1997. Sample sizes appear in parentheses. References follow summary




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Appendix

Summary of studies on birds that have tested for a sex-bias amongst offspring in the event of extra-pair fertilization (excludes studies that did not determine sex using molecular methods, e.g. Kempenaers et al. 1997). Sample sizes appear in parentheses. References follow summary.

_______________________________________________________________________________

Sex-bias detected at the level of:



Species Individuals? Broods? Reference






Black swan

No (258)

No (28)

Kraaijeveld et al. (2007)

Cygnus atratus  






















Tree swallow (Wisconsin)

No (122)

No (31)

Whittingham & Dunn (2001)

Tachycineta bicolor






















Tree swallow (Ontario)

No (284)

Yes-female (50)

Delmore et al. (2008)













Fairy martin

--

No (29)

Magrath et al. (2002)

Petrochelidon ariel






















Barn swallow

No (74)

--

Saino et al. (1999)

Hirundo rustica






















Blue tit (England)

No (986)

No (103)

Leech et al. (2001)

Cyanistes caeruleus






















Blue tit (France)

No (850)

--

Dreiss et al. (2005)













Coal tit

No (2388)

No (457)

Dietrich-Bischoff et al. (2006)

Periparus ater






















Black-capped chickadee

No (118)

No (174)

Ramsay et al. (2003)

Poecile atricapilla






















House wren

Yes-male (2345)

No (476)

This study

Troglodytes aedon


































Great reed warbler

--

No (175)

Westerdahl et al. (1997)

Acrocephalus arundinaceus






















Collared flycatcher (Sweden)

No (102)

No (19)

Sheldon & Ellegren (1996)

Ficedula albicollis






















Collared flycatcher (Poland)

--

No (27)

Wilk et al. (2008)













Collared flycatcher (Hungary)

No (87)

--

Rosivall et al. (2009)













Bluethroat (Norway)

No (≤475)

--

Johnsen et al. (2000)

Luscinia svecica






















Bluethroat (France)

No (68)

--

Questiau et al. (2000)













Red-capped robin

Trend-male (171)

--

Dowling & Mulder (2006)

Petroica goodenovii






















Common yellowthroat

No (486)

--

Abroe et al. (2007)

Geothlypis trichas






















Reed bunting (Norway)

No (87)

--

Kleven & Lifjeld (2004)

Emberiza schoeniclus






















Reed bunting (Netherlands)

No (393)

--

Bouwman et al. (2007)













Reed bunting (Switzerland)

No (792)

--

Suter et al. (2007)













Savannah sparrow

No (403)

--

Freeman-Gallant et al. (2006)

Passerculus sandwichensis






















Red-winged blackbird

No (113)

No (78)

Westneat et al. (1995)

Agelaius phoeniceus










_________________________________________________________________________________
REFERENCES

Abroe, B., Garvin, J. C., Pedersen, M. C., Whittingham, L. A. & Dunn, P.O. 2007 Brood sex ratios are related to male size but not to attractiveness in common yellowthroats (Geothlypis trichas). Auk 124, 176-184.

Bouwman, K. M., van Dijk, R. E., Wijmenga, J. J. & Komdeur, J. 2007 Older male reed buntings are more successful at gaining extrapair fertilizations. Anim. Behav. 73, 15-27.

Delmore, K. E, Kleven, O., Laskemoen, T., Crowe, S. A., Lifjeld, J. T. & Robertson, R. J. 2008 Sex allocation and parental quality in tree swallows. Behav. Ecol. 19, 1243-1249.

Dietrich-Bischoff, V., Schmoll, T., Winkel, W., Krackow, S. & Lubjuhn, T. 2006 Extra-pair paternity, offspring mortality and offspring sex ratio in the socially monogamous coal tit (Parus ater). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 60, 563-571.

Dowling, D. K. & Mulder, R. A. 2006 Combined influence of maternal and paternal quality on sex allocation in red-capped robins. J. Evol. Biol. 19, 440-449.

