การท่องเที่ยวและการขนส่งทางเรือ (Ferries and Cruising)
ประวัติการท่องเที่ยวและการขนส่งทางรถเรือ (Background of Ferries and Cruising)
การท่องเที่ยวทางเรือ (Holiday Initiative)
การจัดนำเที่ยวทางเรือ (Packaged Travel)
เมื่อศึกษาบทที่ 2 จบแล้วนิสิตสามารถ
1. BACKGROUND OF FERRIES AND CRUISING
The shipping industry, including ferries and cruising companies, has a longer history than many transport forms. Indeed, Holloway (1994) describes some of the companies that are active in this area today, including P&O and Cunard, as having been in existence since the Victorian era. Like air and rail transport providers these companies do not deal exclusively with the transport of passengers but also with cargo. It is only with the transportation of tourists that this chapter is concerned. It has already been mentioned elsewhere in this book that, in most developed countries, private cars account for more leisure journeys than does any other form of transport. Developments to enable international car travel have therefore been formed. Specifically car ferries and tunnel developments have been important. These also have the benefit of accommodating rail and foot passengers.
Prior to the introduction of air travel, the international movement of tourists was greatly accommodated by the shipping companies who enjoyed healthy profits. Holloway (1994) describes the early days of the steamship as summarized in Figure 2.1. Britain can be seen to have pioneered deep-sea services and dominated world shipping in the latter part of the nineteenth century. Holloway further describes the global growth of shipping as leading to shipping conferences which would develop cartel-like agreements on fares as well as conditions applicable to the carriage of traffic ensuring year-round profitability in a highly seasonal market. This has much in common with practice in the airline industry prior to deregulation.
The first regular commercial cross-channel steamship service was
Introduced in 1821 on the Dover-Calais route. The importance of their links with these cross-channel ferry companies was quickly recognized by the railway companies of the day
The Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company (later P&O) is credited with establishing the first regular long-distance steamship service with operations to India and the Far East
1840 The Cunard Steamship company, with a lucrative mail contract, began regular services to the American continent in 1840
By now the railway companies had gained the right to own and operate the steamships themselves. These railway companies rapidly expanded the cross-channel services in a short period
1869 The opening of the Suez Canal stimulated demand for P&O’s services to India and beyond as Britain’s Empire looked eastwards
Figure 2.1. The early days of the steamship, Source: based on Holloway (1994).
The contemporary ferry Market
Ferries, of differing types, offer short-distance transportation both for local communities, on short domestic routes, and for tourists. The latter utilize short and longer domestic and international routes. A key distinction that can be drawn is that between local ferries and sea-going ferries. Both play a significant role in travel and tourism. Local ferries can help tourists to access areas that otherwise would be difficult to reach. Sea-going ferries often operate on key tourist routes between countries. Particularly relevant to this chapter are ferry services linking countries separated by water and meeting the needs of international car, coach and foot passengers. These services may be provided by regular ships, hovercraft, seacat or high-speed sea service (HSS). Modern vessels have greatly increased manoeuvrability and turn-arounds in ports and reduced requirements for dock facilities.
Some countries, such as Greece, have extensive provision of ferry services connecting islands, particularly the more remote islands without airports, to the mainland and to one another. Independent tourists, arriving in Athens by air, often proceed to the ferry ports to travel onward to their holiday destination or destinations.
The UK has reasonably well developed international ferry services and Key Note (1999) describes these ferry operations in and around the UK as falling into the following three main geographical route categories:
UK to continental
UK to Eire
These routes were serviced by twelve companies operating internationally in 1998 as well as several domestic operators. Stena is the only operator to service all three of the above sectors. International ferries in the UK are operated by companies from a variety of countries including Britain, Ireland, Scandinavia, France and Belgium. The leading companies, by volume, are P&O European Ferries, Stena Line, Brittany Ferries and Seafrance. Caledonian MacBrayne is the largest ferry operator on the West coast of Scotland, connecting the islands to the mainland and running inter-island ferries. Around half of all ferry traffic out of the UK – 20 million passengers per year in each direction – are travelling on the crucial Dover – Calais route. Other significant routes are Harwich-Hook of Holland, Ramsgate – Dunkerque/Ostend, and routes to Ireland from Holyhead, Stranraer and Liverpool to name but a few.
