海洋真菌之分類和種系發展史 (彭家禮) 膽固醇抑制劑monacolin K基因於紅麴菌中之特徵分析



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Character evolution of the powdery mildew fungi (Ascomycota: Erysiphales) inferred from molecular phylogenetic analyses (Susumu Takamatsu)

黑點根腐病菌子囊孢子在田間土壤中的族群變化(蘇俊峰,林益昇)

醣類資訊學利用模式預測醣類結構與功能之關係 (羅千婷.瞿港華.趙蓮菊.王伯徹.張正)

海洋真菌之分類和種系發展史 (彭家禮)

膽固醇抑制劑monacolin K基因於紅麴菌中之特徵分析 (陳煜沛、曾慶平、廖麗玲、王俊霖、陳怡靜、吳文蓉、吳明德、袁國芳)

Character evolution of the powdery mildew fungi (Ascomycota: Erysiphales) inferred from molecular phylogenetic analyses
Susumu Takamatsu

Graduate School of Bioresources, Mie University, Tsu 514-8507, Japan


Powdery mildew fungi (Erysiphales), which consist of 16 genera and about 650 species, are obligate holobiotrophs of plants. The Erysiphales forms a distinct monophyletic clade within the Leotiomycetes. This indicates that the holobiotrophy, as well as morphological characters unique to this fungal group, was acquired only once in the ancestor of the Erysiphales. They infect up to ten thousand angiosperm species, and do not infect gymnosperms and ferns. Molecular clock analyses using ssu and lsu rDNA regions revealed that the origin of the Erysiphales can be traced back to the late Cretaceous, after the origin of the angiosperms. Aceraceae, Fagaceae, Ulmaceae, and Salicaceae may be the early host families of the Erysiphales. It is noteworthy that most species of these plant families consist of deciduous trees, which indicates that the early host plants of the Erysiphales were deciduous trees. These data suggest that Erysiphales expanded their host ranges onto herbs numerous times during the Tertiary. Hirata (1976) pointed out that the Erysiphales are divided into two distinct groups of genera based on their host ranges, i.e., tree-parasitic genera and herb-parasitic genera. All of the herb-parasitic genera have mycelioid appendages on ascomata, whereas deciduous tree-parasitic genera represent various types of appendages such as dichotomously branched, uncinate to circinate, clavate, or bristle-like. The ascomata are considered an organ that endures the winter season in the Erysiphales. Ascomata of deciduous trees are easily dislodged and blown off the leaf surface by wind or rain after maturing, where upon they adhere to the bark of twigs by the appendages, and function as primary infection sources for the next year. On the contrary, ascomata of herbaceous- and evergreen tree-parasitic genera remain on the leaf surface even after maturing. Thus, the overwintering behavior of ascomata differs markedly between herbaceous and evergreen tree-parasitic genera and deciduous tree-parasitic genera with the morphology of appendages considered to be a result of adaptation by ascomata for overwintering. Molecular analyses show that the genera having mycelioid appendages are polyphyletic. This may indicate that the mycelioid appndages are derived characters as a result of simplification of appendages that occurred multiple times as an adaptation to herb-parasitism.
黑點根腐病菌子囊孢子在田間土壤中的族群變化
蘇俊峯1、林益昇2