Dreiss, A., Richard, M., Moyen, F, White, J, Møller, A. P. & Danchin, E. 2006 Sex ratio and male sexual characters in a population of blue tits, Parus caeruleus. Behav. Ecol. 17, 13-19.

Freeman-Gallant, C. R., Wheelwright, N. T., Meiklejohn, K. E. & Sollecito, S. V. 2006 Genetic similarity, extrapair paternity, and offspring quality in savannah sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis). Behav. Ecol. 17, 952-958.

Johnsen, A., Anderson, V., Sunding, C. & Lifjeld, J. T. 2000 Female bluethroats enhance offspring immunocompetence through extrapair copulations. Nature 406, 296-299.

Kempenaers, B., Verheyen, G. R. & Dhondt, A. A. 1997 Extrapair paternity in the blue tit (Parus caeruleus): female choice, male characteristics, and offspring quality. Behav. Ecol. 8, 481-492.

Kleven, O. & Lifjeld, J. T. 2004 Extrapair paternity and offspring immunocompetence in the reed bunting, Emberiza schoeniclus. Anim. Behav. 68, 283-289.

Kraaijeveld, K., Ming, M., Komdeur, J. & Mulder, R. A. 2007 Offspring sex ratios in relation to mutual ornamentation and extra-pair paternity in the black swan Cygnus atratus. Ibis 149, 79-85.

Leech, D. I., Hartley, I. R., Stewart, I. R. K., Griffith, S. C. & Burke. T. 2001 No effect of parental quality or extrapair paternity on brood sex ratio in the blue tit (Parus caeruleus) Behav. Ecol. 12, 674-680.

Magrath, M. J. L., Green, D. J. & Komdeur, J. 2002 Sex allocation in the sexually monomorphic fairy martin. J. Avian Biol. 33, 260-268.

Questiau, S., Escaravage, N., Eybert, M.-C. & Taberlet, P. 2000 Nestling sex ratios in a population of bluethroats Luscinia svecica inferred from AFLPTM analysis, J. Avian Biol. 31, 8-14.

Ramsay, S. M., Mennill, D. J., Otter, K. A., Ratcliffe, L. M. & Boag, P. T. 2003 Sex allocation in the black-capped chickadees Poecilie atricapillus. J. Avian Biol. 34, 134-139.

Rosivall, B., Szöllȍsi, E. Hasselquist, D. & Török, J. 2009 Effects of extrapair paternity and sex on nestling growth and condition in the collared flycatcher, Ficedula albicollis. Anim. Behav. 77, 611-617.

Saino, N., Ellegren, H. & Møller, A. P. 1999 No evidence for adjustment of sex allocation in relation to paternal ornamentation and paternity in barn swallows. Molec. Ecol. 8, 399-406.

Sheldon, B. C. & Ellegren, H. 1996 Offspring sex and paternity in the collared flycatcher. Proc. R. Soc. B 263, 1017-1021.

Suter, S. M., Keiser, M., Feignoux, R. & Meyer, D. R. 2007 Reed bunting females increase fitness through extra-pair mating with genetically dissimilar males. Proc. R. Soc. B 274, 2865-2871.

Westerdahl, H., Bensch, S., Hansson, B., Hasselquist, D. & VonSchantz, T. 1997 Sex ratio variation among broods of great reed warblers Acrocephalus arundinaceus. Molec. Ecol. 6, 543-548.

Westneat, D. F., Clark, A. B. & Rambo, K. C. 1995 Within-brood patterns of paternity and paternal behavior in red-winged blackbirds. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 37, 349-356.

Whittingham, L. A. & Dunn, P. O. 2001 Survival of extrapair and within-pair young in tree swallows. Behav. Ecol. 12, 496-500.

Whittingham, L. A. & Dunn, P. O. 2005 Effects of extra-pair and within-pair reproductive success on the opportunity for selection in birds. Behav. Ecol. 16, 138-144.



Wilk, T., Cichoń, M, & Wolf, K. 2008 Lack of evidence for improved immune response of extra-pair nestlings in collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis. J. Avian Biol. 39, 546-552.




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