臺灣產葉蟬科與尖胸沫蟬科分類研究之回顧與現況 a review and the present status on the taxonomy of Cicadellidae (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha: Membracoidea) and Aphrophoridae (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha: Cercopoidea) of Taiwan




Дата канвертавання17.04.2016
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臺灣產葉蟬科與尖胸沫蟬科分類研究之回顧與現況

A review and the present status on the taxonomy of Cicadellidae (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha: Membracoidea) and Aphrophoridae (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha: Cercopoidea) of Taiwan
石憲宗1* 楊正澤2

Hsien-Tzung Shih1* and Jen-Tze Yang2


1* Division of Applied Zoology, Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute, Council of Agriculture, Wufeng, Taichung 413, Taiwan, ROC. ( * Corresponding author, e-mail: htshih@wufeng.tari.gov.tw)

2 Department of Entomology, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Rd., Taichung 402, Taiwan, ROC.
中文摘要

葉蟬與沫蟬皆具有刺吸式口器,葉蟬是吸食植物木質部、或韌皮部或葉肉細胞的汁液為生,沫蟬則是吸食木質部的汁液為生。絕多數的葉蟬與少數的沫蟬為農業經濟害蟲,因為這兩個類群的昆蟲均具有傳播植物病原細菌的能力,且葉蟬尚可傳播植物菌質體或植物病毒的能力,因此研究此兩類群的分類學研究更顯重要。全世界的葉蟬科與尖胸沫蟬科昆蟲分別有25000900種左右,臺灣約有374種葉蟬及73種尖胸沫蟬。在西元1940年之前,此2分類群的主要分類研究學者為松村松年博士,其餘尚有日本的加藤正世 (Masayo Kato)與德國的索瑪裘氏 (F. Schumacher),然而學者在這段時間所建立新分類群的依據,卻僅有少數的形態特徵與顏色型式,且缺乏與具名種類作全面性的橫向比較,這些新分類群的原始描述過於簡單、或某些如加藤正世的模式已經不存在等等問題,造成現今臺灣或東亞地區葉蟬及沫蟬分類研究的諸多困擾。1941年以後,歷經30~50年,才有某些本土與國外學者研究臺灣產葉蟬科及尖胸沫蟬科的分類工作。目前臺灣產葉蟬科與尖胸沫蟬科的分類研究工作,主要是以雄蟲生殖器從事屬級與種級層次的分類修訂。除此,未來研究重點包括建立亞科或屬級層次的診斷特徵,以及針對農業經濟重要性種類建立鑑定資料。

關鍵詞:葉蟬科、尖胸沫蟬科、分類、臺灣。

英文摘要

Although both leafhoppers and spittlebugs have piercing sucking mouthparts, they feed on different parts of the plants. Leafhoppers feed on plant sap from xylem, or phloem, or mesophyll; but spittlebugs feed on plant sap only from xylem. Most leafhoppers and a few spittlebugs are agricultural pests due to they can transmit plant-infecting bacteria, especially the leafhoppers also can transmit plant infecting phytoplasma or virus. Thus, the taxonomy on the two families is extremely important. The total numbers of species for the families Cicadellidae (so called leafhoppers) and Aphrophoridae (one kind of spittlebugs) are 25000 and 900 species respectively in the world, of which 374 cicadellid and 73 aphrophorid species are recorded from Taiwan. Before 1940, Shonen Matsumura did most of the taxonomic studies on the Taiwanese leafhoppers and spittlebugs. The rest works were mainly done by Masayo Kato and F. Schumacher. At that time, taxonomists established new taxa usually based on a few morphological characters and coloration patterns, and described unclear species delimitations by no comparisons with allied species. Furthermore, the information on the type deposition of Kato’s type specimens is still unknown. Most of taxonomic problems above have a great effect upon the subsequent taxonomy on leafhoppers and spittlebugs of Taiwan and eastern Asia. After 1941, the taxonomy of Cicadellidae and Aphrophoridae of Taiwan had not been studied about 30 and 50 years respectively. Then, taxonomies of Cicadellidae and Aphrophoridae are studied again by some taxonomists from 1970, e.g. C. C. Chiang, K.W. Huang, H. T. Shih, and a few foreign taxonomists. At present time, Cicadellidae and Aphrophoridae of Taiwan are revised taxonomically based on the male genitalia; in addition, the diagnostic characters on subfamilial or generic category and identifications of agriculturally economic species will also be done in near future.

Key worlds: Cicadellidae, Aphrophoridae, taxonomy, Taiwan.


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