The European ferry market is a healthy one, possibly stemming from the popularity of holidays by car and coach. The development of new ferry routes has no doubt helped to grow the market. Among the busiest routes are those across the narrowest points of the channel from Dover to Calais. Large roll-on, roll-off vessels, capable of carrying several hundred cars and several thousand passengers operated on these routes. Bateson and Hoffman (1999) discussing Sealink Ferries, on of the operators on these routes, examines the company’s pricing structure. This is based on raising fares during peak periods such as school holidays and lowering them in mid-week and midwinter. This is a common strategy across most ferry companies and indeed most transport forms.
2. HOLIDAY INITIATIVES
A number of significant holiday initiatives have evolved around transportation by ferry. Companies such as Brittany Ferries operate holiday programmes to France and Spain for the UK market. The company offers a choice of 1500 gites in France alone. Channel crossings range from four to nine hours, operating between Portsmouth, Poole and Plymouth to St Malo, Roscoff, Caen and Cherbourg. For destinations in southern France as well as the Spanish destinations, it is possible to sail to Santander in Spain.The established ferry market between the UK and France/Spain was greatly challenged by the opening of the Channel Tunnel
2.1 The Channel Tunnel
Development of the Channel Tunnel has been significant in terms of European transportation. Arguably this is not merely a form of sea transportation, incorporating as it does elements of travel by both car and train. The infrastructure itself nonetheless offers consumers a route across the English channel that otherwise would not be available to them. Linking Britain and France, this transport. System has three main elements shown below:
Eurotunnel: owns and operates the physical infrastructure.
Le Shuttle: rail service moving passengers, cars and freight on road trucks.
Eurostar: direct services by rail
The provision of rail services by Le Shuttle and Eurostar are discussed in more detail in Chapter 6 whilst the remainder of this chapter’s coverage of the channel tunnel is concerned with the impact on ferry services and their responses to this.
Statistics relating to the cross-Channel routes confirm that the Tunnel services have expanded the overall market for travel between the UK and Continental Europe. Mintel (2000) describes Eurostar’s passenger numbers as having risen by 4.5 per cent in 1999 to reach 6.6 million. For independent travellers in particular, who mostly ‘turn up and go’, this offers an easy means to undertake Eurostar journeys without the use of a tour operator or travel agent.
Impact on ferry services
Despite the opening of the Channel Tunnel, ferry services still account for over half of the sea holidays of the UK. Competition from Eurostar and Le Shuttle has however had a considerable effect on cross channel ferry operations not least of all in forcing some rationalization in the UK industry. In common with air transportation on competitive routes, the ferry companies have lost passengers to the tunnel. By some measures the Channel Tunnel now accounts for between 40 and 55 per cent of the market. Prior to development of the Channel Tunnel, the only real competitor to the cross-channel ferries were the airlines of other water-borne services such as hovercraft and jetfoils. The former were then an expensive option whilst the latter encountered problems during poor weather. The Channel Tunnel, by contrast, was a strong competitor, offering uninterrupted services which are both frequent and considerably faster than the ferry services.
The response from the ferry companies
The ferry operators responded to this challenge at the time in a variety of ways as outlined in Figure 2.2. Principally this involved the ferry companies in investing heavily in their fleets and increasing the frequency of services on short sea routes – those considered to be most at risk. Promotional activities, some of which were in collboration with British Tourist Authority (BTA) or other tourist boards, were undertaken and there was much emphasis on the ereation of incoming tour programmes. The merger of the short-sea crossing routes operated by Stena and P&O European Ferries into a new company, P&O Stena, in 1998 is an example of this. P&O Stena Line is now the largest UK ferry operator and the merging of the two companies was only allowed after a lengthy inquiry by the authorities. There had been long-standing restrictions on ferry companies working together but the Office of Fair Trading (OFT) finally agreed to ‘pooling’ of cross channel services given the impact of the Channel Tunnel on traffic. Individual applications are still looked at by the competition authorities however. Finally, there were fears of a price war following the opening of the Channel Tunnel. Whilst this did not occur immediately, later moves by Le Shuttle to slash their prices were met by price cuts from the ferry companies also.
Rationalization in the sector
Heavy investment in their fleets (several hundred million pounds)
Increased frequencies (especially on short routes)
Intensive marketing activities including competitive pricing and involvement with promotions
Increased collaboration with the travel industry (e.g. tour operators, hotels)
Figure 2.2. The ferry companies’ responses to competition from the Channel Tunnel.
