European University Institute (Florence)
Prepaid tickets to ride to the New World: the New York Continental Conference and transatlantic steerage fares 1885-1895
The introduction of steamships on the transatlantic route had a major impact on the traffic of goods and people in the Atlantic world. Organizational and technological improvements in shipping sharply decreased freight rates (North, 1958; Harley, 1988). This decline was the main factor for the convergence of the commodity market before 1914 (Williamson and Hatton, 1998). On the contrary to freight rates, we have little information on 19th century transatlantic passenger fares1. About 60 million Europeans moved overseas between 1815 and 1930 of which more than half settled in the United States. This movement turned migrant transport into a lucrative business, especially on the North-Atlantic route where the control over human freight allowed ship-owners to direct other trades to their home ports2. Yet despite the relevance of migrant trade we know very little about the activities of shipping companies and shipping agents to organize and regulate the business (Baines, 1991, 7-8 and 48). The market was divided into at one hand the ‘pre-paid tickets’ sold in the U.S. for the crossing of a relative or acquaintance to join previously settled migrants and on the other hand of ‘European cash rates’ put up for sale on the old continent. With the transition from sail to steam the business specialized and concentrated in the hands of a limited number of joint-stock companies. The keen competition for the trade drove the companies to collusion giving rise to shipping conferences on both sides of the Atlantic regulating the prepaid and the cash market. As the migrant fever spread across Europe the market was further sub-divided in three regions; the British-Scandinavian, the Continental and Mediterranean market (Murken, 1922).
The current research analyzes the activities of the New York Continental Conference regulating the prepaid business from 1885 to 1895 using the Conference Minutes and the correspondence between the head-agent in New York and the board of directors of the Holland America Line, one of the four members of the conference. The minutes allow to reconstruct a price series of westbound prepaid tickets and eastbound return tickets of four continental steam shipping companies running lines to New York between 1885 and 1895; the Red Star Line (R.S.L.) from Antwerp, the Hamburg America Line (H.A.P.A.G.), North German Lloyd (N.G.L.) from Bremen and the Holland America Line (H.A.L.) from Rotterdam. The minutes give further detail on ways through which the conference tried to neutralize internal and external competition. Yet much more revealing is the correspondence between the head-agent and the board of directors which gives an inside look on the organization of passenger business. Greenhill pointed to the difficulties of disperse location of the different ports to analyze the conference dynamics. The meetings left very little written sources to analyze the strategies behind the agreements which explains why literature on shipping conferences is rather sparse (Greenhill, 1999). Conversely to Europe where the competition for the trade resulted in the development of various important emigration ports such as Liverpool, Genoa, Le Havre, Antwerp, Rotterdam, Bremen and Hamburg, on the other side of the Atlantic New York practically succeeded in monopolizing the trade. Hence all passenger lines involved in the migrant business had a head office in this city most even in the same street, on Broadway. Because of the concentration the port served as ‘the’ source of information on rival companies. Not having the problem of disperse location conference meetings could easily be held whenever need be. Since most of the decisions of the New York Continental Conference were pending of approval from the directors and depended on regulations of the European cash business, it generated a huge correspondence. Only that of the Holland America Line seems to have been preserved3. The private letters deal with all business facets of major passenger liners. In this article the focus will go to the organization of the American market of prepaid and return tickets. Just as the work of Genesove and Mullin on the Sugar cartel, the correspondence gives insights on the reasoning behind firm’s actions and what mattered during the negotiations to reach an agreement (Genesove and Mullin, 2001, 379-398). First the evolution of prepaid and return tickets from their origins up to 1885 will be sketched. The importance of chain-migration patterns has been stressed yet to what extent did the foreland shape migrant routes? Second the success of the New York Continental Conference in regulating competition will be analyzed. The attention will be divided between external and internal pressures on the conference. What factors influenced the price fixing on the North Atlantic Route? What did the competition center upon? How successful was the conference in fixing the price? By answering these questions the article hopes to stimulate further research about the impact of steam-shipping companies on migrant flows.
1) The impact of the foreland on migrant routes: the development of chain-migration patterns
The importance of personal networks in shaping chain migration patterns has been largely acknowledged as a crucial element for the cause and path-dependency of migration. Yet what migration historians have failed to observe is that these patterns were stimulated by the shipping industry that saw a good business opportunity in the developing market of remittances sent home by pioneers for others to join them.
