|ДУА Гімназія №4 г. Мінска з беларускай мовай навучання
па тэме “Свет кніг”
Цішкова Іна Васільеўна,
настаўнца англійскай мовы
Урок-экскурсія “Свет кніг” з выкарыстаннем інтэрнета і камп’ютэрнай прэзентацыі, мэта якога – паўтарыць раней засвоены моўны, граматычны, лексічны матэрыял і вывучыць новую інфармацыю па тэме.
Вучні рабілі параўнальны аналіз паміж Нацыянальнай бібліятэкай Беларусі і бібліятэкай Кангрэса ЗША. На працягу вывучэння гэтай тэмы вучні наведалі Нацыянальную бібліятэку, зрабілі фотаздымкі, пабывалі на экскурсіі. На аснове гэтага матэрыяла і зроблены пачатак прэзентацыі.
Інфармацыя аб бібліятэцы Кангрэса ЗША была знойдзена ў інтэрнэце. Для азнаямлення спачатку дзеці прагледзелі відэаролік. Адначасова з праглядам відэароліка вучні зрабілі практыкаванне на запаўненне прапушчаных дат і лічбаў.
Пасля гэтага вучні расказалі пра гісторыю стварэння бібліятэкі. Потым, праз пашукавік, знайшлі Віртуальны Тур па бібліятэцы і пазнаёміліся з бібліятэкай Кангрэса ЗША.
На другім этапе работа была арганізавана ў форме спаборніцтва паміж дзвюма камандамі “Амерыка” і “Беларусь” За кожнае правільна зробленае заданне каманда атрымала бал у выглядзе зоркі. За хуткі адказ каманда магла атрымаць яшчэ адзін бал (дададтковы). Напрыканцы гульні балы былі падлічаны. Заданні прапаноўваліся з узрастаннем ступені цяжкасці.
На ўроку выкарыстоўваліся ўсе віды дзейнасці: чытанне, пісьмо, аўдыраванне, дыялагічная і маналагічная мова, і розныя формы работы: франтальная, індывідуальная, групавая.
Для паспяховага засваення матэрыялу былі задзейнічаны інтэрнет, відэазапіс, дошка. маркеры, прэзентацыі дзяцей, фатаздымкі, папера для рэфлексіі.
Фрагменты гэтага ўроку могуць быць выкарыстаны на ўроках у іншых класах, на факультатыўных занятках па тэме “Свет літаратуры”.
Тэма “The World of Books.
Практычная тэма : Навучанне ўспрыманню і разуменню мовы на слых, маўленню па тэме.
Выхаваўчая мэта : прывіваць цікаўнасць да света літаратуры, вучыць беражліва адносіцца да кніг.
Развіваючая мэта : развіваць мысленне, памяць, увагу, творчыя здольнасці.
Форма правядзення: урок-экскурсія
Абсталяванне: інтэрнэт, мультымедыйнае абсталяванне, дыскі з дзіцячымі прэзентацыямі, лісты з заданнямі, маркеры для дошкі.
Увядзенне ў атмасферу іншамоўных зносін.
Good morning everybody! I am glad to see you! How is your mood? How are your spirits? That’s wonderful that all of you are in a good mood and are ready to work hard.
Today we are having a meeting with the students from America and from Belarus. We’ll discuss books and libraries. Do you like this plan? Do you want to add anything?
But first I’d like you to guess the title of the topic of our lesson. Look at the screen, read the riddle and guess the answer. What title can you suggest?
I have no tongue,
But tell a story
I have leaves,
But I am not a tree
Can you guess me?
You are right. It is a book. So what is our lesson connected with?
I hope you’ll not only enjoy the lesson but show us your good knowledge and learn something new. Be active, quick and correct
Nowadays it is almost impossible to imagine our life without books. Many people are fond of reading and their interests are different. “Tastes differ” they say. So it is difficult to give advice on reading.
