Transit of Venus




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Hell stamp




Father Maximilian Hell on a postage stamp: 1970 Czechoslovakia FDC 40h

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Father Hell




Father Maximilian Hell dressed in clothing appropriate for his Lapland expedition to time the 1769 transit of Venus.

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Colonial flag

Transit of Venus Program

Colonial America flag clip art.

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Rittenhouse

Smithsonian Institution Libraries,

Dibner Library of the History of Science and Technology

Portrait of astronomer David Rittenhouse of colonial Philadelphia.

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Rittenhouse drawing




David Rittenhouse plot of Venus transiting the sun in 1769; drawing is overlaid SOHO image of the sun.

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Franklin

Smithsonian Institution Libraries,

Dibner Library of the History of Science and Technology

Portrait of Benjamin Franklin.

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Le Gentil name

Transit of Venus Program

Title: Guillame Joseph Hyacinthe Jean Baptiste Le Gentil, or “Le Gentil”

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Le Gentil stone

Cindy Tachman

Graveyard marker of Le Gentil.

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Effort of many

NASA Kennedy Space Center

NASA staff walk in front of the space shuttle Atlantis during rollover to VAB from OPF (STS-112); image KSC-02PD-1281.

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Shoreside

NASA Kennedy Space Center

One person watches the space shuttle Columbia (STS-107) rollout to Launch Pad; image KSC-02PD-1884.

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World map zoom

Garwood &Voigt, Fine and Rare Books Maps & Prints

Zoomed image of Bellin map of the world, including France-to-India route.

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Pondichery map

University of Oklahoma Libraries, History of Science Collection

Map of Pondichery, India; from Le Gentil’s memoirs.

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Rigging 1

Chuck Bueter

Ship’s mast and rigging.

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Transit at sea

Chuck Bueter

Large sun with transit of Mercury seen from the vantage point of someone on a boat; from Wilhelm Nitzschke atlas (ca 1851).

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8 Years

Transit of Venus Program

Title: 1761-1769, denotes the time span between 18th century transits.

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Le Gentil divinity

University of Oklahoma Libraries, History of Science Collection

Drawing by Le Gentil of “Divinite’ Singuliere”, from his studies abroad between the 18th century transits. Image from Le Gentil’s memoirs (1780).

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Le Gentil reptiles

University of Oklahoma Libraries, History of Science Collection

Drawing by Le Gentil of reptiles, which he studied abroad between the 18th century transits. Image from Le Gentil’s memoirs (1780).

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Rigging 2

Chuck Bueter

Ship’s topmast and rigging.

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Pondichery

University of Oklahoma Libraries, History of Science Collection

Landscape of Pondichery upon Le Gentil’s return for the 1769 transit, with noticeable building damage presumably from the Seven Years War. Le Gentil’s observatory is right of the flag.

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Le Gentil quotes

Transit of Venus Program

Three quotes by Le Gentil describe how beautiful the weather was in Pondichery preceding the 1769 transit.

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Clouds

Transit of Venus Program

Clipart of mostly cloudy sky.

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T-shirt

Chuck Bueter

T-shirt commemorating the transit of Venus.

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Shipwreck

Chuck Bueter

Shipwreck of the Psyche (unrelated to transit of Venus); image from Illustrated London News.

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Doppelmayer labeled

Chuck Bueter

Figure (with 3 labels) from Johann Doppelmayer’s Atlas Coelestis (1742) shows Earth on a chariot, encircling the sun as Venus on her chariot passes between them.

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Doppelmayer

Chuck Bueter

Figure from Johann Doppelmayer’s Atlas Coelestis (1742) shows Earth on a chariot, encircling the sun as Venus on her chariot passes between them.

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1769

Transit of Venus Program

Title: 1769

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James Cook

Smithsonian Institution Libraries,

Dibner Library of the History of Science and Technology

Print of James Cook based on portrait by Nathaniel Dance (1776)

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Cook survey

Transit of Venus Program

General map of region surveyed by Cook, including Newfoundland, Labrador, and St. Lawrence River.

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Ship-shuttle

(Left) Chuck Bueter

(Right) NASA



Left is Cook’s ship Endeavour from a memorial in Westminster Abbey dedicated to circumnavigators; right is a launch of the space shuttle Endeavour.

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World map

Garwood &Voigt, Fine and Rare Books Maps & Prints

World map on Mercator projection by N. Bellin (1750).

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Tahiti

Eric Schruer,
Kalamazoo Valley Museum

Matavai Bay and Point Venus (not shown to right) where Captain Cook landed to time the 1769 transit of Venus.