Transatlantic migrants have strongly relied on trade routes to make their move to the New World. The paths they used were imbedded in pre-existing commercial networks which as restrictions to migrate decreased, embraced this new trade. Shippers quickly observed the profitability of human cargo as the first non-colonial mass migration movement of Germans to the United States took place in the 18th Century. Some shippers, the so-called migrant brokers specialized in the business. They chartered and fitted the between deck area from ship owners and tapped migrants from the hinterland through a network of migrant agents in bigger cities and sub-agents in rural areas. Migrant broker were responsible to coordinate their influx at the port of embarkation according to the arrival of the ship to limit the transit costs. As the movement persisted the influence of the Pennsylvanian foreland on the main route from the German hinterland through the Rhine to Rotterdam calling at London before heading to Philadelphia increased. The tightened transatlantic relations allowed the Redemptioner-system to develop through which migrants lacking means were given credit by brokers for the crossing. This was paid for by a new world employer upon arrival in exchange for an agreement of servitude. (Wokeck, 1999 and Bickelmann, 1982). This system through which a majority of 18th century German migrants traveled would quickly be replaced by superior methods of financing the move after the Napoleonic Wars. With the increasing flow chain-migration patterns strengthened allowing the poorest to rely on remittances instead of servitude contracts. Research indicated that the system of remittances financed one third of the Irish and German migration by 1834. This system could only be sustained as the flow grew allowing regular banking and merchant connections to be established. Only then could the reputation for honesty that repeat business created give enough guarantees to immigrants trusting their money with bankers or shippers. The increased shipping traffic and banking connections also decreased the transaction costs of remittances. Finally the expansion of industrial employment made loans on future wages possible to finance the crossing of friends or relatives and provided jobs for the newly arrived to help paying off the debt (Grubb, 1994, 816-818). The transition from redemptionist- to remittance-system explains the increase of migrant-brokers in the United States. Merchants in New York, the financial capital of the country, quickly noted the potential of expanding the market selling ocean passage across the Atlantic. The connections between Liverpool and New York merchant houses Grimshaw and Thompson had led to the establishment of the first Emigration Office in New York. Other businessmen followed such as W. Tapscott, Douglas Robinson & Co, Rawson & Mc Murray and Bros & Co. Human freight was assured through contacts with migrant brokers in European ports and recruiting agents traveling to the old continent. They also offered the possibility to immigrants settled in the U.S. to pay for a berth for the ocean passage (Greenhalgh-Albion, 1961, 339-341). This developed in the market of pre-paid tickets on which at least thirty percent of the migrants made the crossing during the steamship era. The remittance-system seemed to have encouraged migrant brokers and migrant agents to combine banking and passage business especially in the United States. The banking world profited from the booming money exchanges and money transfers generated by mass-migration. As the competition for the business in the U.S. increased networks of migrant-agents spread to the interior to popular in-migration regions. This further stimulated the sale of tickets for inland transport in the United States together with ocean transport. This eventually led to the creation of an integrated Atlantic transport network providing door to door service. The improved organization fueled developing chain-migration patterns.
During the first half of the 19th Century migrant transport business boomed on the North Atlantic. Prior to the outflow many ships on this route left Europe in ballast. Ships carrying migrants could offer lower freight rates for the eastbound leg and increase their control on the freight traffic as well (Engelsing, 1963). This explains the keen competition that the business created among merchants to attract the trade to their home port on both sides of the Atlantic. This battle for the migrants made the move easier, safer and more affordable (Bade, 2000 and Feys 2005). The competition spurred the introduction of technological innovation on the route such as liner shipping, the introduction of steam etc. The latter had important consequences for the organization of the business. Concurrently with the shift from sail to steam the fragmentized business concentrated in the hands of a limited number of joint-stock companies (Cohn, 2005). This concentration on a very competitive market allowed collusive agreements of being formed (Hyde, 1975). Whereas prior to the Civil War two thirds of the migrants arrived with American ships, afterwards the American flag practically disappeared from the North Atlantic4. Yet this did not diminish the influence of the foreland. American capitalist and merchants remained very much involved in the business further facilitating the development of chain migration patterns. Railroads and steam-shipping greatly reduced traveling time and made transatlantic moves less definite. According to estimates a third of the migrants returned to Europe by the turn of the century. Both return migration and the system of prepaid tickets strengthened chain migration patterns reducing the risks attached to such move (Keeling, 2007; Gould, 1979; Jones, 1992; Hvidt, 1978; Wyman, 1993; Kamphoefner, 1991 and Morawska, 1991; Steidl, 2007; Wegge, 1998; Murayama, 1991). The works of Wokeck and Engelsing described how the migrant transport business evolved during the 18th Century and first half of the 19th Century respectively yet a study for the subsequent period is lacking. The analysis of how shipping companies tried to organize the market of prepaid tickets sheds more light on this.
