Tribe liptenini subtribe pentilina




старонка1/12
Дата канвертавання22.04.2016
Памер0.68 Mb.
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   12
FAMILY LYCAENIDAE

Leach, 1815
SUBFAMILY PORITIINAE

Doherty
TRIBE LIPTENINI

SUBTRIBE PENTILINA

Subtribe Pentilina

Alaena, Ptelina, Pentila, Liptenara, Telipna, Ornipholidotos, Torbenia.

Genus Alaena Boisduval, 1847
In: Delegorgue, A., Voyage dans l’Afrique australe 2: 591 (585-602).

Type-species: Acraea amazoula Boisduval, by monotypy.


A purely Afrotropical genus containing 24 species.

Alaena amazoula (Boisduval, 1847)
Acraea amazoula Boisduval, 1847. In: Delegorgue, A., Voyage dans l’Afrique australe 2: 591 (585-602).

Type locality: South Africa: “Pays des Amazoulous”.

Distribution: Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Democtratic Republic of Congo, Zambia, Angola, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia?, South Africa, Swaziland.

Common name: Yellow Zulu.

Habitat: Rocky grassland or rocky areas in grassy savanna. Also in open forest (Larsen, 1991). At altitudes from 900 to 1 500 m in Tanzania (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: The yellow zulu is found in localized colonies, often on the slopes of stone-strewn hillsides. Large numbers of specimens are sometimes found within such a colony but usually less than a dozen occur in a particular colony. The flight is feeble and specimens alight frequently, usually on grass stems. They may spend long periods resting on grass stems (Larsen, 1991). It closely resembles a day-flying geometrid moth, both in its appearance and flight pattern.

Flight period: Flies in most months of the year, but commoner from November to April. Peak numbers are found in December and January (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Early stages:
Clark and Dickson, 1971: 236, plate 110 [as Alaena amazoula; East London, Eastern Cape, South Africa].

"Egg: 0.75 mm diam. x 0.5 mm high. Laid singly or in small clusters, often on grass or dry, fallen twigs near rocks. Eggs are originally pink but fluid from an 'ink-sac' gives them a dark colour on being laid. They hatch after 10-13 days. The discarded shell is not eaten. Larva: 1st instar 1 mm, growing to 2.25 mm in 13-18 days; 2nd instar growing to 3.25 mm in 5-14 days; 3rd instar growing to 4.5 mm in 7-15 days; 4th instar growing to 6.5-7 mm in 7-17 days; 5th instar growing to 8.5-9.5 mm in 7-17 days; 6th instar growing to 14-16 mm in 13-20 days. The duration of instars is very variable. There are neither honey-gland nor tubercles. Larvae are not gregarious. They rest concealed in gaps in the lichen, feeding at intervals and sometimes taking long rests. To moult, a larva attaches itself firmly to the lichen or rock-surface and crawls out of the old skin, leaving this in a neat pile with the shell of the old head attached to it. The broken colour-pattern and long lateral setae which act as shadow-breakers render larvae inconspicuous. Pupa: Male 12 mm; female 14 mm. Firmly attached to the partially discarded larval skin which in turn is attached, in a sheltered spot, to the rock bearing the lichen. Emergence takes place after 7-9 days. There is more than one brood in a year. Five larvae, in the 4th instar, on a 100 x 130 mm (about 4 x 5 in.) slab of lichen-covered dolorite were forgotten for a month, and the lichen dried up. The larvae went into diapause until the lichen was revived by drops of water, then they started feeding and continued normally. Final instar larvae acted in the same way. Recorded from eggs and larvae from East London, eastern Cape Province."


Williams, 2007

The content of the alimentary tract of final instar larvae was examined in sections made from paraffin wax embedded final instar larvae and it was conclusively shown that the larvae were feeding on lichens growing on the surface of rocks at the locality in which the adults were flying.


Larval food:

Rock lichens (Lichenes) [Clark and Dickson, 1971: 236].

Algae (Cyanophyta) on rocks [Pringle, et al., 1994: 126].

Lichens (Lichenes) on rocks [Williams, 2007; Roodeplaat Dam, Pretoria district]


Alaena amazoula amazoula (Boisduval, 1847)
Acraea amazoula Boisduval, 1847. In: Delegorgue, A., Voyage dans l’Afrique australe 2: 591 (585-602).

Type locality: South Africa: “Pays des Amazoulous”.