3. Праверка хатняга задання
And now I want to check your home task. You have read the text The Printed Word on page 147-149. What can you tell me about the origin of the books?
It is only in the last 500 years books have been printed on paper.
The earliest books were written on tablets of woods or pieces of barks. In Greece and Rome the tablets of woods were covered with wax these tablets were held together on one side with thin strips of leather or metal rings. In Assyria and Babylonia clay tablets were used for writing and the words were drawn with a piece of wood. After baking, the tablets were kept on shelves.
The earliest books of the ancient world were written on papyrus and skins of young animals. These books took form of a long strip, rolled from one cylinder to another. These writings were known to the Romans as volumen from which comes the word volume. Though paper has been known in China since the first century, the secret of papermaking came to Europe much later. The invention of printing was a really great event in history. In Europe there were several people who can be called inventors of printing. The best known is Johann Gutenberg from Germany. The early printers were not only craftsmen but also editors, publishers and booksellers. The first printing press was in England was set up by William Caxton at Westminster in 1476. The earlier libraries were used only by scientists and were few. Modern libraries do their best to help people to get information as quickly as possible. The use computers and electronic catalogues.
4. Навучанне дыялагічнай мове, маналагічнай мове
T. well, I see you know much information.. But where can you find any book you need?
Р. Of course, in the library, in the bookshop, on the shelf.
T. There are a lot of different kinds of libraries: public libraries, school libraries, scientific libraries, local libraries and others.
P(team USA) :We have seen the photos and found out that you visited The National Library last month…… Oh! How it is interesting! Can you tell us about it? Do you think it is worth to be seen?
P. Sure! We visited the National Library of Belarus last month.
In the beginning I want to say that it was established by the Decree by the BSSR council on September 15, 1922. Josef Simanovsky became the first director of the Library. He was at the head of the Library during 40 years. At the opening of the library its collection totalled only 60000 items. The number of the users of the library was 1,1 thousand persons.
P(team USA) Where is it situated now?
P. The Library building is located in Minsk in Independence Avenue. The main front of the building faces the avenue that determines the basic entrance area from the Moscow direction.
The dominant of the building is a stock-depository in the form of polyhedron that is closed by ball, having a volume of the hyperstoreys. There are a number of benefits in the form to the traditional volumes. It has a wide frame that is an economical advantage in heat engineering. The form of a ball has the shortest inner connections. Its structure in the form of a diamond core is highly effective.
A part of the book-stock is fulfilled on the principle of thermos for neutralization of temperature difference influences and temperature-moistury conditions security. There are technological corridors rated along the outside walls, sunlluminated by the sun, they create an air space that prevents temperature differences.
Figuratively the stock-depository resembles a diamond. Its form symbolizes mind. Valuable knowledge that has been accumulated for thousands of years by humanity, is contained in the Library. In that way this form receives an additional spiritual function that reinforces its sounding as a work of art.
The chief architects of the project are M.Vinogradov and V.Kramarenko
The corridors and halls with the entrances in the reading rooms are rated throughout the three levels of reading area around the central core. It allows a visitor to be oriented clearly in the inner space and not to waste time in search of the necessary room. The building is protected not only by the guards but by 200 video-cameras.
There are 14 specialized reading-rooms for 1000 seats, a conference hall and cafe, a museum of books, show-rooms, administrative household and auxiliary promises on the perimeter of the composition's center. Both the conference hall for 500 places, intended for realization of social and cultural programmes, and the cafe have separate exits and can work independently.
The reading area includes:
Manuscripts, Old-Printed and Rare Editions Department;
Belarusian Literature Department;
Fine Arts and Cartography Department;
Music Editions, Sound Recording and Video- and Photo-Documents Department.
The Museum of book
The Museum of the Library.
If you are tired of reading and want to have a rest, visit a picture gallery which changes its exhibits every 2 weeks.