1行政院農委會農業試驗所植物病理組,2國立中興大學植物病理學系
The population dynamic of Monosporascus cannonballus ascospores in field soils--Jiunn-Feng Su1 and Yi-Sheng Lin2 (1Plant Pathology Division, Agricultural Research Institute, COA,2Department of Plant Pathology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung).
Monosporascus cannonballus Pollack & Uecker為土壤傳播性子囊真菌,可引起洋香瓜黑點根腐病。本病原菌沒有無性世代,果實採收後子囊殼會在罹病根部的皮層產生,所產子囊內僅含有1顆子囊孢子,子囊孢子被視為是存活構造與初次感染源。由於本病原菌的子囊孢子無法或甚少在人工培養基上發芽,因此無法以稀釋平板法定量子囊孢子在土壤中的含量。網篩法(sieve method, SM)是普遍被應用來定量土壤中黑點腐病菌子囊孢子的含量的方法,利用網篩法所測得的結果,顯示每克土壤中平均含有5.2 個子囊孢子。但是我們的研究發現,使用網篩法自土壤中子囊孢子的回收率僅有28%。因此我們研發循環子囊孢子分離法(circulating ascospore isolation method, CAIM),其對子囊孢子的回收率則高達98%。利用CAIM法定量洋香瓜栽培期間田間土壤中子囊孢子的含量,結果顯示在植株定植後至採收前,其含量介於4.5-12.7 ascospores/g soil之間。雖然植株在採收後第7天,子囊殼已在細根(直徑 < 1 mm)上產生,到採收後第31天,子囊殼更佈滿主根,而且隨根直徑越大,子囊殼著生的密度也越大,這段期間土壤中子囊孢子數仍只介於6.3-15 ascospores/g soil之間。在植株採收後第38天,可由土壤中偵測到含有子囊孢子的子囊殼或植株根殘體(perithecium/root debris involved ascospores, PR debris),而且觀察到很多子囊殼已產生孔口(ostiole)並釋放子囊孢子。此時利用CAIM法可測得根圈土壤中含有95.9 ascospores/g soil,其中54.4顆存在於PR debris中,另外41.5顆則是分散在土壤中。在植株採收後第73天,罹病根部組織已經腐敗瓦解,利用CAIM法可測得土壤中含有303.5 ascospores/g soil,其中有107.5顆存在PR debris內,196顆則是分散在土壤中。經翻土整地後,再利用CAIM法測得土壤中子囊孢子則僅含有5.3-7.9 ascospores/g soil,並且無法偵測得到含有子囊孢子的PR debris。
Monosporascus cannonballus Pollack & Uecker, a soil borne ascomycete, is the causal pathogen of root rot/vine decline of muskmelon which is a destructive disease in muskmelon production. Perithecia, containing single-spored asci, are produced in the cortex of colonized roots after harvesting. No other spore stage is known to be produced by this pathogen; therefore, ascospores are considered to function as both the survival structure and primary inoculum. However, ascospores could not germinate in axenic media, so it could not be quantified the ascospore population in soils by dilution plates. In general sieve method is used for quantification of M. cannonballus ascospores in soils, and the result showed 5.2 ascospores/g soil by many researchers. But, in our study, there was only 28% of ascospore recovery rate by using sieve method. Therefore the circulating ascospore isolation method (CAIM) was developed, and there was 98% of ascospore recovery rate by using CAIM. Applying CAIM to count the ascospore numbers from field soils at muskmelon cultural periods, there were 4.5-12.7 ascospores/g soil between the period of after transplanting and before harvesting. Althought the perithecia produced on the roots which diameter less than 1 mm 7 days after harvesting, and on all of roots 31 days after harvesting, the ascospore numbers were still 6.3-15 ascospores/g soil. Untill 38 days after harvesting, we can observe ostiole producing on and ascospore releasing from perithecia. There were 95.9 ascospores/g soil inculding 54.4 ascospores existed in plant root debris, which meant perithecium/root debris involved ascospores in field soils, and 41.5 ascospores scattered in soils. The root tissues decomposed 73 days after harvesting and there were 303.5 ascospores/g soil inculding 107.5 ascospores existed in plant root debris and 196 ascospores scattered in soils. However, after plowing, the ascospore numberes were accounted only 5.3-7.9 ascospores/g soil, and no plant root debris were detected by CAIM.
醣類資訊學:利用模式預測醣類結構與功能之關係

羅千婷1, 2丶瞿港華2丶趙蓮菊3丶王伯徹4丶張正1

1交通大學生物科技研究所,2花蓮教育大學應用科學系,3清華大學統計研究所,4食品工業發展研究所

Glycoinformatics: The prediction model for structure-function relationships of glucans--Tiffany Chien Ting Lo1 , Chiu Kong Hwa2, Anne Lien Ju Chao3 , Bor Cheh Wang4 and Cheng Allen Chang1* (1Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, ROC, 2Department of Applied Science, National Hualien University of Education, Hualien, Taiwan, ROC, 3Institute of Statistics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, ROC, 4Food Industry Research and Development Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan, ROC)

利用多變量迴歸分析十種香菇多醣體中單醣組成與RAW264.7巨噬細胞活性的關聯及建立結構-活性預測模式,發現阿拉伯醣、黑藻醣、甘露醣及半乳醣與巨噬細胞活性有關聯。以主成分和因素分析法探就出阿拉伯醣、甘露醣、半乳醣及黑藻醣為亦多醣結構中的組成特色。香菇多醣雖然是以葡萄糖為主架構,然而葡萄糖並無顯示在模式預測的結果中。


Multiple linear regression analysis was used to deduce the correlation between the monosaccharide composition ratios of ten regionally different strains of Lentinula edodes and their in vitro macrophage stimulatory activities. Arabinose, xylose, mannose and galactose were identified as the monosaccharides that could be related to macrophage stimulatory activities. Additional principal component analysis and factor analysis methods were used to treat the same monosaccharide composition ratio data and the compositions of arabinose, xylose, mannose and galactose were found to be important. Interestingly, glucose, although presented in large compositions in all strains presumably forms the backbone of the polysaccharide structures, is not selected as the determinant factor for either structural characteristics or that of the in vitro macrophage stimulatory activities.


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