Distribution: South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape Province), Swaziland (Duke, et al., 1999).

Specific localities:

KwaZulu-Natal – Durban (Swanepoel, 1953); Amahlongwa (Swanepoel, 1953); Botha’s Hill (Swanepoel, 1953); Howick (Swanepoel, 1953); Estcourt (Swanepoel, 1953); Ladysmith (Swanepoel, 1953); Hluhluwe (Swanepoel, 1953); Umkomaas (Pennington).

Eastern Cape Province – King William’s Town (Swanepoel, 1953); East London (Swanepoel, 1953); Kei River (Swanepoel, 1953); Butterworth (Swanepoel, 1953); Bashee River (Swanepoel, 1953); Kokstad (Swanepoel, 1953).
orphina Vári, 1976 (as ab. of Alaena amazoula amazoula). Annals of the Transvaal Museum 30: 127 (121-144). South Africa: “Amahlongwa, Umzinto Distr.”.
Alaena amazoula congoana Aurivillius, 1914
Alaena amazoula f. congoana Aurivillius, 1914 in Seitz, 1908-25. Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde, Stuttgart (2) 13 Die Afrikanischen Tagfalter: 299 (614 pp.).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo?: “Lower Congo”; Angola: “Angola”.

Distribution: Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo (?Shaba, Bas-Fleuve), Namibia?
Alaena amazoula nyasana Hawker-Smith, 1933
Alaena amazoula nyasana Hawker-Smith, 1933. Stylops 2: 1 (1-12).

Alaena amazoula nyasana. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 25mm. Chikawe Hills, Malawi. 16 Apr 90. Owen-Johnston. (Henning collection - H280).
Type locality: Malawi: “Nyasaland: Mt. Mlanje”.

Distribution: Kenya (south-east), Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia.

Specific localities:

Kenya – Shimba Hills (scarce) (Larsen, 1991).

Tanzania – South Pare (Kielland, 1990); Usambara Mountains (Kielland, 1990); Nguu Mountains (Kielland, 1990); Madibira near Mufindi (Congdon teste Kielland, 1990).

Malawi – Mount Mlanje (TL); Chikawe Hills (Owen-Johnston).

Zambia – Chalimbana (Heath et al., 2002); Luangwa Valley (Heath et al., 2002); Mumbwa (Heath et al., 2002); Lusaka (Heath et al., 2002); Kafue (Heath et al., 2002).
Alaena amazoula ochroma Vári, 1976
Alaena amazoula ochroma Vári, 1976. Annals of the Transvaal Museum 30: 128 (121-144).

Type locality: South Africa: “Griffin Mine”.

Diagnosis: Differs from the male of the nominate subspecies in that the ochreous-yellow pattern on the upperside of both wings is extended, so that it approaches the female in general appearance. Females similar to those of nominate subspecies but veining of forewing upperside less apparent and costa usually without the black suffusion (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Distribution: Zimbabwe, Botswana (east), South Africa (Limpopo Province, Mpumalanga, North West Province, Gauteng), Swaziland.

Specific localities:

Botswana – Francistown (Clark); Mahalapye (Cookson and Pennington).

Limpopo Province – Letaba (Swanepoel, 1953); Polokwane (Swanepoel, 1953); Zoutpansberg (Swanepoel, 1953); Makapan’s Caves (Swanepoel, 1953); Waterberg (Swanepoel, 1953); Legalameetse Nature Reserve (“Malta Forest”); Warmbaths; Shiluwane (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Mpumalanga – Griffin Mine, near Barberton (TL); Lydenburg (Swanepoel, 1953); Pilrim’s Rest (Swanepoel, 1953); Nelspruit (Pringle, et al., 1994).

North West Province – Zeerust (Swanepoel, 1953).

Gauteng – Witpoortjie (Ruimsig); Pretoria district (Pringle, et al., 1994); 3 km north of Roodeplaat Dam, Pretoria district (M. Williams).

Alaena bicolora Bethune-Baker, 1924
Alaena bicolora Bethune-Baker, 1924. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (9) 14: 130 (130-135).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Usangu district; Kongwa, Dar es Salaam”.

Diagnosis: See A. exotica for comparison.

Distribution: Tanzania (east to south-west).

