|Steering Column 641-1
641 Steering Column
To remove steering column assembly
To remove steering wheel .......
Fig. 1. Exploded view of steering column assembly,
The steering column assembly consists of three sections, connected by universal joints. See Fig. 1. The top perforated cage-like section is deformable and the steering wheel shaft is telescopic. The intermediate shaft is made of a flexible sheet steel, which will allow the steering column to collapse when subjected to high loads.
On 1990 and later models, an SRS airbag system is used, with the airbag itself located in the steering wheel pad.
• The SRS (Supplemental Restraint System) uses an explosive device to inflate the airbag. Do not attempt to service the wihng in the steering wheel, steering column assembly, or air-bag unit. The airbag may ignite causing sehous injury. See an authorized Saab dealer for any repairs necessary to the SRS wiring or components, including removal of the steering wheel and steenng column.
• Do not reuse self-locking nuts. These parts are designed to be used only once and must be replaced whenever loosened or removed.
• When spinning the steenng wheel via the front road wheels (front wheels off the ground), move the wheels slowly from lock to lock to avoid damaging the collapsible steenng column.
• Do not push or pull on the steenng wheel (for example when trying to roll the car). Doing so can strain the steering column, causing it to collapse.
To remove steering wheel
The procedure below does not cover removing the steering wheel on SRS (airbag) equipped cars. Cars with SRS can be identified by the three letter markings on the steering wheel pad.
Removing the steenng wheel on cars equipped with SRS air-bag requires that the airbag unit be disarmed, removed, and stored in a safe place. Due to the inherent danger involved in this operation, it should be left to an authorized Saab dealer.
1. Position the steering wheel so that the road wheels are straight ahead.
2. On three-spoke steering wheels, carefully pry off the steering wheel pad and disconnect the electrical connectors for the horn. See Fig. 2.
3. On four-spoke steering wheels, pry out the badge in the center of the wheel.
4. Place matching marks on the steering wheel and the steering wheel shaft. Remove the center steering wheel nut and washer. See Fig. 3.
641 -2 Steering Column
Fig. 2. Steering wheel pad being removed on cars with three-spoke wheels.
Fig. 4. Puller (Saab tool no. 89 96 258) being used to remove steering wheel. The two side bolts on the puller thread into the steering wheel itself and the center bolt is threaded down onto the steering wheel shaft.
To remove steering column assembly
The procedure below does not cover removing the steering column assembly on SRS (airbag) equipped cars. Cars with SRS can be identified by the three letter markings on the steering wheel pad.
Removing the steering column assembly on cars equipped with SRS airbag requires that the airbag unit be disarmed, removed, and stored in a safe place. Due to the inherent danger involved in this operation, it should be left to an authorized Saab dealer.
Fig. 3. Steering wheel mounting nut being removed.
5. Pull the steering wheel straight off the steering wheel shaft. If the wheel does not pull off easily, use a suitable puller to assist in removal. See Fig. 4.
Do not hammer on the steering wheel or steering wheel shaft in an attempt to loosen the steering wheel. This may damage the collapsible steering column.
Installation is the reverse of removal. Always replace the self-locking nut.
Tightening torque • steering wheel to steering column (self-locking nut)......... 25-28 Nm (18 to 21 ft-lb)
1. Working from the engine compartment, remove the clamping bolt that holds the steering column universal joint to the steering rack. See Fig. 5. Push the steering column protective boot off the firewall bulkhead and into the passenger compartment.
2. Remove the steering wheel as described above.
3. Remove the center storage console and the lower instrument padding as described in 853 Dashboard and Consoles. ^
4. Remove the steering column lower trim piece.
5. Remove the directional indicator and wiper/washer stalk switches from the steering column. Label the electrical connectors before unplugging them.
6. Unplug the connectors for the horn and cruise control (where applicable). Cut any cable ties holding the wiring harness to the steering column.
Steering Column 641-3
Fig. 5. Steering column universal Joint clamping bolt being removed.
7. If applicable, remove the anti-chafing pad from the right side of the steering column.
Fig. 7. Steering column assembly being removed from car.
Installation is the reverse of removal. Make sure that the steering column universal joint is fully seated on the steering rack pinion shaft so that the clamping bolt properly engages the groove in the shaft. See Fig. 8.
