5 Kingdom Survey Taxonomy: Classification of species




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5 Kingdom Survey
Taxonomy: Classification of species

  • Kingdom, Phylum (Division in Plants), Class, Order, Family , Genus, Species

    • King Phillip Cried Out For Goodness Sake

  • Phylogeny: Evolutionary Relationship…From common ancestor


Kingdom Monera (Prokaryotes)…Bacteria

  • Small, Circular DNA, (Plasmid), Flagella not as good (No 9+2)

  • Contains DNA & Ribosomes only, reproduce: Binary Fission, Capsule

  1. Autotrophs: Make their OWN food (organic compounds)

  1. Heterotrophs: Obtain energy from eating organic molecules

    1. Parasites…live in a HOST…

    2. Saprobes…Obtain their energy from Dead matter…decomposers

Obligate Aerobes: must have O2 to live…Obligate Anaerobes: absent of O2 to live
2 Types of Monera

  1. Eubacteria: True or normal Bacteria

    1. Endospores…resistance bodies

    2. Shape: cocci: sphere…Bacilli: rod shape…Spirilla: spirals

    3. Distinguished by their mode of mobility

    4. Gram negative turns purple

  2. Archaebacteria: Extreme Bad conditions

    1. Cell wall lacks Peptidoglycans

    2. Ribosomes are more like eukaryotic ribosomes

    3. Plasma Membrane contain Lipids different from all other plasma membrane lipids

3 Groups of Archaebacteria

  1. Methanogens: Anaerobic heterotrophy bacteria live in mud, swamps, guts of animals

  2. Extreme Halophiles: (Salt Lovers)…Salt Lakes, Dead Sea…aerobic heterotrophic

  3. Thermoacidophiles: (Heat & Acid Lovers)…


Other Common Bacteria

  1. Cynaobacteria: Photosynthetic…Nitrogen-Fixing ezymes

  2. Chemosynthetic: Autotrophs…converts NO2 (nitrite) to NO3 (nitrate)

  3. Nitrogen-fixing Bacteria…fix nitrogen…Nodules in plant’s roots…(Mutualism)

  4. Spirochetes…coiled bacteria…live in cell wall


Kingdom Protista: unicellular or multicellular organisms

  • Algaelike: (plant-like)…PHOTOSYNTHESIS

  1. Euglenophyta: eyespot: respond to light

    1. Dinoflagellata: bioluminescent… (Photosynthesis)

    2. Chrysophyta (Golden alga)

    3. Bacillariophyta (Diatoms)…tests (shells)… (Photosynthesis)

    4. Chlorophyta (Green algae)…Photosynthesis

    5. Phaeophyta (Brown algae)…seaweed…kelps… (Photosynthesis)

    6. Rhodophyta (red algae)…phycobilins: red pigment

  • Protozoa (Animal-like) HETEROTROPHS

  1. Rhizopoda: amoeba move by pseudopodia

  2. Foraminifera…Animals with Shells

  3. Zoomastigophora…(Parasite) African sleeping sickness-Tsetse Fly

  4. Sporozoa (parasite)…causes Malaria…Can’t MOVE

  5. Ciliophora…Paramecium…Move by Cilia

  • Fungus-Like

  1. Acrasiomycota (Cellular Slime Mold)

  2. Myxomycota (Plasmodial Slime Mold)

  3. Oomycota (Mildrew)


Kingdom Fungi (Hyphae-filaments) Parasites or Saprobes-absorbing products

  • Dominantly Haploid….Stages of sexual Reproduction

    • Plasmogamy…

    • Karyogamy…2 haploid forms together…forms a diploid

    • Meiosis…

  • Reproduce asexually…budding…asexual spores…fragmentation

    • Sporangiospores…forms sporangia…Conidia-form at tips of hyphae

  • Groups of Fungi

  1. Zygomycota (Bread mold)

  2. Ascomycota (yeast)

  3. Basidiomycota (Mushroom)

  4. Deuteromycota (Imperfect fungi)…Penicillium

  5. Lichens…Mutualism…

  6. Mycorrhizae …Mutualism…


Kingdom Plantae

  • Plant’s adaptation for survival on Land

    • Dominant generation: Diploid sporophyte…2 chromosomes more apt to survive

    • Cuticle…reduce water loss (Desiccation)