Habitat: Occurs locally, in rocky places, in woodland (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: The flight is extremely feeble, and the butterfly is difficult to spot, resembling a small moth (Kielland, 1990).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Note: Larsen (1991: 156) discusses and illustrates an undescribed species of the Alaena bicolora group captured by S.C. Collins in South Kavirondo, Kenya.

Alaena bjornstadi Kielland, 1993
Alaena bjornstadi Kielland, 1993. Lambillionea 93 (1) (Tome II): 115 (114-116).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Tranzania (sic), Mpanda, Uzondo, Kalama, 1500 m, 12. III. 1989, A. Björnstad.” Described from a single male. First description of female by Congdon & Collins, 1998 (Supplement to Kielland’s butterflies of Tanzania: 56 (143 pp.). ABRI and Lambillionea).

Distribution: Tanzania.

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Usondo (Bjornstad; TL); near Uvinza at 1 400 m; Usondo Plateau at 1 600 m (Congdon and Collins, 1998).

Habitat: Rocky grassland (Congdon and Collins, 1998).

Habits: Tends to fly in sunny places at the foot of rocky cliffs (Congdon & Collins, 1998).

Flight period: Recorded only from mid February to mid March.

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Alaena brainei Vári, 1976
Alaena brainei Vári, 1976. Annals of the Transvaal Museum 30: 128 (121-144).

Type locality: Nambia: “South West Africa: Tiger Valley, Kombat”.

Diagnosis: Differs from the similar A. amazoula in that it has smaller, sharply edged ochreous-yellow spots (especially on the hindwing of males), and broader, sharply edged fuscous brown wing borders in females (Vári, 1976).

Distribution: Namibia (north-central).

Specific localities:

Namibia – Tiger Valley, Kombat (Kroon); Grootfontein (J. Braine); Abachaub; Otjiwarongo district; Namutoni; Tsumeb; Maroelaboom; Otavi (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Common name: Braine’s Zulu.

Habitat: Rocky grassland.

Habits: Nothing published.

Flight period: November to early May (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Algae (Cyanophyta) on rocks [Pringle, et al., 1994: 127].



Alaena caissa Rebel & Rogenhofer, 1894
Alaena caissa Rebel & Rogenhofer, 1894. In: Baumann, O., Durch Massailand zur Nilquelle. Reisen und Forschungen der Massai-Expedition des deutschen Antisklaverei-Komite in den Jahren 1891-1893: 336 (323-341).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Hügellande bei Ngoroine in circa 1500 m. Seehöhe”.

Distribution: Uganda, Tanzania.

Habitat: Open, rocky places (Kielland, 1990).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Alaena caissa caissa Rebel & Rogenhofer, 1894
Alaena caissa Rebel & Rogenhofer, 1894. In: Baumann, O., Durch Massailand zur Nilquelle. Reisen und Forschungen der Massai-Expedition des deutschen Antisklaverei-Komite in den Jahren 1891-1893: 336 (323-341).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Hügellande bei Ngoroine in circa 1500 m. Seehöhe”.

Distribution: Tanzania (north).
Alaena caissa kagera Talbot, 1935
Alaena kagera Talbot, 1935. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 71: 69 (69-78, 115-127, 147-153).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Hills west of the Kagera River, 3055'E., 25'S. dry season”.

Distribution: Tanzania (north-west – Kagera and Bukoba Districts), Uganda (open areas west of Lake Victoria).

Alaena dodomaensis Kielland, 1983
Alaena dodomaensis Kielland, 1983. Entomologist’s Record and Journal of Variation 95: 110 (107-110).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Dodoma”.

Distribution: Tanzania. Specimens from Kenya in the BMNH collection probably also belong here (Kielland, 1986).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Near Dodoma (Kielland, 1990); Lokozi and Mlawi rivers at Kitonga Gorge (Kielland, 1990); on lower slopes of Image Mt. at Irindi (Kielland, 1990); on lower slopes of Mangalisa Mt. (Kielland, 1990); near Kibakwe Mission on lower slopes of Wotta Mt. in Mpwapwa District (Kielland, 1990).

Habitat: Medium altitude Brachystegia woodland and thornbush on rocky hillsides from 700 to 1 100 metres; occasionally up to 1 400 metres (Kielland, 1990).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Alaena exotica Collins & Larsen, 2005
Alaena exotica Collins & Larsen, 2005. Butterflies of West Africa: 547.

