|Appendix A. Transition matrices for two perennial herbs presented as functions of conditional vital rates (n=22 for both species). s = survival probabilities for life stages, g = probability of growing to a larger stage (one or several stages), r = probability of reverting to a smaller stage (one or several stages), f = fecundity containing offspring production and offspring survival. Note that growth and retrogression over two or more stages (g2j, g2sv, g3sv, g2lv, r2sf, r2lf, r3lf for Silene and g2j, g3j, g2sv, g3sv, g2mv, r2lv, r2f, r3f for Erigeron) are excluded from all analyses.
juvenile, (j) small vegetative, (sv) large vegetative, (lv) small flowering, (sf) large flowering, (lf)
(<1cm, 1 shoot) (1-14cm, 1-3 shoots) (>3 shoots) (1-5 shoots) (>5 shoots)
Erigeron acris subsp. decoloratus
juvenile, (j) small vegetative, (sv) medium vegetative, (mv) large vegetative, (lv) flowering, (f)
(leaf 0.5 cm) (leaf 1-4cm) (leaf >4cm) (≥2 shoots)
Appendix B. Temporal variation (CVcalculated across years and corrected with the maximum possible variation) of the main vital rates in relation to (a) habitat openness and (b) the number of matrices based on 17 Erigeron acris subsp. decoloratus populations. F=fecundity, G=growth, R=retrogression, S=survival, closed denotes habitats with <30% bare ground, while open denotes habitats with ≥30% bare ground.