The shipping lines have also introduced fast ferries to compete with Eurostar and Le Shuttle. Some ferry journeys have been reduced by half as a result of this. Mintel (2000) describes Stena Line’s fast ferry service from Harwich to The Hook of Holland as having cut sailing time from seven hours to three hours and 40 minutes. A further development has been the addition of leisure services (particularly to longer crossings) as illustrated below, making the journey part of the overall holiday experience. Many of the leisure developments also have potential to stimulate on-board spending. Whilst facilities vary from vessel to vessel, the table below provides an indication of those onboard Stena Line ferries to Ireland, Holland and Scandinavia from the UK. Improved catering, retailing and entertainment all went some way towards making some ferry journeys resemble mini-cruises. Indeed, this was an explicit objective on the part of some ferry companies. In addition to the development of the Channel Tunnel, the ferry companies at the end of the 1990s were acutely aware of the threat posed by the loss of duty-free sales. This was discussed in the lead up to the Single European Market and came into effect in 1999. By the end of the 1990s, facilities onboard ferries were often extensive.
General Bars Lounges
Information desk Globetrotier Club lounge
Shopping Spikes Globetrotter lounge
Viewing gallery Stingers Panorama lounge
Bureau de Change
Casino Ben & Jerry’s
Children’s areas Cupa Cabana
Children’s cinema Globetrotter
Onboard entertainment Hot Sticks
Video lounges Maximes
Video wall MacDonald’s
Video warp Rudi’s Diner
Figure 2.3. Indicative onboard Stena Line ferry facilities. Source: based on Stena Line, Fast Ferry and Ferry Guide, Edition 2 (2000).
A number of new modes of transport are available on some ferry routes and are often faster on these short routes. In some cases these transport forms can cover different types of terrain. These include the Hydrofoil/Jetfoil, the Seacat and the Hovercraft. Horner (1996) describes hovercraft as travelling on a cushion of air so that they ride above rather than on the waves. They are therefore more reliant on good weather than traditional ferries but given this they are faster. These have however recently been withdrawn from some routes. The same author describes Seacat as a catamaran service and HSS as drawing heavily on aircraft design to offer increased speed and comfort. Whilst not new, paddle steamers are a further form of transport used by tourists.
3. PACKAGED TRAVEL
The main suppliers of water-borne packaged travel are the cruise lines who offer more of a leisure product than a mode of transportation. The passenger shipping industry has, since the virtual demise in the 1950s of the ocean liners that operated across the Atlantic and to the Empire become more concerned with the provision of leisure cruises. Passenger ships were the forerunners to the present-day cruise ships and have more or less been replaced by them. Small numbers of tourists are still transported by cargo ship. These call at cargo docks rather than passenger terminals.
3.1 The Cruise Industry
Cruising is a dynamic sector of the tour operations industry that has experienced phenomenal growth in recent years. Indeed, it is one of the fastest growing sectors of the travel business with bookings currently growing at least 15 per cent year on year. The industry has shown record numbers of orders for new vessels in recent years. There are currently around 50 new cruise ships either on order, under construction or on the drawing board. The majority of these new ships are large vessels capable of carrying 2000 passengers or more. Indeed, ships which can carry in excess of 3000 passengers are now being built. At the same time other companies are preparing to launch smaller and medium sized vessels. Despite all of this activity further growth potential is still evident. According to Buchanan (2000), the number of Britons taking cruises in 1999 was greater than the number that skied.
A high degree of concentration is evident in the cruise industry. Consolidation in the form of mergers and alliances have led to the creation of a small number of ‘mega-carriers.’ Indeed, the industry has experienced a number of high profile takeovers. In common with other travel trade and transport areas, a number of dominant groups have emerged in the cruise industry and look set to continue to do so in the short term at least. There are four of these dominant groups – Carnival Corporation, Royal Caribbean International/Celebrity Cruises, P&O Princess Cruises and Star Cruises/Norwegian Cruise Line – as detailed in Figure 2.4. According to Wild (2000), Carnival, the current leader, also has the greatest share of new orders with fifteen ships capable of carrying 33,000 passengers and costing $6.3 billion on order. Together the big four are taking 87 per cent of the new capacity due to come on stream and bearing 83 per cent of the cost.