Alaena exotica. Male (holotype; Nigeria) upperside (x2.5). Photo ex Torben Larsen.

Alaena exotica (x2.5). Female (Nigeria). Left – upperside; right – underside. Photo ex Torben Larsen.
Type locality: Nigeria: “Plateau State, Jos Town”. Holotype (male) vii 1983 (S.C. Collins leg., coll. African Butterfly Research Institute, Nairobi).

Diagnosis: Upperside similar to that of A. bicolora Bethune-Baker, 1924 but orange markings are narrower; orange markings on underside more extensive, especially on hindwing where basal area is also orange; both wings with rows of well-developed, parallel submarginal and marginal white spots; marginal spots enhanced by long white cilia abutting them; cilia at ends of veins black; underside similar to several other species from southern Africa and south-eastern DRC but in these the submarginal series of white spots on the forewing underside as well developed (Collins & Larsen, in Larsen, 2005a).

General remarks: This is the only member of this essentially eastern and southern African genus recorded from West Africa. The nearest congeneric, geographically, occurs in southern Sudan. This is the rather different taxon A. subrubra Bethune-Baker, 1915. The most similar species is actually A. bicolora Bethune-Baker, 1924, from western Tanzania.

A. exotica was initially found in a rocky locality near the Hill Station Hotel, in Jos, by R. St. Leger in the 1970’s. The type series is from a rocky locality near Jos Airport, discovered by Steve Collins. At this locality thousands of specimens of the species were noted. E.F.I. Baker and his family found the species near Riyom, some 40 km east of Jos Town, also on the Jos Plateau, in the late 1980’s (Collins & Larsen, in Larsen, 2005a).

Distribution: Nigeria (Jos Plateau).

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Jos Town [Jos Airport] (TL); near Jos Hotel (St. Leger teste Larsen, 2005a); near Riyom, 40 km east of Jos Town (E. Baker teste Larsen, 2005a).

Common name: Jos zulu.

Habitat: Rocky areas with tall grass (Collins & Larsen, in Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: Individuals flutter about weakly in long grass (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Blue-green algae growing on rocks (Larsen, 2005a).



Alaena ferrulineata Hawker-Smith, 1933
Alaena ferrulineata Hawker-Smith, 1933. Stylops 2: 2 (1-12).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Tanganyika Terr.: Arusha District, Ngorongoro Crater, interior at 5900 feet; escarpment below Lake Manyara”.

Distribution: Tanzania (north and south).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – around Oldeani and Ngorongoro (Kielland, 1990); Durget Hill (Kielland, 1990); rocky outcrops in Hasama Forest in Mbulu (Kielland, 1990); at Lake Manyara (Kielland, 1990.

Habitat: Rocky hillsides in dry thorn country and mountains, from 1 000 to 2 000 metres (Kielland, 1990).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Alaena interposita Butler, 1883
Alaena interposita Butler, 1883. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (5) 12: 103 (101-107).

Type locality: “Victoria Nyanza”.

Distribution: Tanzania. The nominate subspecies is known only from the type specimen.

Habitat: Brachystegia woodland for subspecies hauttecoeuri (Kielland, 1990).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Alaena interposita interposita Butler, 1883
Alaena interposita Butler, 1883. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (5) 12: 103 (101-107).

Type locality: “Victoria Nyanza”.

Distribution: Tanzania. Known only from the type specimen.
Alaena interposita hauttecoeuri Oberthür, 1888
Alaena hauttecoeuri Oberthür, 1888. Études d’Entomologie 12: 7 (1-8).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Tabora, dans l’Ounyanyambé (Afrique orientale)”.

Distribution: Tanzania (south-west – Tabora Region).

Alaena johanna Sharpe, 1890
Alaena johanna Sharpe, 1890. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 5: 442 (440-443).

Type locality: Kenya: “en route from Mombasa to the Ulu Mountains”.

Diagnosis: Very similar to A. ngonga but the ranges of the two species do not overlap (Larsen, 1991).

Distribution: Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania.

Populations in Ethiopia, Somalia and Tanzania may represent distinct taxa in each of these countries (Larsen, 1991; Ackery et al., 1995: 474).



Common name: Johanna’s Zulu.

Habitat: Savanna. In Tanzania it is found on rocky hillsides at rather high altitudes (1 200 to 1 900 metres) (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: It is found in very localized colonies, which may harbour large numbers of specimens. Like its congeners it flutters weakly among the grass, often spending long periods perched on grass stems. They may also rest on rocks (Larsen, 1991).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Probably lichens (Lichenes) on rocks [Larsen, 1991: 155].