    • Vascular Tissue…Xylem & Phloem…Leaves(Photosynthesis)…Roots

    • Sperm packaged in Pollen

    • Anthophyta…gametophytes are enclosed in ovary

    • Seasonal variation in the availability of water…

      • Deciduous (Lose Leaves) - minimize water loss

  • Major Plant Division

  1. Bryophyta: Mosses…Liverworts…Hornworts…

    1. Dominant Stage: Gametophyte (haploid)….

    2. Antheridium: male part…Archegonium: Female part

  2. Lycophyta: (Club Mosses), Tracheophytes (ContainVascularTissue)… Sporophte

  3. Sphenophyta (Horsetails)…Tracheophytes…Sporophte

  4. Pterophyta (Ferns)…Tracheophytes… Sporophte

  5. Coniferophyta (Conifers…Evergreen)…Gymnosperm…Seed plants

  6. Anthophyta (Angiosperm) Flowering plants…Seeds…Sporophte

Life Cycle of Angiosperms:

  • Sporophytemeiosisgametophytegametesfertilization zygotesporophyte

Parts of a Flower

  • Carpels (Pistil)- female reproductive part…includes: ovary, style, & stigma

    • Stamen- Male part…anther- pollen…filament- stalk

    • Petals- flower part…sepal- leaf-like part at base of petal (Attraction)

    • Ovary turns into the Fruit…protects the Ovule

    • Endosperm- triploid…provides nourishment for the embryo

    • Double Fertilization- fertilization of the egg & the polar nuclei each by a separate sperm


Kingdom Animalia Characteristics

  • Multicellular…Heterotrophic…Dominant Generation- Diploid…Motile…Embryonic development

  1. Eumetazoa…Have Tissues…ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm…

  2. Parazoa…No Tissue…organs don’t develop…Porifera (Sponges)

  3. Body Symmetry…

  1. Radial- Circular body pattern

  2. Bilateral…Right & Left halves…Anterior-Head end, Posterior- Tail, Ventral- Front side, Dorsal; Back side

  1. Cephalization- Head with brain…accessory sensory organs, eyes, nose, hears, etc.

  2. Gastrovascular cavity- Stomach (guts)…Digestive Trait

  3. Coelom- Body Cavity…Acoelomates-Lack a coelom…Pseudomates- Not completely lined with mesoderm

  4. Segmentation…increases ability to move

  5. Protostomes- spiral cleavage…mouth develop from Blastopore…splitting of the mesodermal tissue

  6. Deuterostome- Radial cleavage…anus develop from Blastopore…outpouching of archenteron wall

Phyla of Animals

  1. Porifera(Sponges)…choanocytes-get food…Osculum-water expelled… Amoebocytes- wandering cells (takes food)…Spicules- support (framework)

    1. Parazoa

  2. Cnidaria (Jellyfish)…Medusa-free swimming…Polyp- sessile (Attached)

    1. Eumetazoa…Radial

  3. Platyhelminthes (Flatworms,Tapeworms)…Proglottids- secondary reproductive organs…Parasites…Eumetazoa…Bilateral…Acoelomate

  4. Nematoda (Roundworms)- Eumetazoa…complete digestive tract…Bilateral… Pseudocoelomate

  5. Rotifera (Rotifers)-Eumetazoa…Bilateral…Pseodocoelomates…Microscopic

  6. Mollusca (Snails, Bivalve, Octopus) Eumetazoa…Bilateral…Coelomates… Protosome…1 Shell, 2 Shells, No Shells

  7. Annelida (Earthworm)- segmented worms…Eumetazoa…Bilateral…Coelomates… Protostome…Leeches, Polychaete worms- Marine worms

  8. Arthropoda (Insects, Crustaceans) Jointed Appendages…segmented body… exoskeleton (Chitin)… Metamorphosis…Egg-Nymphs-miniature adult-adult and Egg-Larva (worm-like stage)-Pupa (cocoon)-Adult

    1. Eumetazoa…Bilateral…Coelomate…Protosome

  9. Echinodermata (Sea Stars, Sea Urchins, Sand Dollars)

    1. Eumetazoa…Radial…Coelomate…Deuterostome

  10. Chordata (Vertebrates)…Eumetazoa…Bilateral…Coelomate…deuterostme

    1. Notochord- provides a dorsal, flexible rod that functions as a support

    2. Dorsal Nerve Chord- Basic of the Nervous system…Spine & Brain

    3. Pharyngeal gill slits- Beginning of the Digestive trait to outside of the body

      1. Disappear during embryonic development

    4. Muscular Tail extends beyond the digestive trait…Lost during embryonic development


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