Carnival corporation Royal Caribbean International/
Carnival Cruise Lines Royal Caribbean International
Holland America Line Celebrity Cruises
Seabourn Cruise Line
Airtours Sun Cruises (26 per cent stake)
Total capacity of existing fleet: 71,344 Total capacity of existing fleet: 32,992
(including Airtours Sun Cruises 4196)
Total capacity on order: 33, 192 Total capacity on order: 56,656
P&O Princess Cruises Star Cruises/Norwegian Cruise Line
Princess Cruises Star Cruises
P&O Cruises NCL
Swan Hellenic Orient Liners
Aida Cruises Norwegian Capricorn Line
Festival Cruises (dissolved October, 2000)
Total capacity of existing fleet: 11,338 Total capacity of existing fleet: 24,236
Total capacity on order: 26,404 Total capacity on order: 15, 004
Figure 2.4. The ‘big four’ cruise lines. Source: adapted from Travel Trade Gazette, 22 May 2000.
Specialist cruise lines
In addition to the main cruise companies outlined above there are smaller, more specialist operators such as Disney Cruise Line which offers family holidays. Gusets. can combine a stay at Walt Disney World Resort in Florida with a visit to Disney’s exclusive Caribbean island: Castaway Cay. The Disney fleet includes two vessels – Disney Magic and Disney Wonder – which visit destinations in Florida and the Bahamas. Further specialist cruise companies are Fred Olsen Cruise Line and Louis Cruise Lines. The former is a Norwegian operated shipping company which has been is existence for 150 years and is still owned by the Olsen family. The latter operates two, three and seven day mini-cruises from Cyprus. Clipper Cruise Lines is a further niche player offering unusual cruises and Windstar Sail Cruises of Miami are a well-known sail cruise company.
Once again, in common with the other travel trade and transport sectors, the cruise industry is becoming more global in outlook. This should help them to attract the demand necessary given the increased capacity that the sector has on order. Wild (2000) describes both Carnival and Royal Caribbean as having a largely North American focus, with some more international aspects to their operation, Star and P&O are both far more global in operational terms. P&O for example has built a pan-Euroean niche as well as which it has cruise activities based in the USA and Australia. P&O/Princess Cruises was due to demerge from the rest of the P&O Group at the time of writing
Having introduced the nature of the industry it is important also to consider the cruise product itself.
Poon (1993) has described cruise lines as the leaders in flexible production in the tourism industry for the reasons outlined in Figure 2.5. She also attributes cruise ships with ‘mass customizing’ the market by using their enormous economies of scale to produce ‘flexible’ holidays at relatively low prices for large numbers of clients.
Varied ports of call
Varied activities at each port of call/onboard
Varied attractions at each port of call/onboard
Global sourcing of materials
Global sourcing of labour
Segmentation opportunities (e.g. romantic cruises, adventure cruises, sophisticated cruises)
Figure 2.5. Accounting for the ‘flexibility’ of cruise lines Source: adapted from Poon (1993).
The cruise industry has already been described above as a dynamic one. To many, familiar with the traditional image of cruises as travel products aimed at an elderly, upmarket clientele, this description may seem unlikely. The traditional image of cruising is provided in Figure 2.6. Many within the industry have worked hard at trying to change this image of cruising not only through new product developments but also through the use of public relations campaigns. Cruise lines have had a common interest in working both separately and together to break down traditional consumer perceptions and expand the market.
Emphasis on high service levels
Provision of security and comfort (whilst visiting destinations often that had a lack of
developed tourist infrastructure )
Itineraries that included visits to several destinations (in comfort as opposed to most mobile
Destinations in the Mediterranean and Caribbean popular
Figure 2.6. The traditional image of cruising.
New product developments
The industry has however successfully managed to attract a far broader customer base in recent years by varying its product offering. Some of the ways in which this has been done are outlined in Figure 2.7. An important development in the 1960s was that of Fly Curises which transport passengers by aircraft to the departure point for the cruise. This helped to overcome problems caused by poor weather and rougher seas closer to home so helping to fuel the growth of the cruise market. These fly cruises also mean that companies can consolidate passenger numbers from different locations. This helps to maximize load numbers. At the opposite end of the scale to these fly cruises are domestic cruises operated in the waters around Britain. Destinations for cruises are discussed further below. Large amounts of money are being invested in new ships with some companies preferring this method of growth to mergers and acquisitions. These new ships can offer greatly improved facilities. Royal Caribbean International’s mega-ship, Voyages of the Seas, even has a rock-climbing wall, an ice rink, an in-line skating track and a mini-golf facility. One of the main strengths of the cruise industry can now be described as the wide variety of cruise formats it offers.
