Water: a powerful Source and a Source to Power




Дата канвертавання24.04.2016
Памер15.05 Kb.
Water: A Powerful Source and a Source to Power

In the Greek world, nymphs were divinities venerated for their protection of precious water sources. Votives were offered to the nymphs to express the appreciation of Greeks for the vital resource they provided. These votives and prayers of thanks were given at rural shrines dedicated to the nymphs. The shrines were set up mostly at rural caves, the source of water and a place where nymphs were thought to inhabit. Referred to as nymphaea, these cave shrines were completely natural. Not only is their ample archaeological evidence of these shrines, but they are also mentioned by ancient sources, such as Pausanias and Homer. In the Roman period, however, nymphaea began to evolve into man-made structures. In Greece, nymphaea were built under Hadrian which were partially natural and partially superficial. The caves were manipulated to make them appear more extravagant and eye-catching. Nymphaea also began to be built in more urban settings. They were incorporated into the gardens of luxurious villas in Tivoli and Pompeii and also appear in the city of Rome itself. The nymphaea of Roman villas still kept their original connection with nature, but the nymphaea built in Rome became completely disconnected from it. These structures were now fountains at heart, unique architectural forms created by man. It is in Near Eastern cities, especially those in Syria and Jordan, that nymphaea make their final and most dramatic changes. The sites of Palmyra, Jerash, Beth-Sean, and Petra preserve for us some of those most elaborate nymphaea. In these caravan cities, nymphaea appear at the center of urban life, often built on the main colonnaded street of the city. They would have been used to provide refreshment to the numerous travelers coming through the city from the harsh elements of the desert from which they came. The nymphaea in these cities were quite extravagant, consisting of numerous levels, niches filled with statues, and a hydraulic system to marvel at. These Near Easter cities could show off their wealth, power, and mastery over nature with nymphaea. The changes made to nymphaea here seem to alter their function dramatically. Instead of a rural cave shrine meant for private worship, we now see civic architectural structures meant to cater to the public. The religious essence of these fountains may have not been completely lost, but power and wealth appeared to be venerated before the sacred divinities with which nymphaea were originally associated.


Bibliography

Ball, Warwick. Rome in the East: The Transformation of an Empire. London and New York:

Routledge, 2000
Bedal, Leigh-Ann. The Petra Pool-Complex: A Hellenistic Paradeisos in the Nabataean Capital.

New Jersey: Gorgias Press LLC, 2004


Bedal, Leigh-Ann. “Desert Oasis: Water Consumption and Display in the Nabataean Capital”

Near Eastern Archaeology 65, no. 4 (2002): 225234. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3210851 (accessed September 6, 2010)
Berlin, Andrea. “The Archaeology of Ritual: The Sanctuary of Pan at Banias/ Caesarea

Philipi.” Bulletin f the American Schools of Oriental Research, no. 135 (1999): 2745.



http://www.jstor.org/stable/1357531 (accessed September 19, 2010)
Browning, Ian. Palmyra. London: Chatto & Windus Ltd, 1979
Carey, Sorcha. “ A Tradition of Adventures in the Imperial Grotto.” Greece & Rome 49, no. 1

(2002): 4461. http://www.jstor.org/stable/826881 (accessed September 14,

2010)
Hartswick, Kim J. Gardens of Sallust: A Changing Landscape. Austin, University of Texas

Press, 2004


Jones, Rick and Damian Robinson. “Water, Wealth, and Social Status at Pompeii: The House

of the Vestals in the First Century.” AJA 109, no. 4 (2005): 695710


Larson, Jennifer. Greek Nymphs: myth, cult, lore. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press,

2001
Longfellow, Brenda “The Legacy of Hadrian: Roman Monumental Civic Fountains in

Greece.” In The Nature and Function of Water, Baths, Bathing, and Hygiene from

Antiquity through the Renaissance, edited by Cynthia Kosso and Anne Scott,

211232. Leiden, The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV, 2009


Ortloff, Charles R. “The Water Supply and Distribution System of the Nabataean City of

Petra (Jordan), 300 BC – AD 300.” Cambridge Archaeological Journal 15 (2005):

93109
Richardson, Jr., L. A New Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome. Baltimore and London:

Johns Hopkins UP 1992.


Richardson, Peter. City and Sanctuary: religion and architecture in the Roman Near East.

London: SCM Press, 2002


Segal, Arthur. “Roman Cities in the Province of Arabia.” Journal of the Society of

Architectural Historians 40, no. 2 (1981): 108121.

http://www.jstor.org/stable/989724 (accessed September 7, 2010)
Tsafrir, Yoram and Gideon Foerster. “Urbanism at Scythopolis-Bet Shean in the Fourth to

Seventh Centuries.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 51 (1997): 85146.



http://www.jstor.org/stable/1291763 (accessed September 17, 2010).
van Aken, A.R.A. “Some Aspects of Nymphaea in Pompeii, Herculaneum and Ostia.”

Mnemosyne 4, no. 3 (1951): 272284. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4427314

(accessed September 14, 2010)


Wilson, John F. Caesarea Philippi: Banias, the Lost City of Pan. London: I.B. Tauris &

Company, Limited, 2004


База данных защищена авторским правом ©shkola.of.by 2016
звярнуцца да адміністрацыі

    Галоўная старонка