The largest rooms of mass visits are located on the second and third floors. Side by side with the traditional organization of the catalogues, availability of the computer center in the Library structure allows to computerize the whole reference-information and bibliographical system as well as transport one.
Special telelifts deliver literature from the stock-depository to readers as well as to the production area for systematization, literature processing and restoration.
We visited the Museum of books. It contains a priceless collection of ancient books. For example, there is a very small book 5 by 9 millimeters where the statements about books by Gogol and Lermontov are written. Besides there is a book of the 16th century which weights 16 kilos and has 1000 pages. You can learn the history of the creation of books and the creation of the national library there.
At present time, the NLB is characterized by the following activities:
Depository Stock - 8 millions items;
Annual Acquisitions - 150 000-200 000 copies of printed editions
Readers - 90 000 persons;
Annual Book-Delivery - 3,2 millions items, including International Loan - 12000 items;
Number of Own-Published Issues - 20 titles per year by total volume of 290 quires.
The National Library of Belarus is the major universal information institution of the Republic of Belarus.
Every day you can enjoy reading there
T. Very well. Now let’s listen to our friends from America. Tell us about one of the famous libraries in your country.
P. With great pleasure. If you don’t mind, we’ll tell you about The Library of Congress. We’ll use internet. At the beginning we’ll search the site and then we’ll travel through the site.
P. Well, here it is. (вучань заходзіць на пашукавік, уводзіць The library of Congress Tour, выбірае і клікае). Для гэтага урока найбольш падыйшоў наступны сайт: http://myloc.gov/ExhibitSpaces/Pages/Default.aspx
P.3 In the beginning, let’s watch the video about the library. It will introduce our library to you. Then we’ll tell you more details about it.
T. First let’s pronounce the new lexic from the text. Repeat after me, please.
Well , I have a task for you. While you are watching this film, please insert the missing date or number in your cards. Watch and listen very attentively.
1. In 1633 Galileo was convicted of grave suspicious of heresy.
2. The library has over a million current issues of newspapers.
3. It contains one of the first printings of the Declaration of Independence.
4. The library has about 128 000 original cartoon drawings and prints.
5.” Preservation” is an exquisite book .It was printed in 1486.
6. The first document on which the name of America appears was created in 1507 by a man from Germany.
5. Навучанне аўдыраванню
Праігрываецца ролік пра бібліятэку (7,44).
Well, let’s check your cards. Exchange them, please.
Look at the screen and correct each other’s mistakes! Who has no mistakes?
7. Навучанне дыялагічнай, маналагічнай мове з выкарыстаннем інфармацыі, атрыманай у Інтэрнеце.
P. Well, now we think it is time to tell you more details about the library. We invite you to a Virtual tour. In our modern time it is possible even you are far from the place which you need. Of course, we’ll use Internet. We’ll go little up. Here we are.(вучань на гэтым жа сайце знаходзіць закладку Virtual Tour і клікае яе)
P. In the beginning some facts about the history of the library. The library of Congress was established by an act of Congress in 1800 when President John Adams signed a bill providing for the transfer of the seat of government from Philadelphia to the new capital city of Washington.
Established with $5,000 appropriated by the legislation, the original library was housed in the new Capitol until August 1814, when invading British troops set fire to the Capitol Building, burning the contents of the small library.
Within a month retired President Thomas Jefferson offered his personal library as a replacement. Jefferson had spent 50 years accumulating books, “putting by everything which related to America, and indeed whatever was rare and valuable in every science; his library was considered to be one of the finest in the United States his collection included books in foreign languages and volumes of philosophy, science, literature and other topics not normally viewed as part of a legislative library.
In January 1815, Congress accepted Jefferson’s offer, appropriating $23,950 for his 6, 478 books and the foundation was laid for a great national library. In 1870 in according with the copyright law all copyright applicants had to send to the library two copies of their work. This result in a flood of books, maps, music and photographs. Facing a shortage of shelf space at the Capitol in 1873 Congress authorized a competition to design plans for the new Library.