2) The formation of shipping cartels on the North Atlantic: New York Conference and the American market
Shipping conferences or rings are collusive agreements to mitigate competition and iron out the effects of trade fluctuations, primarily to regulate prices and market shares (Ville, 1990). The origins are generally ascribed to the need of shipping companies to ease the pressures of destructive competition cutting in prices and profits caused by overcapacity on a certain route (Greenhill, 1998). The first shipping conference has generally been agreed to be the UK-Calcutta Conference regulating the tea trade established in 1875 (Deakin and Seward, 1973; Ville,1990). Yet there are some serious indications that similar agreements were concluded well before on the North Atlantic5. The practice quickly spread and is still in use today, more than 150 conferences were operative in 2001 (Sjostrom, 2004). Research on conference-systems has concentrated on freight transport, neglecting the impact it had on passenger transport6. In fact the only substantial research on shipping rings regulating passenger traffic from Erik Murken dates back to 1922. Murken analyzed the in 1892 established ‘Nord-Atlantischer Dampfer-Linien Verband’ between R.S.L., H.A.L., N.G.L. and H.A.P.A.G. The N.D.L.V. subsequently made arrangements with other conferences which by 1914 grew out to twelve separate agreements between 30 lines carrying passengers on the North Atlantic (Murken, 1922). Boyce underlined the co-operative dimension of conferences, its importance to shape relations between shippers and shipowners and amongst shipowners, criticizing economists for focusing on market power and cost/service driven necessity of conference regulation (Boyce 1995). The big difference between the shipment of cargo and migrants is that the former is supplied by shippers in the port while the latter is provided by a wide network of migrant brokers, agents and subagents which spread on both sides of the Atlantic. Models explaining the viability of conferences are based upon a common interest between shippers and ship owners (Pirong, 1992 and Sjostrom 2004). Yet this common interest between ship-owners and migrant brokers with their agent-network was nearly inexistent. These go-betweens worked on commission base for different lines. This commission increased when the competition among shipowners intensified hence agents had no reason to favor a stable market. Using the case-study of the Holland-America Line and its position in the New York continental conference it will be shown that the strongest incentive for passenger liners to organize themselves in conferences was to control the broad agent-network.
The Dutch company originated during the steamship boom early 1870’s when the transition from sail to steam completed. At the time it was still customary to appoint migrant brokers who managed the passage business for the company on both sides of the Atlantic, Van Es, Wambersie & Ruys in Rotterdam and Morris & Co in New York. Yet the Holland America Line quickly changed policy7. It first took the passenger business in Europe into own hands becoming responsible of a vast agent-network which rapidly numbered more than two thousand members (Van der Valk, 1976). New York followed later. Morris & Co supervised a nation-wide network of agents and sub-agents which in 1884 totaled one thousand four hundred members8. Most agents did this as a side earning and could vary from being innkeepers, priests, hotel-owners, notaries, insurers, bankers, mine-owners, railroad employees, newspaper-editors, storekeepers, etc. Some specialized and made a living off it, but for most it was a means to earn an easy commission and to get in touch with potential laborers or clients for other business. Bankers were predominant. The origins of the agent usually depended on the dominant migrant community in the area. Mastering foreign languages was an absolute necessity to be a migrant agent. They were provided with rate and time table sheets, advertising materials and ticket books of steamship companies. When a prepaid ticket was purchased the passenger was given one year to prepare for his trip. He could rely on agents in his home region and in major transit points to forward him to the port of departure. Through this network, companies could arrange for this to be done according to the sailing dates minimizing the time spent at the port and cutting down the extra costs for the passenger. Generally prepaid ocean passage was sold together with railroad tickets to the port of embarkation and from the port of arrival to the final destination on which migrant agents earned an extra commission. Nearly all migrant agents booked for various companies. The steamship line paying the highest commission was likely to get the gross of the business of that agent. When selling a ticket the sub-agent contacted the migrant broker with the information of the passenger and ticket number. The migrant broker then arranged for the transport with the steamship company. In 1885 the Dutch company ended the association with Morris & Sons. It allowed the company to cut down on the commission paid to Morris amounting to 6,25 percent per ticket9. More importantly the New York head agent of the H.A.L., W.H. Van den Toorn hoped to increase the control over the migrant agents and hence on the American market where prices had sunk to all time lows. To control the agents he partly relied on the New York Continental Conference10.
Keeling pointed that the incentives for cartelization in migrant transport proved to be stronger than freight transport because the underlying demand was both more sensitive to economic swings and less dependent on transport prices. Economic downturns had bigger impacts on the migrant flows than on freight movements (Keeling, 1999). The first conference regulating part of the American market of prepaid and return tickets goes back to 1872 with the establishment of the New York North Atlantic Steam Traffic Conference. The agreement between British Lines controlling the traffic from the British Isles and Scandinavia concerned the organization of the agent network and transport prices. During the following decade the German companies Hamburg America Line and North German Lloyd had pierced through the British dominance of transatlantic steam-shipping. All other lines of various nationalities which were subsequently established never made up the backlog on the biggest German and British firms. The competition for the trade organized itself around this rivalry. To strengthen its competitive position the German companies tried to unite lines transporting migrants directly from the European mainland to the U.S in similar conference agreements as their British rivals. This first lasting Continental Conference was established in 1885. The conference in New York was the result of a parallel agreement signed by the directors of the companies to regulate the business on the old continent. The New York sub-conference was thus dependent of the agreements on the old continent. The H.A.P.A.G., N.G.L., R.S.L. and H.A.L. had already tried to join forces in 1883, but direct outside competition of the Carr Line in Hamburg and the White Cross Line in Antwerp made it fall apart after a few months11. Under the pressure of subsequent dropping migration rates the British North Atlantic Steam Traffic Conference dissolved as well (Hyde, 1975; Aldcroft, 1974)12. A general rate war broke out making prepaid prices fall to anywhere between six to twelve dollars13.
