2. C. Biological Features c lichen




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2.C. Biological Features

2.C.2. Lichens

An intensive lichen survey was conducted throughout Turnipseed in 2009-2010, cataloging over 150 species. Lichens were found in all habitats except for open water and fallow fields. In forested and rocky habitats lichens were found growing on many kinds of substrate, including rock, soil, wood and bark of many trees and shrubs. Corticolous (bark-inhabiting) lichens were found throughout the forest profile, from exposed roots on the forest floor up along stems and trunks in the understory and into the canopy as represented by fallen branches and twigs. Some lichens were even found growing over mosses and other lichens on these substrates.

Distinct lichen communities could be discerned on the forest floor, understory and canopy layers, plus rocky habitats of shaded, partly-shaded and exposed outcrops, the latter including wetland overlooks along Gin Branch and flatrocks near Turnipseed Rd. The most distinct communities were on granitic flatrocks, which were dominated by several cladonia species. Several (55) new county records were discovered as well as some (13) state records and a few (7) seemingly undescribed species new to science. The lattermost need further study to determine their taxonomic status.

Since lichens are known to be sensitive to air pollution, they can be used as indicators of environmental quality. As part of the lichen survey, an evaluation was made by tallying the number of known pollution-sensitive and pollution-tolerant species and their relative locations at Turnipseed. Overall, eight pollution-tolerant and seven pollution-sensitive species were found. Pollution-tolerant lichens, which were found dominating urban trees in Raleigh, were largely found in exposed areas of forest edges and the canopy as well as on partly-exposed rock. Pollution-sensitive lichens, which were absent from urban trees, were found growing in shaded forest interiors, some near water. Therefore, Turnipseed can be considered fairly healthy in terms of its air quality, compromised by the surrounding air pollution from nearby roads and human communities.

A checklist is presented as an appendix; a more detailed report is being prepared for publication in the scientific literature.

Appendix: Lichen Checklist

Preliminary checklist of lichens and their ecology from Turnipseed Unit #1. Incompletely determined taxa may represent undescribed species and need further study. (S) = pollution-sensitive, (T) = pollution-tolerant. Taxa in red need verification / determination by outside experts.



Species

Habit

Substrate

Habitat

Acarospora dispersa

Crustose

Rock

Granitic Flatrock

Acarospora sp. “j”

Crustose

Rock

Granitic Flatrock

Amandinea millaria

Crustose

Bark

Understory

Amandinea punctata

Crustose

Pine cone

Canopy

Anaptychia palmulata

Foliose

Rock

Forest near wetland

Anisomeridium polypori

Crustose

Bark

Understory

Anisomeridium subprostans

Crustose

Bark

Forest edge

Arthonia albovirescens

Crustose

Bark

Understory

Arthonia anglica

Crustose

Bark

Understory

Arthonia caesia

Crustose

Bark

Forest edge

Arthonia quintaria

Crustose

Bark

Canopy

Arthonia sp. 1

Crustose

Bark

Understory

Bacidia schweinitzii

Crustose

Bark

Understory

Bathlium carolinianum

Crustose

Bark

Understory

Buellia curtisii

Crustose

Bark

Understory, Edge

Buellia maculata

Crustose

Rock

Bluff outcrop

Buellia spuria

Crustose

Rock

Outcrops

Buellia stillingiana

Crustose

Bark

Understory, Canopy

Byssoloma leucoblepharum

Crustose

Bark

Understory

Caloplaca camptidia

Crustose

Bark

Understory

Caloplaca subsoluta

Crustose

Rock

Rock ledge

Candelaria concolor (T)

Foliose

Bark

Exposed areas

Candelariella cf. xanthostigmoides

Crustose

Bark

Exposed areas

Canoparmelia caroliniana

Foliose

Bark, Rock, Wood

Floor, Understory

Chrysothrix xanthina

Crustose

Bark

Understory

Cladonia apodocarpa

Squamulose

Soil

Forest floor

Cladonia arbuscula

Fruticose

Duff

Granitic Flatrock

Cladonia caespiticia

Squamulose

Rock

Forested outcrops

Cladonia caroliniana

Fruticose

Rock

Granitic Flatrock

Cladonia chlorophaea s. lat.