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Cook stamp

Chuck Bueter

Stamp issued in 1969 by Norfolk Island commemorates the 1769 transit of Venus

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Cook and Green

University of Oklahoma Libraries, History of Science Collection

The “black drop” effect appears in illustrations of the transit by James Cook and astronomer Charles Green; from Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London (1771).

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Black drop

Transit of Venus Program

Graphic of the black drop effect.

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Fingers apart

Chuck Bueter

Forefinger and thumb approach each other.

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Fingers smear

Chuck Bueter

The “black drop” effect is simulated as forefinger and thumb nearly touch.

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Black drop sun

Transit of Venus Program

The “black drop” effect is simulated on a SOHO image of the sun.

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Bergman’s black drop




Torbern Bergman illustrates Venus crossing the edge of the sun, with the “black drop” effect apparent; from Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London.

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1874

Transit of Venus Program

Title: 1874

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USNO group

Chuck Bueter

Group photo of participants in 19th century transit of Venus expeditions organized by the US Naval Observatory (USNO). Here they (including Simon Newcomb) are gathered at the USNO during practice sessions; photographs are in the collection of the USNO.

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Huts in D.C.

Chuck Bueter

Mini-observatories are erected alongside the USNO dome for pre-expedition practice; from USNO Library Collection.

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Group of huts

Chuck Bueter

Several identical mobile observatories help assure consistency among the scattered expedition sites; from USNO Library Collection.

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Sousa March

Chuck Bueter

Title: John Philip Sousa’s Transit of Venus March; image is individual mobile observatory with telescope visible in the doorway and rooftop opening apparent; from USNO Library Collection.

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Preparations

Chuck Bueter

View looking down on USNO practice grounds near the Potomac River; from USNO Library Collection.

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Ship

Chuck Bueter

Ship Swatara (?) anchored off one of the desolate islands at which expedition camps were established; from USNO Library Collection.

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Shipboard

Chuck Bueter

Members of the expedition team aboard ship with the name Brooklyn in the background; from USNO Library Collection.

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Landing at Rodriguez

Chuck Bueter

Dozens of men labor to lift expedition gear, which was floated in over the reef at Rodriguez Island, up the hill to the camp and observing site. Print from Illustrated London News.

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Vladivostok

Chuck Bueter

Barren expedition camp likely at Vladivostok, a Russian port on the Sea of Japan near China; from USNO Library Collection.

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Down under

The University of Queensland Library, Fryer Library, Hume Family Collection
UQFL 10  Album 4, Photograph 374


Observation equipment set up Down Under.

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Vlad lads

Chuck Bueter

Members of the expedition party in Vladivostok; from USNO Library Collection.

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Stump observer

Chuck Bueter

A member of the expedition team observes through a telescope while sitting on a tree stump; from USNO Library Collection.

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Four observers

Chuck Bueter

Four observers prepare equipment, likely on Kergeulen Island; from USNO Library Collection.

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Patagonia

Chuck Bueter

Cluster of tents form an expedition camp, likely at Patagonia; from USNO Library Collection.

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Low tide

Chuck Bueter

A skiff in foreground at shoreside camp during low tide; from USNO Library Collection.

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Dinner

Chuck Bueter

A member of the expedition team sitting in his tent holds a bird while his gun rests nearby; from USNO Library Collection.

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Barrel seat

Chuck Bueter

An expedition member with an axe points to a barrel on which someone is seated; from USNO Library Collection.

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New Zealand

Chuck Bueter

An observer (who was eventually clouded out for the transit) in New Zealand, linked by telegraph to a timekeeping station 300 miles away.

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Survey

Chuck Bueter

A member of the expedition party surveys the site; from USNO Library Collection.

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USNO photo

US Naval Observatory

Dry collodion emulsion plates from the 1882 USNO expedition show black, circular Venus outlined against the sun

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Green zoom

University of Oklahoma Libraries, History of Science Collection

The “black drop” effect in illustrations of the transit by astronomer Charles Green; from Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London (1771).

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Question mark

Transit of Venus Program

Title: ?

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Radar

Transit of Venus Program

Goldstone radar aimed at Venus

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Green sun

SOHO

Extreme ultraviolet image of sun (in green) by SOHO spacecraft.

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Sun-Earth scale

Transit of Venus Program

Sun with Earth to scale; image from NASA Skylab.

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Miles to sun

Transit of Venus Program

Title: 92,958,329 Miles

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93 Million

Transit of Venus Program

Title: 93 Million Miles

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5 Transits

Transit of Venus Program

Timeline with dates of 5 transits: 1639, 1761, 1769, 1774, and 1782.

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Alignment 1

Transit of Venus Program

Venus and earth align; orbit seen from above.

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Alignment 2

Transit of Venus Program

Venus and earth align 8 years later; orbit seen from above.