After long negotiations the Continental Conference reorganized in May 1885 and contained the following14: Minimum rates were fixed based on the quality of the service that the lines offered (see graph 1). The Holland America Line having the oldest and slowest steamers on the New York route obtained differentials to their advantage. The R.S.L. service to Philadelphia and the N.G.L. service to Baltimore were taken up in the agreement15. Rates were lower on these less popular routes. The fares could only be changed if the differentials were maintained. The prices quoted were gross ocean fares, including the commissions. Charges for inland travel could not be included and rate sheets of continental inland fares had to be sent to the secretary. Meetings were held monthly, except if a special one was called in between. Decision had to be made unanimously. The agent commission was set at 3$ covering all expenses except advertising in newspapers. A General Passage Agent for the Pacific coast, Western States and Southern states was appointed who had to defend the interests with the agents of the area. They could only represent one company but in exchange received one dollar commission on each ticket sold by a sub-agent in their area. The cancellation fee for a ticket was set a five percent. Circulars to agents could not contain comparisons with other members nor could a newspaper that attacked a line be supported by a member. Every breach was reported to the Secretary who if necessary passed the complaint on to the Arbitrator William Booker, British consul in New York. He enjoyed the same powers which were entrusted to him as such by the North Atlantic Steam Traffic Conference. Booker was empowered to look into the books of the companies. The costs for investigating complaints were covered by a special fund raised by the members. His decision was final and 1000$ had to be deposited as a bond. The agreement was valid for six months, and withdrawal was possible with one month notice16. Finally the secretary had to notify the former members of the North Atlantic Steam Traffic Conference of the reorganization of the Continental Conference. If they advanced steerage rates on the basis of 25$ rate and fix the commission on 2$ for their British, Scandinavian and Continental business alike, reduce the children age allowing half rates from twelve to eight and charge infants two instead one dollar, they would do the same17.
A circular followed to the agents notifying them of new regulations which predominantly tried to make agents adhere to the Conference rules. No returns or divisions of the commission could be given nor could improper inducements be held out to purchasers of tickets. Agents were prohibited from engaging sub- agents dividing the commission with them. The actual amount received for passage money had to be entered on the ticket and no credit could be given to the purchaser. Shipping companies only paid commission on the actual issue of the ticket and the direct receipt by the agents of the passage money. Agents were not allowed to issue certificates, orders or tickets for prepaid passage drawn on or advised to any person or company other than the Lines actually employing such agent. The selling of tickets was restricted to a certain area preventing agents from invading each others territory and prohibiting them to send his tickets to New York or any other place for sale. Violations of other agents had to be reported with proofs to the secretary. The punishment depending on the infraction could vary from a minimum fine equal to the amount of the ticket to the disqualification of the agents. Agents at default would be disqualified and Lines agreed not to engage any dismissed or disqualified agents.
3) The working of the Continental Conference up to the formation of the N.D.L.V.
The evolution of the ocean fare serves as a good indicator for the success of the conference. To what extent were they able to augment prices? To do so, applying Osborne’s model to this case the cartel had to overcome both external as internal pressures. The external problem boils down to what extent were they able to predict and limit the market share of outsiders to keep the agreements viable? Internal problems were first to found a workable and profitable contract surface; second make sure that the agreement approximates expected shares for each member, third the ability to detect cheating and fourth means to deter cheating. For both Osborne and Stigler the detection of cheating played a crucial role for collusion. Secret violations of the agreement, especially in the form of price cuts gave shipping lines the possibility to increase their market share. According to Stigler if means of detection are weak then prices will not be able go much above the competitive level reducing inducements of price cutting to minimum. The basic method of detection is to note when price cutters are obtaining business which a line otherwise did not obtain (Osborne, 1976, 835-844 and Stigler, 1964, 44-61). Information on market share of each line was readily available as American ports registered all third class passengers coming in. The fluctuation in sales of migrant agents in certain regions also served as a serious indicator. Yet the biggest problem was to obtain proof that the increased share was obtained by cheating. What will follow is an analysis of the external and internal pressures during the first seven years of the cartel which aimed at fixing prices and controlling the agent-network up to the formation of the ‘Nord-Atlantischer Dampfer-Linien Verband’ when the continental traffic was divided in quotas.
3.1) Harmonizing the external pressures
The connections between British-Scandinavian, Continental and Mediterranean markets
The external pressures on the conference were considerable. The European migrant market was divided in three sub-markets; the British-Scandinavian, the Continental and the Mediterranean (See appendix 1). The British-Scandinavian market was predominantly in the hands of the British lines. They managed to prevent foreign lines from taking significant numbers of British and Irish migrants from their home ports (Murken,1922)18. This internal market covered the major part of the revenues of the British Lines. They had a strong foothold in the Scandinavian market through long established feeder services, such as the Hull based Wilson Line (Evans, 2007; Hyde, 1975; Bastin, 1971)19. Despite the geographical advantages and efforts of the German Lines and the Copenhagen based Thingvalia Line to increase their market share, the majority of Scandinavians preferred traveling with British ships. The big advantage of the British lines on the Continental lines the protection of their own market while having a foothold on the Continental market.