Alaena johanna johanna Sharpe, 1890
Alaena johanna Sharpe, 1890. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 5: 442 (440-443).

Type locality: Kenya: “en route from Mombasa to the Ulu Mountains”.

Distribution: Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya (central), Tanzania.

Specific localities:

Kenya – Between Mombasa and the Ulu Mountains (TL); Yatta area (Larsen, 1991); near Kasigau (Larsen, 1991); Makueni (Larsen, 1991); Kibwezi (Larsen, 1991); Kathini Ridge (Larsen, 1991); 14 Falls-Athi River (Larsen, 1991).

Tanzania - Iringa mountains (Image Mt.) (Kielland, 1990); Madibira (Kielland, 1990); Ndembera (Kielland, 1990); Chimala in the Mbeya Region (Kielland, 1990).
Alaena johanna tsavoa Jackson, 1966
Alaena johanna tsavoa Jackson, 1966. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (13) 8: 527 (523-531).

Type locality: Kenya: “Tsavo, Maunga”.

Distribution: Kenya (east).

Specific localities:

Kenya – Tsavo, Maunga (TL); Taveta (Larsen, 1991); Kasigau (Larsen, 1991); Marsabit (Larsen, 1991).

Note: The specimen from Marsabit was recorded by Aurivillius (1922) and Larsen (1991) speculates that the Marsabit population may represent a distinct species.

Alaena kiellandi Carcasson, 1965
Alaena kiellandi Carcasson, 1965. Journal of the East Africa Natural History Society and National Museum 25: 132 (131-160).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Sibweza, Mpanda, Western Tanganyika”.

Distribution: Tanzania (west).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Sibweza [Sibwesa] (TL); Ufipa (Kielland, 1990); Mpanda (Kielland, 1990); Kigoma (Kielland, 1990).

Habitat: Very localized colonies on rocky outcrops at 1 000 to 1 700 metres (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: Flight delicate and settles on rocks or the stalks of long grass (Kielland, 1990).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Alaena lamborni Gifford, 1965
Alaena lamborni Gifford, 1965. A list of the butterflies of Malawi 41 (151 pp.). Blantyre.

Type locality: Malawi: “Soche mtn, Limbe, Nyasaland, 4200'”.

Distribution: Malawi (south).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
ackeryi d’Abrera, 1980 (as sp. of Alaena). Butterflies of the Afrotropical region 415 (593 pp.). Melbourne. Malawi: “Mlanje, Nyasaland”. (Synonymized by Ackery et al., 1995: 474).

Alaena maculata Hawker-Smith, 1933
Alaena maculata Hawker-Smith, 1933. Stylops 2: 2 (1-12).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “South-east Congo: South Lufonso River, east Luvua Valley, Lake Mweru district, 5000 feet, wet season”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (south-east - Sankuru, Lualaba).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
ochrea Hawker-Smith, 1933 (as ssp. of Alaena maculata). Stylops 2: 3 (1-12). Democratic Republic of Congo: “South-east Congo: East Luvua Valley, north-east of Lake Mweru 4000-5000 feet, wet season”.

Alaena madibirensis Wichgraf, 1921
Alaena madibirensis Wichgraf, 1921. Internationale Entomologische Zeitschrift 14: 195 (171-172, 179-180, 195-197).

Type locality: [Tanzania]: “Madibira (D.-O.-Afrika)”.

Distribution: Tanzania.

Specific localities:

Tanzania – just east of Madibira (Kielland, 1990); Ndumbi Gorge, Makete District (Congdon and Collins, 1998); Kabira on the Malagarasi River (Congdon and Collins, 1998); Nyakanazi, Biharamulo District (Congdon and Collins, 1998); Tubira Forest, in Kigoma (Bjornstad; single specimen teste Congdon and Collins, 1998).

Habitat: Rocky, Brachystegia-clad hills (Kielland, 1990).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Alaena margaritacea Eltringham, 1929
Alaena margaritacea Eltringham, 1929 in Eltringham, et al., 1929. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 77: 491 (475-504).


  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   12


База данных защищена авторским правом ©shkola.of.by 2016
звярнуцца да адміністрацыі

    Галоўная старонка