In 1886, after many proposals, Congress authorized construction of a new Library building in the style of the Italian Renaissance in accordance with a design prepared by Washington architects John L Smithmeyer and Paul J. Pelz.
In 1892 a new architect Edward Pearce Casey began to supervise the interior work including sculptural and painted decoration by more than 50 artists.
P. The Great Hall
When its doors opened to the public in 1897, the Library of Congress represented an unparalleled national achievement, the "largest, costliest, and safest" library in the world.
Its elaborately decorated interior, embellished by works of art from nearly fifty American painters and sculptors, linked the United States to classical traditions of learning and simultaneously flexed American cultural and technological muscle.
The marble floor of the Great Hall contains a number of modeled and incised brass inlays. The center represents the Sun, on which are noted the four cardinal points of the compass, indicating the main axes of the building. A decorative scale pattern encloses the Sun with alternate sections of red and yellow Italian marble, the former from Verona and the latter from Sienna.
Twelve squares at the perimeter of the floor of the Great Hall represent the signs of the zodiac. The other squares form two patterns of rosettes. They are embedded in blocks of dark red, richly mottled French marble, with borders of pure white Italian marble.
During the renovation of the Jefferson Building in the 1980s, restorers discovered that the metallic ornamentation of the ceiling, once thought to be silver leaf, is actually aluminum leaf. When the building was being constructed during the 1890s, aluminum was more precious than silver. The scale-pattern design of the six large skylights mirrors the pattern of the marble flooring beneath.
Main Reading Room
Eight giant marble columns each support 10-foot-high allegorical female figures in plaster representing characteristic features of civilized life and thought: Religion, Commerce, History, Art, Philosophy, Poetry, Law and Science.
The 16 bronze statues set upon the balustrades of the galleries pay homage to men whose lives symbolized the thought and activity represented by the plaster statues.
The Evolution of the Book
The murals in the six lunettes by John White Alexander (1856—1915) illustrate The Evolution of the Book. In historical order, the subjects begin at the south end with The Cairn, Oral Tradition, and Egyptian Hieroglyphics and continue at the north end with Picture Writing, The Manuscript Book, and The Printing Press.
The series of murals in the lunettes in the north gallery by artist Charles Sprague Pearce (1851–1914) illustrates the phases of a pleasant and well-ordered life. The scenes represent the kind of idyllic existence often imagined by poets, in which people live in an innocent, simple, and untroubled society where they begin to develop the attributes of a more refined civilization.
The murals in the lunettes of the south gallery are by artist Henry Oliver Walker (1843–1929). The largest mural, at the far end, depicts Lyric Poetry. Before a distant vista figures are gathered in a woodland scene with a tumbling brook at its center, a wild and natural scene that might inspire a poet.
The figure standing boldly forward in the center represents “Lyric Poetry,” crowned with a wreath of laurel and touching the strings of a lyre. The feelings that most commonly inspire her songs are personified on either side. On the right are “Pathos,” looking upward, as if calling on heaven to allay her grief; “Truth,” a beautiful nude woman (the naked truth) stands securely upright; and in the corner “Devotion” sits absorbed in contemplation. On the left are “Passion,” enraptured, with her arms thrown out in a graceful movement; “Beauty,” who sits calmly self-contained; and “Mirth,” the nude figure of a little boy, who invites her to play.
The gallery is framed by two large murals over its doorways, War and Peace, both by the artist Gary Melchers (1860–1932).
War portrays a chieftain of a primitive culture returning home with his fellow warriors from a successful but dearly won battle. He is crowned with a wreath of laurel and sits proudly astride a magnificent white horse. Warriors carry a roughly constructed stretcher on which they are bringing home the body of a fallen comrade for burial in his native soil. A woman kneels to care for a wounded warrior.