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Transit pairs

Transit of Venus Program

Timeline with transit pairs highlighted.

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Plate overhead

Chuck Bueter

Paper plate, viewed from above, shows 5 alignments of Venus and earth over an 8-year span.

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Plate inclined

Chuck Bueter

Paper plate with orbit of Venus inclined.

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Plate planets

Chuck Bueter

Sun, Venus, and Earth on paper plate.

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Plate Venus below

Chuck Bueter

Venus is below arrow between earth and sun on paper plate.

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Plate conjunction

Chuck Bueter

Venus is in conjunction with sun (arrowed) at node on paper plate.

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Plate node

Chuck Bueter

Node is labeled with Venus at inferior conjunction on paper plate.

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Timeline full

Transit of Venus Program

Timeline with paired transits through 2012.

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Syzygy

Transit of Venus Program

Title: Syzygy

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Venus syzygy

Transit of Venus Program

Venus is in line with SOHO sun and earth.

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Moon syzygy

Transit of Venus Program

Moon is in line with SOHO sun and earth.

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Gaspra

NASA

Asteroid Gaspra with its moonlet nearby.

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Graze path

Eric Frappa

Map path of occultation over Florida.

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Grazing occultation

David Dunham

Star (arrowed) grazes the edge of the moon.

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Goodricke




Portrait of John Goodricke.

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AAVSO chart

American Association of Variable Star Observers

Finder chart for a variable star; white on black.

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Saturn occulted

David Dunham

The moon nearly occulting Saturn.

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ISS transit

Roland Stalder, Astronomical Society Lucerne, Switzerland

The International Space Station (ISS) transits the sun.

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Transit approach

NASA Kepler Mission

A planet approaches a transit around a distant star.

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Transit imminent

NASA Kepler Mission

A transit around a distant star is imminent.

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Church graveyard 2

Transit of Venus Program

Headstones on side of St. Michael Church in Hoole, England. Though this was Jeremiah Horrocks’ church, his burial site is elsewhere.

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9 planets

NASA

Nine planets (and earth’s moon); Pluto added to original NASA image.

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Extra-solars

Transit of Venus Program

Title: 51 Peg, Tau Boo, OGLE-TR-56 (extra-solar planet candidates)

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Kepler spacecraft

NASA Kepler Mission

NASA’s Kepler spacecraft illustration

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3 bowls

Transit of Venus Program

Three empty bowls next to sun.

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Hot bowl

Transit of Venus Program

Venus in bowl nearest sun.

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Cold bowl

Transit of Venus Program

Mars in bowl furthest from sun; Venus in bowl nearest the sun.

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Planets in bowls

Transit of Venus Program

Venus, Earth, and Mars in bowls next to sun.

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Planets compared

Transit of Venus Program

Jupiter, Earth, and Mars (all labeled).

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Size factor planets

Transit of Venus Program

Earth between small planet and large planet.

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Size factor small

Transit of Venus Program

Image 181.jpg with small planet highlighted.

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Size factor big

Transit of Venus Program

Image 181.jpg with large planet highlighted.

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Starfield

NASA Kepler Mission

Starfield

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2 Perspectives

NASA Kepler Mission

Two star systems with planets: one seen from above has no transit; one seen edge-on has transits.

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Kepler craft 1

NASA Kepler Mission

Kepler satellite broadside among stars of 185.bmp

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Kepler craft 2

NASA Kepler Mission

Kepler satellite instruments measuring stars of 185.bmp

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Kepler craft 3

NASA Kepler Mission

Kepler satellite CCD detectors zoomed

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Kepler craft 4

NASA Kepler Mission

Kepler satellite backlit.

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Streetlights

Chuck Bueter

Night scene of Chicago.

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Star cloud

Hubble Heritage Team

A cloud of stars in Sagittarius , (STScI-1998-28).

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Galaxy 2

Hubble Heritage Team

Galaxy seen from above. (STScI-PRC2002-03)

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Visibility map

Fred Espenak

Map shows global zones of visibility for 2004 transit.

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Visibility total

Fred Espenak

Map shows where 2004 transit is visible in its entirety.

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Visibility none

Fred Espenak

Map shows where 2004 transit is not seen.

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Visibility partial

Fred Espenak

Map shows where 2004 transit is partially seen.

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Duration map

NASA - Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio

Map shows duration of transit as seen across the United States.

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Horrocks painting 2

Astley Hall Museum and Art Gallery

Painting of Jeremiah Horrocks observing a projected image of the 1639 transit; by J.W. Lavender (1903).

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Webcast

Transit of Venus Program

Clipart of computer monitor and transit of Venus.