If an anti-chafing material is used, note its position before removing it.
8. Remove the four steering column-to-console bolts and spacers. See Fig. 6.
Fig. 8. Steering column-to-steering rack pinion shaft clamping bolt being installed. Bolt must engage groove in shaft.
Apply Loctite to the four steering column-to-body mounting bolts during installation. Replace all self-locking nuts. Check the universal joints for free movement. Universal joints that are seized or do not swivel freely should be replaced. Tighten all bolts to their recommended torques.
Rg. 6. Steering column mounting bolts (arrows).
9. Lower the column slightly and pull the entire assembly out of the car. See Fig. 7.
Use care when handling the removed steering column assembly. Do not alter the position of the telescopic steering wheel shaft or the collapsible function of the column assembly may be impaired.
• steering column to steering rack (clamping bolt, self-locking nut) ......... 20 to 27 Nm (15 to 20 ft-lb)
• steering column to body (bolts, install with Loctite).......... 20 to 27 Nm (15 to 20 ft-lb)
• steering wheel to steering column (self-locking nut) ,.....„„ 25-28 Nm (18 to 21 ft-lb)
Tie Rod Ends 643-1
643 Tie Rod Ends
To replace tie rod end..........
The tie rod ends connect the steering rack tie rods to the steering swivel member. They thread onto the end of the tie rod and are securely fastened to the swivel member with a self-locking nut. No maintenance or lubrication is needed for the life of the joint. See Fig. 1.
A new style tie rod end was introduced du ring the 1989 model year on the 900 models. This new tie rod end can be identified by a slot cut in the end of the threaded stud. See Fig. 2. The two tie rod ends must never be interchanged between the early cars and later cars, as steering geometry will be affected.
Fig.1. Steering system
Do not reuse self-locking nuts. These parts are designed to be used only once and must be replaced if loosened or removed.
Fig. 2. New style tie rod end used on early 1989 and later models. This new tie rod end can be identified by slot cut into threaded end of stud.
To remove tie rod end
Removing the tie rod end will alter the alignment (toe-in) of the front wheels. It is highly recommended that the front wheels be aligned after replacing a tie rod end.
1. Loosen the wheel lug nuts or bolts, then raise the front of the car and support it securely on jack stands designed for the purpose. Remove the wheel.
Tie rod ends should be checked for wear at regular intervals. The rubber boots around the joints should also be inspected for tears, cracks or general deterioration. Replace the tie rod end if any faults are found.
Tie rod ends are best checked for wear with the front wheels off the ground. Grasp both sides of the tire and gently rock the wheel back and forth. If any noticeable play is present, the tie rod end is probably worn and should be replaced.
Always check that the car is stable on the jack stands before starting any work.
2. Loosen the locknut that secures the tie rod end to the tie rod. Remove the self-locking nut securing the tie rod end to the steering swivel member. See Fig. 3.
3. Using a press tool, remove the joint from the steering swivel member. See Fig. 4.
643-2 Tie Rod Ends
If the position of the tie rod end on the tie rod is carefully marked, the new tie rod end can be positioned where the old tie rod was prior to removal so the car can be safely driven.
5. Install the new tie rod end to the tie rod, threading it on the same number of turns counted above in step 4. Insert the tie rod end into the steering member and install and tighten a new self-locking nut.
Tightening torque • tie rod end to steering member (self-locking nut)....... 50 to 60 Nm (37 to 44 ft-lb)
Tie rod end locknut being loosened Tie rod end self-locking nut shown at arrow
The length of the tie rod from the locknut to the stepped part of the rod must never exceed 125 mm (4.92 in). See Fig. 2. Also, the difference in length between the two tie rods must not exceed 2 mm (0.08 in.). For example, if the right rod measured 124 mm, the left rod must measure between 122 mm and 125mm. See Fig. 5.
Fig. 4. Tie rod end being removed from steering swivel member using press Saab tool no 89 95 409 shown
Fig. 5. Maximum permissible length (C) of tie rod must not exceed 125 mm (4 92 in)
A tie rod end removal fork should not be used to remove the tie rod end. Do not hammer on the tie rod end in an attempt to remove it from the steehng member. Doing this may damage the steering rack, the collapsible steering column, or the steering swivel member.