The strong trade relations between Hamburg and England during the early years of mass migration transformed Hamburg into the most important hub for indirect transatlantic migration through English ports from the continent (Engelsing, 1961; Gelberg, 1973)20. The ties between migrant brokers and agents in Liverpool and Hamburg were well established and institutionalized by British and Hamburg Senate laws21. These ties constituted the Achilles heel of the Continental Conference. Although the continental traffic only represented a small percentage of the total business of British Lines, it them to constantly pressure the continental lines which were to a large extent dependent of the goodwill of the British lines to raise their prices or lower commissions for the continental traffic22. The Mediterranean market coincided at the time with the Italian market which was starting to pick up. Some lines such as Fabre Line and Italian Line opened a direct service to New York. Other British and Continental lines also tried to lure those Italians to their ports. Especially the C.G.T. that drew migrants mainly from South-West Germany and Switzerland with special railroad services saw the Italian market as the most natural territory to expand (de Vannoise-Pochulu, 1993). The company increasingly centered its efforts on the Mediterranean and Oriental market which boomed during the 1890’s up to 1914 attracting English and German lines to open direct services from there23. At one of the first meetings of the continental conference it was decided that direct and indirect lines should try to unite in a Mediterranean conference to fix through rates to these points24. The Mediterranean conference was formed in November 188525. The reason for the continental lines to organize the Mediterranean market was its dependence of the stability of other markets to be able to raise continental fares. If rates for Italian destinations differed too much from the continent than Swiss and Austrians may choose that route instead of going through continental ports. If Scandinavian rates were lower than continental rates than Germans and Poles would be booked at the lowest price. If the rate difference between the continent and British Isles was too big, continentals traveled to Liverpool which had frequent services to many continental destinations. In short the different conferences were dependent on each other to increase rates.
Outside rivals on the Continent: Thingvalia and French Line
The Continental market ranged from Spain to Russia and was in full expansion to the east at the time. The Continental Conference had been drawn up to include both Thingvalia Line and C.G.T. The Danish Line focused on the Scandinavian market but the geographic position of Copenhagen allowed them to easily target the continental market. However, the Danes could not be convinced to join the conference. The non inclusion of the French Line had greater repercussions on the working of the conference. Having to a great extent the same hinterland as the members of the conference, they could not permit to fix rates and commission that differed much of the C.G.T. without risk of loosing a share of the traffic26. After months of futile negotiations the lines decided not to wait any longer and increased the net ocean rates by 2,5$. Instead of using fighting ships or cutting on the ocean rate, affecting all continental business, the lines cut on the through rates to popular destinations of the French Line’s traveling public. Most prepaid and eastbound tickets were sold in connection with railroad tickets. These railroad tickets were sold at cost or with loss to fight the French Line. They raised the outward commission at the same level of the French line at four dollars. Sub-agents were notified that unless they relinquished the agency of the French Line, ticket books of the Conference Lines would be withdrawn from them27. The French Line then had to rely on a parallel network of non-conference agents for selling their tickets28. Six months later the British lines finally reorganized. They quoted continental rates at a base of 22$ for express service, 5$ lower than the Continental Lines. Only if the C.G.T. joined the Conference the British lines would raise their rates. The British Lines helped pressuring the French to enter the conference through the agent network29. Negotiations with C.G.T. resumed. The French Line tried to obtain the right to quote equal railroad rates as the R.S.L. and H.A.L. to what it called its special territory, Switzerland, France and Northern Italy. The latter refused to give up their geographical advantage to these points. They agreed to cancel special rates using the actual inland tariff instead. Commissions were lowered and the rates set at a base of 27$ for express service. This cleared the path to enter further negotiations with the British lines.
The network of migrant brokers and agents: the concentration in New York
One of the priorities of the New York Continental Conference was to impose ‘city rules’ in New York. In Europe migrant brokers and agents were tied to a set of laws and had to apply for a concession obtained after depositing a bond. These regulations assisted the shipping companies on the old continent to gain control over the migrant agents. In the U.S. such system was inexistent leaving agents and brokers to the sole supervision of the shipping companies. Especially in New York where the sale of passage tickets for the American market concentrated, chaos reigned because of the proliferation of agents and runners. Besides through migrant agents, tickets were sold over the counter by innkeepers, boardinghouses, peddlers etc. With ‘city rules’ the lines wanted to do away with the middleman and restrict the sale of ocean tickets in New York to the company’s office. This would greatly increase the control over the business and do away with commission costs. To do so without important losses of market share all the lines had to adhere. Once the British reached their provisional agreement the members of the Continental Conference limited the number of sub-agents in the city to twelve, two in Williamsburg and one each in Hoboken, New Jersey and Brooklyn. The commission over the counter would still be paid as long as the British Lines did and the French Line did not join the conference30.
