40 mg/kg bw, the most intense effect being observed at 4 h after the induction of inflammation.

Both vegetal extracts presented an anti-inflammatory activity. The percentage of edema inhibition in the group treated with Melampyrum cristatum tincture 1,4 mg/kg bw is superior after 2h to diclofenac and also to Melampyrum bihariense tincture 1.4 mg/kg bw. At 4 h, the percentages are close for the two vegetal extracts, both being inferior to diclofenac which presented at this time interval the highest inflammatory edema inhibition. At 24 h after the inflammatory edema induction with kaolin 10%, diclofenac presented a superior percentage of edema inhibition compared to the vegetal tinctures. Among these, the Melampyrum bihariense tincture 1.4 mg/kg bw presented the most intense anti-inflammatory effect.


CONCLUSIONS

The reference drug, diclofenac at 40 mg/kg bw, confirmed its anti-inflammatory properties. The two tinctures administered at the same dose presented an anti-inflammatory activity, inferior in general to diclofenac, only Melampyrum cristatum tincture being slightly superior, but only at 2 h after the edema induction. The anti-inflammatory activity is superior for the group treated with Melampyrum cristatum at 2h and 4h after edema induction compared to the group treated with Melampyrum bihariense tincture at the same dose 1.4 mg/kg.


REFERENCES

  1. Buia Al., Ghişa E., Grinescu I, Flora R.P.R., Ed. Academiei Republicii Populare Române 1960, vol. VII, 622-638

  2. Butura V., Enciclopedia de etnobotanică românească, Ed. Ştiinţifică şi Enciclopedică Bucureşti, 1979, 179, 254

  3. Mogoşan C., Metode de evaluare a substanţelor antiinflamatoare, Clujul Medical 1999, LXXII(4), 536-541

  4. Mogoşan C., Pârvu A., Voştinaru O., Tămaş M., Dobrescu D., Studiul efectului antiinflamator al tincturii şi saponinelor steroidice obţinute din rizomii plantei Polygonatum odoratum în două modele experimentale de inflamaţie acută, Farmacia 2000, XLVIII, 2, 55-60

  5. *** Farmacopeea Română ediţia a X-a, Ed.Medicală Bucureşti 1993.




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