6. Adjust the toe-in using special wheel alignment equipment. Tighten the tie rod lock nut.
Tightening torque • steering tie rod to tie rod end (locking nut).... 60 to 80 Nm (44 to 59 ft-lb)
4. Mark the position of the tie rod end to the tie rod. Thread the tie rod end off the tie rod
, counting the number of turns it takes to get it off.
644 Power Steering
Power Steering System........
To install power steering rack ............. 644-3
To remove power steering rack .....
To remove power steering pump and lines ... 644-4
To remove power steering rack
POWER STEERING SYSTEM
The power-assisted steering rack is mounted at the lower rear of the engine compartment. A belt driven hydraulic pump supplies fluid under pressure to the control valve in the steering rack to help reduce steering effort. See Fig. 1.
Removing or replacing the steering rack will affect front wheel alignment. Always have the front end aligned after doing any work to the steering rack or related steering components. See 601 Wheel Alignment for more information on aligning the wheels.
1. Loosen the wheel lug bolts, then raise the front of the car and support it securely on jack stands designed for the purpose. Remove the wheels.
Always check that the car is stable on the jack stands before starting any work.
2. Drain the power steering fluid by removing the return hose from the fluid reservoir. See Fig. 2. Place the disconnected hose in a quart-sized container. Plug the open hose fitting at the reservoir.
If necessary, connect an extension hose to the return hose.
; Rg. 1.
Power steering system.
There is no routine maintenance for the power steering system other than checking the fluid level, see 1 LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE. Checking the steering tie rod ends is described in 643 Tie Rod Ends.
• Do not reuse self-locking nuts. These parts are designed to be used only once and must always be replaced whenever loosened or removed.
• Do not hold the steering wheel at full lock for extended periods with the engine running. This may overheat the pump and damage it.
Fig. 2. Power steering pump return hose (arrow) at fluid reservoir.
644-2 Power Steering
Fig. 3. Tie rod end locknut being loosened.
5. Using a vernier caliper, measure and record the tie rod length from the tie rod end to the stepped part tie rod. See Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Tie rod length being measured using vernier caliper. Car shown is Saab 9000.
3. Start the engine and allow the fluid to pump out of the system and into the container. Rotate the steering wheel slowly from lock to lock. Shut off the engine as soon as the system is empty. Reconnect the return hose to the reservoir.
4. Working at the wheels, loosen the tie rod end locknut at both tie rods. See Fig. 3.
It may be necessary to push the bellows back slightly to access the stepped part of the tie rod.
6. Unscrew the tie rods from the tie rod ends. Hold the inner rubber bellows stationary while unscrewing the rods. See Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Tie rod being unscrewed from tie rod end.
7. Thoroughly clean the area around the two hydraulic pipe fittings on the steering rack. See Fig. 6. Disconnect the pipes from the rack and plug the pipe openings. Remove the clamps holding the pipes to the rack.
Fig. 6. Hydraulic pipe fittings on steering rack (arrows).
8. Working from the rear of the engine compartment, remove the clamping bolt holding the steering column universal joint to the steering rack. See Fig. 7.
9. Remove the bolts holding the steering rack to the body. See Fig. 8.
10. Separate the steering rack from the steering column universal joint.
11. Rotate the steering rack until its pinion shaft is pointing downward. See Fig. 9.
Power Steering 644-3
Fig. 7. Steering column clamping bolt being removed
Fig. 8. Steering rack mounting bolts (arrows)
12. Slide the steering rack toward the passenger side of the car.
13. Turn the steering rack pinion shaft until the right-hand (passenger's) side tie rod is fully extended Lift the left-hand (driver's) side tie rod over the subframe. See Fig. 10.
Fig. 9. Steering rack pinion shaft positioned correctly for removal of rack
Fig. 10. Left-hand (driver's) side tie rod shown lowered from car body
To install power steering rack
Inspect the rubber bellows and the rubber mounting bushings. Replace any worn or damaged parts.
1. Turn the pinion shaft until the driver's side tie rod is fully extended. Place the rack up and into the body with the pinion shaft pointing down. See Fig. 11.