The giant ships now available and carrying huge numbers of passengers are often described as ‘resorts at sea’ offering passengers a range of facilities and entertainment options. These ships are however restricted in terms of the destinations they can visit due to their size
Short cruises enable those with less time or on a restricted budget to experience cruising
Some cruises are organized around a ‘theme’ Interests covered include architecture, gardening and wine. Cultural cruises with expert lecturers are also available
Cruises can be taken on board sailing ships. These are smaller than average cruise ships and the entertainment tends to be more basic. Like smaller luxury ships, these vessels can access small coves and out-of-the-way harbours
Some cruise ships have been designed with the farmily market in inind, incorporaling children’s swimming pools, play and social areas. Large ships with giant waterslides, computer centres, climbing and adventure areas and virtual reality games rooms meet the needs of this market
Cruise and stay
The ability to combine a cruise with a stay at a resort has increased the flexibility of cruising. In Alaska, for example, land stays enable cruise passengers to explore the Canadian Rockies and/ or the Alaskan interior
World cruises, which last around three months, have much in common with the traditional lengthy cruises which were only really available to those with the necessary time and money
Figure 2.7. Product offerings in the cruise sector. Source: based on Passenger Shipping Association Cruise Information Service (2000).
The spatial distribution of cruising is also changing. The once popular destinations, whilst still attractive to many, have been joined by newer cruise destinations. Parts of the Far East including Singapore have increased in popularity as ports of call. Less traditional destinations such as South America are also growing in popularity The development of mini-cruises has increased visitation to some locations closer to home. Private islands are also increasingly popular. Operators in the Caribbean in particular offer small coves or peninsulas that are not easily accessible other than by sea. These are sometimes leased from government or may even be shared between competitors. Laws (1997) attributes Norwegian Cruise Line (NCL) with pioneering this concept when it landed cruise ship passengers by tender on Great Stirrup Cay in the Bahamas for the first time in 1977. In 1986 NCL purchased the island and invested $1 million to upgrade facilities. A final trend is that of the larger ships toward becoming floating resorts which are like destinations themselves.
Cruise passengers can no longer be simply categorized as elderly and rich. Many of the product developments, described above, have helped cruise operators to attract a more varied clientele. Indeed, the development of mini-cruises has meant that the average price of cruises has fallen quit considerably. There has also been in shift in the age of the average cruise passenger from nearly 60 in 1993 to 54 in 1997. Age varies however from ship to ship and between destinations. The majority of cruise passengers worldwide are American and it is therefore noteworthy that the American market has long been broader than that in Europe. The family market has been a target for cruise lines in recent years. Despite often being a seasonal market, some operators have had success with this segment.
Tour operators and the cruise market
Tour operators have long been involved in the cruise market in the USA but have traditionally had far less involvement in the European cruise industry. Holloway (1994) describes attempts by European tour operators to enter the market in the 1970s by chartering or par-chartering cruise ships. These moves met with problems. Efforts to reduce prices led to dissatisfaction with standards of service and operation. More recent tour operator ventures into the cruise market have met with more success and cruising is now an important business for many of Europe’s mass market tour operators.
In May 2000, First Choice announced a tie-up with the cruise company Royal Caribbean, allowing the operator to step up competition with its vertically integrated rivals. Banjeree (2000) describes the deal as giving First Choice extra funds for expansion while the cruise line secures vital retail distribution. A squeeze on sales had been spurred by directional selling. At the same time this creates a joint-venture cruise company targeting the European market. Royal Caribbean effectively gains 20 per cent of Fist Choice as well as a seat on the board and an option to raise its stake to 29.9 per cent.
Several major tour operators have introduced cruise holidays, often combined with the option of a land based holiday. The buying power of these companies, together with their links with airlines, means they can offer competitively priced holidays. Airtours launched its cruise division, Sun Cruises, in 1995. The Airtours cruise operation is discussed more fully in Figure 2.8.
Airtours portfolio of cruise products contains the following three brands:
Sun Cruises, Airtours own fly/ cruise brand, operated exclusively for the Airtours Group and includes options to select accommodation from the major tour operator brochures. Sun Cruises carried 167,000 customers on a variety of Mediterranean and Caribbean cruises in 1999. One of the Sun Cruises vessel, MS Sunbird, was based in Palma, Majorca throughout summer 1999 and then moved to Barbados for winter
Costa Cruises specializes in / Mediterranean cruising and has a fleet of six ships.