Besides stopping the proliferation of agents and runners the lines wanted to counter the developing order-system with the ‘city rules’. Prices for prepaid tickets were higher than cash rates in Europe where the agent’s commission was higher making the net ocean fare on the old continent significantly lower31. Some American agents started offering orders for steerage passage from Hamburg to New York four dollars below the British Continental prepaid rate. Such orders were then exchanged for tickets purchased at cash rate from the brokers of the British lines in Hamburg32. The German Line informed the conference members that unless the British lines raised the European cash rates, they would see themselves forced to lower the prepaid rate to meet said competition33. The H.A.P.A.G. opened a New York-Baltic service, to and from Copenhagen, Göteborg and Stettin at 19$ to pressure the British lines34. This resulted in an agreement between the H.A.P.A.G. and the British Lines. The H.A.P.A.G. withdrew its direct Scandinavian line while the British lines agreed to limit their share of the traffic going through Hamburg to 35 percent. Price difference between indirect and direct routes could not exceed five Marks to the advantage of the British Lines. This was controlled by a Clearing House in Hamburg (Otmüller-Wezel, 1986). Yet all the efforts to get the lines on the same wavelength fell to pieces when the Red Star Line dropped out of the New York Continental Conference triggering a rate war which would last eight months.
The dependence of stability of other conferences
The Continental Conference was renewed in accord with the Mediterranean and the North Atlantic Steam Traffic Conference for whose members the agents were allowed to book. Yet the Harmony between British and Continental Lines was still far from being reached. City rules stayed out and the commission over the counter persisted35. The British kept paying extra commissions, quoting low rates to the continent and waited for the N.G.L. to raise their Scandinavian rates. The N.G.L. for their part waited for the British Lines to raise the continental rates before changing theirs. The H.A.L. and H.A.P.A.G. urged to lower the rates to meet the British competition. The deadlock could only be broken after several notices of withdrawal and a two week period where regulations were lifted. In the end it took another six months before the British Lines finally raised their continental rates36. All preparations were made to enforce city rules in New York. Only the consent of the Mediterranean Conference was needed to apply them, yet the conference fell apart due to internal tensions37. The improved collaboration with the British Lines allowed lowering the commission to two dollars for continental business and price changes were mutually discussed. Yet the increasing tension among the British lines, especially between the White Star and Inman Line led to a rate war on the Scandinavian market. Net Ocean Rates to and from Scandinavian points fell as low as 12$ and commissions of 6$ were paid out. The German lines gave guarantees that these would not be misused for continentals to prevent the war from spreading38. The situation on the Mediterranean market also remained fairly unstable and treats were made to let it spread to the continental business to pressure some members sitting in both to concessions. Yet this did not happen and when the Italian government imposed its citizens to migrate directly form national ports the situation changed completely39.
The external problems seriously hampered the working of the Continental Conference. Price agreements and measures to control the agent network could only be implemented by forcing the outside continental lines to join, as was the case with the French Line. Moreover, the foothold of the British Lines in Hamburg on the continent made the conference dependent of the goodwill of these to raise prices and implement measures to control the agents. Also continental market was sensitive to unrests in other sub-markets of the North Atlantic traffic. Rate wars easily spread or at least forced the lines to lower their rates avoiding continental passengers from taking alternative routes. Finally the lack of control over migrant brokers and agents on both sides of the Atlantic posed another threat, especially when Hamburg migrant brokers started opening branch offices in New York selling orders at cheaper European cash rates corrupting the American prepaid market. The impotence of shipping companies to impose themselves on the agents also undermined internal cohesion.
3.2.) The internal pressures
Internal mistrust, duration of agreements and constant renegotiations
The mistrust between the members who for a long time considered each other as their number one rivals constantly weighed on the Continental Conference. The underlying suspicions are reflected by the period for which the agreements were concluded. During the first five years the agreements were never renewed for longer than seven months40. Sometimes the negotiations to renew, during which the old agreements usually still stood took longer than the agreement itself. The differentials between the lines were always open to renegotiations. Especially since fixed prices moved the competition to improve the quality of service. During the first five years the Dutch Line in particular greatly improved their fleet41. The Red Star Line continuously pushed that initial differentials, which were set on speed and quality of service, be adapted accordingly42. These tensions quickly led the conference into its first crisis. Hardly a year after its founding the conference fell apart. The Red Star Line accused the members of perusing an aggressive policy against them in Europe, alienating the agents from them43.The prepaid rates plummeted with 10$. The Holland America Line notified its agents that any new reduction made by other lines, would be as far as possible followed by further reduction of their prices, maintaining the differential rate as long as possible. Agents were at liberty to dispose of their commission as deemed proper. Conference agents had to discontinue selling tickets of the Red Star, White Cross and Thingvalia Line or send back the ticket books of the Conference Lines44. The limit of agents in New York was lifted45. This rate war to force R.S.L. back in, lasted eight months during which agents were allowed to disregard many regulations. If they did violate the ones still standing fines were less severe. Agents caught selling tickets for the R.S.L. first received a warning before being disqualified, to prevent as many agents as possible from giving up the conference agency. With the new agreement a circular was sent to remind the agents of the regulations adding some new ones. Among these was increased cancellation fees to ten percent and fixed commission were replaced by ten percent on the ticket. The latter could have moved the agents and ship-owners towards a common interest in raising prices. Yet the smaller lines feared that the percentage base would stimulate the sale of the more expensive services of the bigger lines. Their protests eventually lead to the reintroduction of fixed commission. This was only one disadvantage of the lack of homogeneity of product.