Peace shows a religious procession. The inhabitants of a village have come to the border of a grove bearing on a platform the image of their guardian goddess. The villagers carry various objects and lead a sacrificial bull to be offered as memorials to the goddess in thanks for peace. At the left a priest reads a blessing.
In each corner of this pavilion are relief sculptures by Bela Lyon Pratt (1867–1917). The sculptures represent Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter. Murals by William De Leftwich Dodge (1867–1935) ornament the walls and ceiling.
In the domed ceiling the artist has depicted Ambition, represented by the Unattainable Ideal, who holds the palm branch awarded for achievement and rides on a great winged horse. She is led by Fame, who holds the horse’s bridle and blows her trumpet in the direction of the chaotic group of strivers below them. Ambition is shown as the incentive for all human efforts, in art and science.
The gallery is framed by two large murals over its doorways, The Arts mural and The Sciences mural both by Kenyon Cox (1856–1919).
The ceiling, twenty nine feet high with square coffers in blue and gold, is divided by ribs that spring from the paired pilasters. The medallions with the letters “C.L.” stand for “Congressional Library,” the name by which the Library of Congress was still popularly known when the new building was first opened in 1897.
The pavilion is ornamented with relief sculptures in each corner by Bela Lyon Pratt (1867–1917). The sculptures represent Spring (“Plant,”) Summer (“Bloom,”) Autumn (“Seed,”) and Winter (“Decay”.) Murals by the artist George Willoughby Maynard (1878–1934) ornament the walls and ceiling.
8. Навучанне маўленню. Работа ў групах
T. Thank you very much for your tour. It was really interesting. Now, I think it is time to check your knowledge. Let’s have a competition. For every right answer I’ll give you a point. Look at the screen.
I. Choose the right variant.
1. When was The National Library of Belarus founded?
2. When was the Library of Congress founded?
3. Who were the architects of the National Library of Belarus?
Vinogradov and Kramarenko Arbuzov and Pelz
4. Who were the architects of the building of the Library of Congress?
John L Smithmeyer and Paul J Pelz Edward Pearce Casey
5. What library is the oldest?
The National Library of Belarus The library of Congress
6.What does the form of the National library of Belarus symbolize?
T. Very well. Now I wonder if you know how to use books correctly.
II. Look at the screen and correct the mistakes one by one.
1. Read books in bed (Don’t read books in bed)
2. Don’t return books to the library on time (Return books to the library on time)
3. Make dog’s ears in the books (Don’t make dog’s ears in the books)
4. Books are our enemies. (Books are our friends)
5. Always eat while reading. (Never eat while reading)
6. Tear the pages out of the book. (Don’t tear the pages out of the book)
III. Answer the questions
1. How many reading-rooms are in the National Library of Belarus? (14)
2. How often is the exhibit changed in the picture gallery in the National Library of Belarus?
3. In what style was the building of the Library of Congress built? (the style of the Italian Renaissance)
4. How many bronze status are in the Main Reading Room? (16)
IV. Put these events in the right order. Please work in groups.
1. The library of Congress was opened.
2. Caxton invented the press.
3. Francisk Scoryna printed his first book
4. The National Library of Belarus was opened
5. English lesson about books is taking place in the gymnasium #4 , 8A
6. Books have been printed on paper.
T. Very well. Now I want 1 person from each team. Please go to the blackboard and write 6-7 words which are connected with the books. Well, it is the task for you teams! Please, write a poem about a book or library using these words, try to use as many as possible. I’ll give you 2 minutes! Ready! Steady! Go!
Let’s finish our lesson like we started it, with the book. In some way I have been your guide about the world of books today. I have my personal book of comments and offers. I’ll hand out everybody special stickers. Please, write your impressions about our trip to the world of books and libraries into my book.
Well, today I am satisfied with your work today. I think everybody will get a good mark. Your marks are …….. .
Your homework is . Team from Belarus - write 10 sentences about the Library of Congress.
Team from America- write10 sentences about the National Library of Belarus.