Fruticose

Bark, Rock, Soil

Outcrops

Cladonia didyma v. didyma

Fruticose

Wood

Forest floor

Cladonia didyma v. vulcanica

Fruticose

Wood

Granitic Flatrock

Cladonia grayi

Fruticose

Wood

Granitic Flatrock

Cladonia leporina

Fruticose

Duff

Granitic Flatrock

Cladonia macilenta v. macilenta

Fruticose

Soil

Granitic Flatrock

Cladonia macilenta v. bacillaris

Fruticose

Wood

Forest floor

Cladonia ochrochlora

Fruticose

Soil, Wood

Forest floor

Cladonia parasitica

Fruticose

Wood

Granitic Flatrock

Cladonia petrophila

Squamulose

Rock

Forested outcrops

Cladonia peziziformis

Fruticose

Soil

Forest edge

Cladonia pleurota

Fruticose

Soil

Granitic Flatrock

Cladonia ramulosa

Fruticose

Rock

Forested outcrop

Cladonia rangiferina

Fruticose

Duff

Granitic Flatrock

Cladonia ravenelii

Fruticose

Bark

Granitic Flatrock

Cladonia robbinsii

Squamulose

Duff

Granitic Flatrock

Cladonia sobolescens

Fruticose

Duff

Granitic Flatrock

Cladonia strepsilis

Fruticose

Duff

Granitic Flatrock

Cladonia subtenuis

Fruticose

Duff

Granitic Flatrock

Cladonia symphycarpia

Fruticose

Soil

Granitic Flatrock

Coccocarpia palmicola (S)

Foliose

Bark, Rock

Forest floor

Coenogonium pineti

Crustose

Pine bark

Understory

Collema furfuraceum (S)

Foliose

Moss, Bark, Rock

Rocky bluff

Dermatocarpon luridum var. xerophyllum

Squamulose

Soil, Rock

Granitic Flatrock

Diploschistes scruposus

Crustose

Rock

Exposed outcrop

Endocarpon petrolepideum

Squamulose

Rock

Wetland overlook

Endocarpon sp.

Foliose

Rock

Exposed outcrop

Euopsis sp.

Crustose

Rock

Granitic Flatrock

Flavoparmelia baltimorensis (T)

Foliose

Rock

Outcrops

Flavoparmelia caperata (T)

Foliose

Bark

Forests

Glyphis cicatricosa

Crustose

Bark

Forest near wetland

Graphis lineola

Crustose

Bark

Understory

Graphis scripta

Crustose

Bark

Understory

Graphis striatula

Crustose

Bark

Understory

Gyalediopsis buckii

Crustose

Bark

Canopy

Heterodermia albicans

Foliose

Rock

Forest near wetland

Heterodermia obscurata

Foliose

Bark

Understory

Heterodermia speciosa

Foliose

Bark

Understory

Hypotrachyna livida

Foliose

Bark

Canopy

Ionaspis alba

Crustose

Rock

Forested outcrop

Lecanora hybocarpa

Crustose

Bark

Understory, Canopy

Lecanora strobilina

Crustose

Bark

Canopy

Lecanora subimmergens

Crustose

Rock

Forested outcrop

Lecanora subpallens

Crustose

Bark

Canopy

Lecanora sp.

Crustose

Wood

Forest floor

Leimonis erratica

Crustose

Rock

Granitic Flatrock

Leiorreuma explicans

Crustose

Bark

Understory, Edge

Lepraria caesiella

Crustose

Rock

Forested outcrop

Lepraria lobificans

Crustose

Bark, Rock, Moss

Forest floor

Lepraria normandinoides

Crustose

Rock

Forested outcrop

Lepraria cf. xanthonica

Crustose

Rock

Outcrops

Leptogium austroamericanum (S)

Foliose

Moss, Rock

Bluff outcrop

Leptogium cyanescens

Foliose

Bark, Rock, Moss

Forest floor

Lichenostigma cosmopolites

Lichenicole

Lichen

Granitic Flatrock

Lichenothelia sp. 1

Crustose

Rock

Granitic Flatrock

Lichenothelia sp. 2

Crustose

Rock

Outcrops

Loxospora pustulata

Crustose

Bark

Understory

Maronea polyphaea

Crustose

Bark

Canopy, Edge

Melaspilea sp. 1

Crustose

Bark

Understory

Melaspilea sp. 2

Crustose

Bark

Understory

Melaspilea sp. 3

Crustose

Bark

Understory

Micarea peliocarpa

Crustose

Rock

Forested outcrop

Mycoporum californicum

Crustose

Bark

Understory

Mycoporum compositum

Crustose

Bark

Understory

Mycoporum sparsellum

Crustose

Bark

Understory

Myelochroa aurulenta

Foliose

Bark, Rock, Moss

Floor, Understory

Myelochroa galbina

Foliose

Bark

Canopy

Myelochroa obsessa

Foliose

Rock

Forested outcrops

Nadvornikia sorediata

Crustose

Bark

Understory

Nephroma helveticum (S)