The lack of homogeneity of product: various services, destinations at different rates
The working was further complicated because some lines offered slow and fast services and also to different ports of arrival such as, Baltimore, Philadelphia and New York at different rates. Negotiations whether to include new services of members in the conference added to the internal tensions. For example the Holland America Line opened a Baltimore service to fight the increasing competition for freight between Rotterdam and the U.S., for cheaper passenger and freight railroad rates to and from the West from that port and for the more lenient application of laws regarding the landing of migrants46. Yet the Dutch Line was also the only company with just one destination and no variety in standard of service. It was a well known practice that companies sometimes booked passengers at regular service to be transported on express steamers, or passengers were booked at lower Philadelphia and Baltimore rates but landed in New York. Although this was against the conference rules it resulted very difficult to prove these abuses. Companies gave these facilities to their most reliable and important agents who to avoid fines and possible disqualification used the greatest secrecy. The lines hired private detective companies when suspecting lines from evading the regulations on large scale. Passengers could hardly ever be convinced to give affidavits about frauds. Private detectives represented themselves as clients yet all kinds of tricks were used to prevent the detectives from getting their hands on evidence47. To prove the faltering with upgraded services the detectives had to actually travel on these tickets. It seemed to have been the Dutch Line’s policy where the violations of the agreement were too difficult to prove, to make sure to be able to tamper with them as well. The N.G.L that managed a service on Baltimore since 1867 had recently seen the H.A.P.A.G opening a line to the port and was determined to block out new competition. The exclusion of the Baltimore service out of the conference meant that conference agents were not allowed to book for that service48. The N.G.L. visited many agencies stressing that if they booked for the Dutch Baltimore service they would be disqualified. Yet by paying extra commission the line found many agents willing to take the risk. The non-inclusion permitted the H.A.L. to quote low rates and pay higher commissions attracting a fair share of passengers49.
Agreements on ocean rates further moved the competition on railroad rates
All negotiations on ocean rates were closely related with inland fares on both sides of the Atlantic. The hardly negotiated differentials on ocean rates could easily be cancelled out by railroad fares. The conference rule established that the actual inland fares had to be charged to prevent that cuts on ocean fares would be replaced by cuts on railroad fares. Both migrant agents as shipping companies constantly negotiated with inland transport companies to obtain special rates. Initially on the American soil a fierce competition between the railroad lines was prevalent. All kinds of reductions could be obtained. The rate wars also pushed the railroads to collide establishing the Immigrant Clearing House coordinating the migrant business in 188750. It allowed them to increase the rates and cut on the commissions granted to steamship companies and migration agents for the sale of railroad tickets in connection with ocean passage. Plans of steamship lines for the opening of Joint Railroad Offices to regain control over the railroad business never materialized. Secret reductions and special commissions still existed, but these were far less significant than during rate wars51 (Feys, 2007).
The European inland tariff caused greater instability. Particularly the low inland tariff of the Dutch Line had a demoralizing effect. The Dutch railway and the Rhine steamboat companies recalculated the fares in 1887 giving the H.A.L. an important differential on inland transport. The other members questioned the validity of the rates and brought the case to the arbitrator. The Red Star Line claimed to be loosing important amounts of business and started quoting the same inland tariff as the Dutch Line adding 80 cents representing the cost from Rotterdam to Antwerp52. It ignored the rule imposing lines to quote the actual tariff obtained. The H.A.P.A.G. soon followed53. The R.S.L. threatened to leave the conference and brought the case to the arbitrator. Tensions increased when the arbitrator ruled in favor of the H.A.L.54. The R.S.L. kept on using the same tariff as the H.A.L. who denounced the abuse55. The Dutch Line attributed the low rates due to the geographical advantage of Rotterdam which it was not prepared to give up. It believed the matter to be important enough to risk war56. The R.S.L. demanded the permission to quote equal inland fare as the H.A.L. or a decrease of the differential of the ocean rate to extend the agreements. In the end the Antwerp based company obtained the right to lower its ocean rates by fifty cents57. However, the French Line claimed that the situation was no longer sustainable and demanded adaptations of differentials. It had calculated that the average differential, railroad and ocean rate included to thirty five common points in Europe amounted to 9,25$ in favor of R.S.L. and 11,35$ in favor of H.A.L.58. A special sub-committee was formed to tackle the problems on European inland fares by establishing a list of maximum 300 points where passengers could be booked through at well established rates. Yet the formation of the list was delayed by Austrian and German Railroads which were about to issue new reductions59. The French Line lost its patience and dropped out of the conference. The H.A.L. convinced the French to rejoin by reducing differentials to French, Swiss and Northern Italian points for through rates to two dollars and allowed R.S.L. to use their rates to these points60.