Costa Cruises carried 362,000 passengers in 199
Direct Cruises offers cruises from the UK. These cruises operate from three UK ports – Glasgow, Dublin and Liverpool. Direct Cruises, which entered the UK market in 1998, was developed exclusively for Direct Holidays, 0ne of Airtours UK tour operators. Direct Cruises currently chaters a 962 birth cruise ship, SS Apollon, from a third party cruise operator and had 15,000 customers in 1999
Figure 2.8. Airtours cruise operation. Source: Airtours (2000).
Cruise lines have traditionally relied rather heavily on travel agent for distribution and this has been a lucrative source of commission earnings for agents. Specialist cruising agents have been developed including Cruise World, Mundy Cruising and The Cruise Line. The Passenger Shipping Association, introduced below, provides full lists of local agents. The tour operator-owned vessels can clearly benefit from the full distribution power of their parent companies. The use of technological distribution is also developing within the seator. According to Huxley (2000), Thomason opened a new call centre in 2000 and some of the 1000 staff employed work in a dedicated section to deal specifically with cruise enquiries and bookings.
It is not only the facilities onboard cruise ships that vary but. Also the size. The density or passenger space ratio (PSR) is one means, described by Horner (1996) to measure this. A ship’s gross registered tonnage (GRT) indicates its size and this can be found in manuals such as the ABC Cruise and Ferry Guide as can the maximum number of passengers for a ship. Dividing the GRT of the vessel by the number of passengers gives the density of the ship.
As with other forms of transport, there are associations with a cruise line membership. In the USA, the American Cruise Lines International Association (CLIA) is important whilst in the UK the Passenger Shipping Association is significant. The role of the Passenger Shipping Association (PSA) is outlined in Figure 2.9.
Formed in the 1950s, the Passenger Shipping Association (PSA) promotes passenger travel by sea. A cruise information service provides news and information for both holidaymakers and travel agents interested in cruising.
Factsheets are available covering both geographical areas and types of cruise.
A selection are listed below:
Baltic and Scandinavia
Wedding, honeymoon and anniversary
Conference and incentive
Figure 2.9. The Passenger Shipping Association (PSA). Source: Passenger Shipping Association (2000).
The negative impacts of cruising
In common with the tour operations sector more generally, cruising has attracted criticism for the effects that it con have on destinations and eco-systems. Some of the criticisms levelled at cruising are outlined in Figure 2.10.
Main ports can become very crowded when ships arrive
The infrastructure of the port and/ or resort visited can come under a great deal of pressure as large tourist numbers arrive for what is often a short spell
Eco-systems can be disturbed by the numbers of visitors/frequency of calls
There is a possibility of oil seepage
Dredge disturbs reefs and other organisms
The short time often spent at ports reduces the economic opportunities for local businesses
Figure 2.10. Criticisms levelled at cruising.
More detailed information covering cruising and cruise ships is available in the form of travel guides published by Berlitz and Fodor amongst others. Travel agents obtain details of both car ferries and cruise ships in the ABC Cruise and Ferry Guide.
3.2 BOATING HOLIDAYS
Coastal and inland waterways offer popular holiday options. Demand has grown for sailing holidays. Popular holiday options include canal boat trips or flotilla packages. Whilst France is a popular destination for canal boat holidays for UK holidaymakers, both the Greek Islands and the Caribbean are attractive for flotilla formation. Learn-to-sail package holidays have also captured some market share. Sailing is also one of many water-based sports activities offered by many of the all-inclusive holiday resorts such as Sandals.
Examine developments that have contributed to the growth of cruising in recent years.
Account for the intensity of competition in the cross-channel market.
Airtours PLC (1999) Annual Report and Accounts.
Banerjee, T. (2000) First Choice gains 200m for expansion, Travel Trade Gazette, 22 May.
Bateson, J.E.G. and Hoffman, K.D. (1999) Managing Services Marketing; Texts and Readings, The Dryden Press.
Berlitz (2000) Complete Guide to Cruising and Cruise Ships, Berlitz Publishing Ltd.
Buchanan, G. (2000) Supercruise: six stars all the way to South America, Sunday Times, 11 June, p. 6.1.
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EIU Travel and Tourism Analyst (1995) The Cruise Ship Industry to the 21st Century, No. 2.
Fodor’ Worldwide Cruises and Ports of Call.
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