Foliose

Moss

Bluff outcrop

Ochrolechia africana

Crustose

Bark

Canopy

Opegrapha vulgata

Crustose

Bark

Understory, Edge

Parmelinopsis horrescens

Foliose

Bark

Understory

Parmelinopsis minarum

Foliose

Bark

Understory

Parmeliopsis subambigua

Foliose

Pine bark

Granitic Flatrock

Parmotrema hypoleucinum

Foliose

Wood

Forest floor

Parmotrema hypotropum

Foliose

Bark

Canopy

Parmotrema perforatum

Foliose

Bark

Canopy

Parmotrema reticulatum

Foliose

Bark, Rock

Forests, outcrops

Parmotrema subisidiosum

Foliose

Bark, Rock

Forests, outcrops

Parmotrema submarginale

Foliose

Bark

Canopy, Edge

Parmotrema ultralucens

Foliose

Rock

Forested outcrops

Parmotrema xanthinum

Foliose

Wood

Forest floor

Pertusaria epixantha

Crustose

Bark

Understory, Canopy

Pertusaria macounii

Crustose

Bark

Exposed areas

Pertusaria multipunctoides

Crustose

Rock

Forested outcrop

Pertusaria opthalmiza

Crustose

Bark

Understory

Pertusaria ostiolata

Crustose

Bark

Understory

Pertusaria paratuberculifera

Crustose

Bark

Understory

Pertusaria propinqua

Crustose

Bark

Understory

Pertusaria subpertusa

Crustose

Bark

Forest edge

Pertusaria tetrathalamia

Crustose

Bark

Forest edge

Pertusaria texana

Crustose

Bark

Understory, Canopy

Pertusaria trachythallina

Crustose

Bark

Understory

Pertusaria xanthodes

Crustose

Bark

Understory

Phaeographis inusta

Crustose

Bark

Understory, Edge

Phaeographis subfulgurata

Crustose

Bark

Forests

Phaeographis sp.

Crustose

Bark

Forests

Phaeophyscia adiastola

Foliose

Rock

Forested outcrops

Phaeophyscia pusilloides

Foliose

Bark

Forest near wetland

Phaeophyscia rubropulchra

Foliose

Bark, Rock

Forests, Outcrops

Phaeophyscia squarrosa

Foliose

Rock

Forested outcrop

Phlyctis ludoviciensis

Crustose

Bark

Understory

Phlyctis petraea

Crustose

Rock

Forested outcrops

Phyllopsora confusa

Crustose

Rock

Forested outcrop

Phyllopsora corallina

Crustose

Bark

Forest near wetland

Physcia americana

Foliose

Bark

Understory

Physcia millegrana (T)

Foliose

Bark

Exposed areas

Physcia pumilior

Foliose

Bark

Canopy

Physcia subtilis

Foliose

Rock

Forested outcrops

Physciella chloantha

Foliose

Bark

Understory

Piccolia ochrophora

Crustose

Bark

Canopy

Polysporina simplex

Crustose

Rock

Exposed outcrops

Polysporina subfuscescens

Lichenicole

Rock

Granitic Flatrock

Porpidia herteliana

Crustose

Rock

Forested outcrops

Porpidia macrocarpa

Crustose

Rock

Granitic Flatrock

Pseudosagedia cestrensis

Crustose

Bark

Understory

Pseudosagedia guentheri

Crustose

Rock

Forested outcrops

Punctelia rudecta (T)

Foliose

Bark, Rock

Exposed areas

Pyrenopsis sp. (sterile, micro-areolate)

Crustose

Rock

Granitic Flatrock

Pyrenopsis sp. (fertile, granular)

Crustose

Rock

Granitic Flatrock

Pyrenula caryae

Crustose

Bark

Forest near wetland

Pyrenula pseudobufonia

Crustose

Bark

Understory

Pyrenula subelliptica

Crustose

Bark

Oak-Hickory Forest

Pyrrhospora varians

Crustose

Bark

Understory

Pyxine sorediata

Foliose

Rock

Forest near wetland

Pyxine subcinerea (T)

Foliose

Bark, Rock

Forests

Ramalina americana s. lat. (S)

Fruticose

Bark

Forest near wetland

Ramalina paludosa (S)

Fruticose

Bark

Canopy

Rinodina maculans

Crustose

Bark

Canopy

Rinodina tephraspis

Crustose

Rock

Outcrops

Sarcogyne privigna

Crustose

Rock

Wetland overlook

Sarcogyne similis

Crustose

Rock

Forested outcrop

Strigula americana

Crustose

Bark

Forest near wetland

Trapelia coarctata

Crustose

Rock

Outcrop

Trapelia placodioides

Crustose

Rock

Outcrops

Trapeliopsis flexuosa

Crustose

Bark, Wood

Forest floor

Trypethelium virens

Crustose

Bark

Understory

Tuckermanella fendleri

Foliose

Pine bark

Loblolly stand

Usnea mutabilis (S)

Fruticose

Bark, Wood

Forests

Usnea pensylvanica (S)

Fruticose

Rock

Forested outcrop

Usnea strigosa (S)

Fruticose

Bark

Canopy

Usnea strigosa s. lat. (S)

Fruticose

Pine bark

Granitic Flatrock

Usnea subscabrosa (S)

Fruticose

Bark

Bottomland Forest

Xanthoparmelia conspersa

Foliose

Rock

Exposed outcrops

Xanthoparmelia hypomeleana

Foliose

Rock

Outcrop


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