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Sunrise sequence

Chuck Bueter

Sunrise sequence with transit underway; drawing by 6-year old girl.

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Tempest

Chuck Bueter

A sailing ship is overwhelmed by waves; illustration from Wilhelm Nitzschke atlas

(ca. 1851).



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Rigging 3

Chuck Bueter

Ship’s rigging and 3 masts.

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Venus & sunspot

Transit of Venus Program

Circular Venus passes sunspot; sun image courtesy of SOHO.

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Mercury transit

Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences

Transit of Mercury imaged May 7, 2003, by Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope

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Mercury at limb

Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences

Mercury in transit takes a bite out of the limb of the sun.

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Sunspots

Chuck Bueter

Illustrated sun with sunspots; from Wilhelm Nitzschke atlas (ca 1851).

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Venus at limb

Transit of Venus Program

A halo is visible around Venus (arrowed) as it straddles the edge of the sun.

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Lomonosov




Michail Lomonosov portrait and his drawings.

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Venus

NASA

Venus enshrouded in clouds

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Dark sky

Chuck Bueter

Bright horizon segues into dark sky above.

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Eudoxus 2

Transit of Venus Program

Eudoxus quote and his name only (no dates or description like in 002.jpg).

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Ship at anchor

Chuck Bueter

Expedition sailing ship at anchor; from USNO Library Collection.

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Sole Visa

Chuck Bueter

Venus in Sole Visa stained glass window at St. Michael Church celebrates Jeremiah Horrocks’ booklet of same title.

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Seyfert 2 galaxy

Hubble Heritage Team

Spiral Galaxy, NGC 7742, PRC1998-28, a Seyfert 2 active galaxy powered by black hole at core.

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Sunrise x

Chuck Bueter

The sun rising over a lake.

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Eudoxus 2

Transit of Venus Program

Eudoxus quote and his name only (no dates or description like in 002.jpg).

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Credit Toyota

SOHO (ESA & NASA)

Credits:

Support-Toyota



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Credit GLPA

SOHO (ESA & NASA)

Credits:

Support-GLPA



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Credit PHM

SOHO (ESA & NASA)

Credits:

Support-PHM Planetarium



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Credit Narration

US Naval Observatory

Credits:

Narration



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Credit Writing

SOHO (ESA & NASA)

Credits:

Writing and Production



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Credit Images 1

SOHO (ESA & NASA)

Credits:

Images 1


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Credit Images 2

SOHO (ESA & NASA)

Credits:

Images 2


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Credit Images 3

SOHO (ESA & NASA)

Credits:

Images 3


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Credit Music 1

SOHO (ESA & NASA)

Credits:

Music 1


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Credit Music 2

SOHO (ESA & NASA)

Credits:

Music 2


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Credit Video

SOHO (ESA & NASA)

Credits:

Video Sequences



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Credit Thanks

Chuck Bueter

Credits:

Additional Thanks



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Credit Audio

SOHO (ESA & NASA)

Credits:

Audio Recording and Mixing



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Credit Digistar

SOHO (ESA & NASA)

Credits:

Digistar Component



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Credit Studio

SOHO (ESA & NASA)

Credits:

Projection Facilities

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Credit Websites

SOHO (ESA & NASA)

Credits:

Website Support



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Web Logo

Chuck Bueter

Logo for www.transitofvenus.org.

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Stars Uma

Transit of Venus Program

Starfield of Ursa Major

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Stars Orion

Transit of Venus Program

Starfield of Orion

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Stars Gemini

Transit of Venus Program

Starfield of Gemini













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Kepler stands

Smithsonian Institution Libraries,

Dibner Library of the History of Science and Technology

Portrait of Kepler standing by globe with dividers in hand.

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Bright sunrise

Chuck Bueter

Sunrise reflected in lake.

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Mason Dixon 3

Transit of Venus Program

Mason and Dixon label and red line together.

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Voyage

University of Oklahoma Libraries, History of Science Collection

Title page of Le Gentil’s memoirs.

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Pondichery zoom

University of Oklahoma Libraries, History of Science Collection

Le Gentil’s drawing of Pondichery for the 1769 transit, with noticeable building damage presumably from the Seven Years War. Le Gentil’s observatory is right of the flag.

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Cook statue

Chuck Bueter

Statue of James Cook outside of the National Maritime Museum, London.

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Cook

Guy Ottewell

Cover art of the 2004 Astronomical Companion depicts James Cook looking through a telescope in Tahiti.

Disc Cover

Image


Quadrants

SOHO (ESA & NASA)

The sun seen through four perspectives of the SOHO spacecraft; http://150.144.30.101/gallery/top30/top30_detail_EITquadsA.html
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