2 Turn the pinion shaft until the passenger's side tie rod is fully extended. Lift the left-hand (driver's) side tie rod up and over the subframe member Center the steering rack.
Turn the shaft using pliers Place a rag over the pinion shaft to protect the splines
14. Slide the entire rack toward the driver's side of the car and remove the rack assembly.
When the steering rack is centered, the slot in the pinion shaft for the clamping bolt should be toward the rear of the car (shaft pointing downward)
644-4 Power Steering
Fig. 11. Steering rack being installed into body
3. Rotate the entire rack up and connect the pinion shaft to the steering column universal joint. Loosely install the clamping bolt and new a self-locking nut.
7. Thread the tie rods into the tie rod ends. Adjust the tie rod to the dimensions recorded above in Fig. 4. Tighten the locknuts.
• tie rod end to tie rod ... 60 to 80 Nm (44 to 59 ft-lb)
8. Fill the reservoir with power steering fluid. With the engine off, slowly turn the steering wheel three or four times from lock to lock.
Do not use ATF in the power steering system. Use only GM (General Motors) Specification Power Steering Fluid.
Power steering fluid • GM power steering fluid (GM 9985010), Texaco TL4634 or equivalent ....... 75 cl (0.8 qt)
Make sure the pinion shaft fully engages the universal joint. The clamping bolt must go through the slot in the pinion shaft.
9. Install the wheels, lower the car and start the engine. Turn the wheels from lock to lock two more times.
4. Install and tighten the steering rack mounting bolts and the steering column clamping bolt.
• power steering rack to body ......... 60 to 80 Nm (44 to 59 ft-lb)
• universal joint to pinion shaft (clamping bolt and self-locking nut) .......... 25 to 34 Nm (18 to 25 ft-lb)
5. Install and tighten the hydraulic pipes to the control valve. Replace the 0-rings at the pipe connections where necessary.
Tightening torque • power steering hose fittings .......... 20 to 34 Nm (15 to 25 ft-lb)
6. Install new clamps to hold the pipes to the steering rack housing.
Use care not to pinch or damage the pressure-equalizing tube between the rubber bellows.
• wheel lug bolts ...... 105 to 125 Nm (78 to 92 ft-lb)
• wheel lug nuts ....... 90 to 110 Nm (66 to 81 ft-lb)
10. Check the front wheel alignment and adjust if necessary.
To remove power steering pump and lines
1. Drain the power steering fluid by removing the return hose from the fluid reservoir. See Fig. 2 above. Place the disconnected hose in a quart-sized container. If necessary, connect an extension hose to the return hose. Plug the open hose fitting at the reservoir.
2. Start the engine and allow the fluid to pump out of the system and into the container. Rotate the steering wheel slowly from lock to lock. Shut off the engine as soon as the system is empty. Reconnect the return hose to the reservoir.
3. Working in the engine compartment, cut the cable ties holding the main engine harness to the rear of the cylinder head. Rest the harness on top of the valve cover.
Power Steering 644-5
4. Slacken the pump bracket nut and bolt. Fully loosen the bracket adjusting screw. See Fig. 12. Remove the pump V-belt.
Fig. 13. Pump bracket lower mounting bolt (1) and inlet hose (2) as viewed from below car
Pump bracket nut (1), bracket bolt (2), adjusting screw (3), and outlet pipe (4).
5. Disconnect the fluid outlet pipe at the union shown in the above figure.
6. Working from below the car, remove the bracket's lower mounting bolt. Disconnect the inlet hose. See Fig. 13.
Note the order of the rubber bushings, spacers, and washers for the lower mounting bolt.
Fig. 14. Power steering pump being removed.
7. Working from the engine compartment, remove the pump bracket top nut and bolt. Swivel the pump toward the wheel arch and remove it from the car. See Fig. 14.
Installation is the reverse of removal. Tighten the hose fittings to the specified torque. Adjust the belt tension as described in 1 LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE. Fill and bleed the system as described above under the steering rack installation procedure.
Tightening torque • power steering pump hose fittings .......... 20 to 34 Nm (15 to 25 ft-lb)
POWER STEERING SYSTEM