The take-over of the pre-paid market by migrant brokers
The most important internal pressure was created by the Hamburg migrant brokers who by drawing orders at cash rates completely demoralized the prepaid market. The pool agreement of the traffic through Hamburg between H.A.P.A.G and the British Lines did not make an end to the practice. Repeatedly the New York head-agents of the shipping companies urged their directors to raise the cash rate or allow them to lower the prepaid rate to fight these abuses61. As long as migrant agents could offer cheaper prices for the crossing than the lines themselves it would be impossible to introduce ‘city rules’62. Migrant broker, C. B. Richard, acting as head-agent for the H.A.P.A.G. said that only an advance in cash rates could prevent their withdrawal63. Despite raising European cash rates with ten German Marks the French Line insisted to decrease the prepaid ticket with an additional 3,5$. Their sale of prepaid tickets had practically come to a standstill and threatened to leave the conference. Their orientation towards the Swiss, Austrian and Italian market led to a neglect of the migrant flow from the east. While the British and the other continental lines developed relations with the Hamburg migrant brokers enabling them to get their hands on the order business, the French Line did not64.
The Hamburg migrant brokers were predominantly Jews who in the meantime had opened branch offices in New York, where they concentrated in Canal Street. The order-system allowed them to undercut the American prepaid price by three to four dollars driving the other migrant agents out of business. Occasionally such agents were caught violating the conference rules. First time offenders were fined and threatened with disqualification. However they defended themselves claiming that as long as tickets could be sold over the counter by outsiders without liability and responsibility to the Conference for violation of the rules, they had no choice but to follow suit with abuses to stay in business65. The eight month negotiations to prolong the agreements in 1889 allowed the Hamburg brokers to increase their grip on the market. The practice of drawing orders spread to the bigger American cities including Baltimore, Philadelphia, Chicago, Saint Louis and Milwaukee. As observed by Van den Toorn the competition between the lines contributed to the demoralization. Instead of standing up for themselves the lines let the control over the business slip away into the hands of Jewish brokers66. The Hamburg brokers started opening offices in Bremen and would later do the same in Rotterdam and Antwerp. The spreading out of the system indirectly resulted from the Hamburg pool dividing the traffic between H.A.P.A.G. and British lines. To increase their business the Hamburg brokers started to forward migrants through Bremen, Rotterdam and Antwerp which did not fall under the agreement. Also the control of the cash-order system in the U.S. allowed them to establish contacts with new shipping companies.
Albert Ballin’s plan to control the indirect traffic through Hamburg backfired against him and lead to new routes of indirect migration via Hamburg. The H.A.P.A.G.-manager threatened to let part of his fleet call at Rotterdam67. H.A.P.A.G. demanded that the H.A.L. and R.S.L. closed their Hamburg agency under L. Scharlach and S. Jarmulowski respectively68. Both companies were prepared to withdraw the authority of the brokers to draw orders for them out of Hamburg on the condition that H.A.P.A.G stopped giving same facilities to brokers not belonging to the Hamburg Pool and that N.G.L. prevented F. Missler from doing the same via Bremen69. With these facilities all possible conference regulations were violated, ranging from faltering with upgraded service, to not charging cancellation fees, paying extra commission, allowing changing names on the ticket, hiring subagents, dividing the commission or offering part of it as a reduction to the buyer. To avoid being caught Scharlach used the H.A.L. prepaid tickets however the purchaser never received these in own hands. Instead of receiving the receipt attached to the ticket an outsider issued a proof of payment. The originals were sent to the houses in Bremen or Hamburg to prevent conference members from getting their hands on legal proofs. The practice was so embedded that New York head agents of the shipping lines cabled the home offices asking the prepaid prices to be lowered at the same level as cash rates70. The N.G.L. opposed the decrease whereupon all other members gave notice of withdrawal. A reduction of two dollars followed to bring prepaid rates closer to cash rates71. The difference remained 2,5$ which was still enough margin for the abuses to continue72. The H.A.P.A.G. defended their abuses with the excuse that they had to follow the prices quoted by the British lines in Hamburg. As a result Scharlach and Jarmulowski were reinstated by the R.S.L. and H.A.L.73. Much to his dislike, Ballin was forced to allow both lines in the Hamburg pool74. The tensions between the lines greatly increased while the prices for the transport remained low. It was sensed that a rate was unavoidable unless the members came to an agreement to pool the continental traffic.